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Formiriy Slag Surgeon — iSj7 

Xepiiii Kpiittiv o'iiv xoiSii 

Paternoster Square 


'ri„tfj iy Ihi JUolUy Pr,H, AiHtUri-m. 







read nuda 

for first unda. 



„ questu 

„ questa. 



„ amictu 

„ amicto. 



„ insuper 

„ insupet. 



„ status 

,, flatus. 



„ Fratresque 

„ Fratesque. 



.y Status 

„ flatus. 


Line 122, read conjuncta for conjucta. 
„ 223, „ captae „ captacs. 


Line 1204, read turba 

for turbo. 

Page 289, Line 27, read infernal for internal 


L. Ann.^us Seneca, the author of the following 

Tragedies, was bom 6 years A.C. and was a native of 

Corduba in Spain. At an early age he was distinguished 

by bis extraordinary talents, according to Lempri^re, and 

was taught eloquence by his father, and received lessons 

in philosophy from the best and most celebrated Stoics 

of die age. He was appointed by Agrippina, the fourth 

wife of Claudius, as the tutor of her son Nero, who sentenced 

him to destroy himself, and he is said to have remarked 

that such a mandate was quite in harmony with the 

truculent character of the man, who murdered his own 

mother (see Octavia). I pay no sort of heed to the various 

aspersions that have been levelled at the character of Seneca, 

as a renowned poet, for the best of men in all ages have 

come in for their share of popular abuse and have 

been made the targets for the poisoned arrows of their 

calumniators; for further information concerning the life 

of Seneca, I refer my readers to Lempri^re, from whose 

pages the foregoing remarks have been quoted. The 

function which I have assumed is to do the greatest justice 

to his tragedies, as a Translator. 

I have been so long favorably impressed with the force, 
beauty and artistic skill as portrayed in the Tragedies of 
Seneca, as to be convinced that a great loss has been 
sustained at the hands of many who would have fully 
appreciated the labors of that admirable poet, presumedly 
because they have never been presented to the reading 
world in a suitable English form. 

They have been translated in various continental lang- 
uages within the last century, but an English reader un- 
acquainted with such tongues would be quite at sea \tk 

comprehending them, or of availing himself in estimating 
the striking beauties of that Poet. They were done in 15; 

■ several hands, but iri verj' inadequate verse, as al: 
4 Tragedies, by Sir Edward Sherburne, in 1702. and 
perusal of the latter will be an ample justification of my 
mitigated objection to verse translations of any Latin 
or Greek author, especially if he should belong to the 
genus "Poet." I have done my utmost to transform these 
Tragedies into impressive readable English, without detract- 
ing from the original material, and as far as it is possible. 
when translating one language into another, owing to 
idiomatic difficulties. I am sanguine that they will be 
universally admired for their intrinsic merits, and as they 
have never been offered in an English form, the publi 
the enlightened portion too, have been kept in absolute 
ignorance of their dramatic pretensions. It has been a 
work of considerable labor, but I shall consider myself 
amply compensated for the same, if tbey are destined to 
afford that satisfaction to ibe reader, which I have every 
hope they will fully command at his hands, and that they 
will, moreover, bear reading and re-reading. 

Seneca, as before stated, was appointed tutor to Nero, by 
Agrippina, fourth wife of Claudius C^sar; but all the sound 
precepts which he had inculcated upon the mind of his 
pupil were entirely ignored as soon as that matriddal 
tyrant gained power, and he was commanded to destroy 
himself, on the discovery of Piso's conspiracy, and 1 ' 
taking poison and opening his veins to no effect, he was 
suffocated in a warm bath. He ranked xeiy highly as a 
Poet, Moralist and Philosopher, and has bequeathed to 
posterity much admirable literature. His Latinity was 
chaste and unaffected and a reflex of his own modest and 
unassuming tiiorak. Amongst the rest of his useful and 
enlightening productions, he has handed down the un- 
surpassable Tragedies, which form the subject of the 
present volume. 


/ Hercules Furens page 

^ Thyestes „ 

/ PHCENISSiE .._.,..., „ 

-. HiPPOLYTUS . . . . 7 . '*'. ? „ 

. CEdipus „ 

* Troades „ 

^Medea „ 

y Agamemnon ,, 

/'Hercules CEt^eus „ 


Notes „ 








F U R E N S. 

P E R S O N .E. 

I Amfhitrvon. 
Chorus Thedanobum 

A H G U M E N T L' M. 


Lvciis a Creonte, Hereulis foceto, rcge Thebano, propter fcelera 
in Mfilium miffus, abfenle jam Hercule npud inferos, in iniie 
Euryfthei juITu pelerM Ceibenim (ubi & 'niereum in vinculis 
delenlum, qui cum Pirilhoo defcenderal ad rKplcndam I'rorer- 
jiinsni, libersvit] occaGaaem oblatam arripit, &, per fediliotiem 
Creonic cum duobus filiis defo, regnura Thebanum occupaL 
Megaram Herculia uxorem ad nujxias follicitat, abnuenli vim 
pumt. Opportune reverfu.s Hercules, Lycum ccterofque ittiiu 
faiflionis, inlerlicil. hacc lam felieilcr gpflu Juno non ferens 
immittit illi furorem, quo correptuii uxorem fuam cum liberie 
interlicit. Quod ubi ad fe teverfus intelleiii, doloris impalieDlia 
vix Amphytrionii alquc Thcfei precibm delenlm, ne fibi mortem 
. ioferret, cum Thefeo Alhenas purgandus proficifcitur. 


■ Juno Jovis furtn, pelltces, nothos, HercuJem autem i 

I ftomachatur. qui Bb inferis reverfus objefli 

I inraniB uxorem & liberos occiilit. 

I S 

^ kJoHOR Tonantis (hoc cnim folum niihi 


JUNO fola. 


{UKO. . I Amphitrvon. 

Iercules. Theseus. 

Lycus. Chorus of Theuans. 

Hegara. I 


reus, being exiled for his crimes by Creon the falher- 
tn-law of Hercules and king of Thebcsj Hercules being 
U that lime away in the Infernal Regions, whither he 
had gone lo seek out Cerberus at the instigation of 
Eurystheus: here he found Theseus, who had made a 
descent into the regions of Pluto in coimjany of Piri- 
thous with the intention of carrying off Proserpine, 
bound in chains.— Lycus seizes his opportunity', and 
aided by conspirators, slays Creon toeether with his 
two sons, and usurps the Kingdom of Thebes— He then 
solicits Megara, the wife of Hercules, to marry him and 
lares to resist any refusal on her part— Hercules, 
._ ..ily returning, slays Lj[cus and those involved in the 
conspiracy. Juno, not viewing these deeds with approval, 
throws Hercules into a state of delirium, during a 
paroxysm of which he slays his own wife and children. 
Subsequently when he becomes restored to his senses, 
and owing to his intolerance of the anguish which he 
suffered, he was prevailed on, though with difficulty, to 
>-ieId lo the entreaties of Amphitryon and Theseus, 
not to lay violent hands on himself, and accepted the 
•itemative of setting out for Athens in company with 
'iTieseus, with the view of atoning for his mad acts. 

rtemative ol setting out lor Athens in company wttb ^^m 
heseus, with the view of atoning for his mad acts. ^^H 

JUNO la/om). ^H 

Juno waxes wrath at the furtive amours of Jupiter, his ^^| 
■^ concubines and bastard offspring, and is very angry 
^fc about the successes of Hercules, who on his return 
^B from the Infernal Regions being thrown by Juno into 
^r a state of frenzy, slays his wife and children. 

As Sister of Thundering Jove, for that distinction is 
the only one now remaining to me, but as widow 
anon, I have quitted the palatial temples of lofty ., 

Olympus, and the marriage couch of the ever faithless ^^J 
Jupiter and thus banishing myself, I have rendered t^l^^^l 



LcHmmque, ccclo pulfo, pellicibus dedi. 

Tellus colenda eft: peUices ctelum tenenl " S 

Hinc, Anflos nlta parte glacialjs poli 

SubliiDC claOes lidus Argolicas agil; 

Hiac, qua tepenli vere laxatur dies, 

Tjrriie per undas veflor Europe nilei; 

Illinc, tunendum ralibus ac pi>iito gregem TO 

ParTim vagantes exferuat Allantides. 

Ferro minaci hinc lerrel Orion Deos: 

Suarque Perfeiis anreaa ftellas habel. 

Hinc, dara gemini (ipa. Tyudarida: micant: 

Quibnrque aUh ronbitis tellus ftetit. 15 

Ncc ipfe Untura Bacchus, aut Bacchi parens, 

Adiere fuperos: ne qua pars probro vacet, 

Mundui puellce ferta GnoffiBOE gerit. 

Sed Vetera queriinur: una me dira ac fera 

Thebana ouribus fparfa tellus impiis 20 

Quotiea novercam fecit? efccndat licel, 

Meamque vidtrii teneat Alcmene locum; 

Parilerque nutus nftra promilTa occupel; 

Id cujug onu3 mundus impcndil diem, 

Tardufque Eoo Phrebus effulfit man 15 

RtliUere merfutH juffus Oteauo jubaf. 

No a fic abibunt odia. vivaces agel 

Violentua iras animus, & fxvus dolor 

i^temii bella pace Tublala gerel. 

Quie bella? quidquid horridum telius creit 30 

luimica; quidquid ponlus aut aer tulit 

Terribile, dirum, peililcnn, atroi, ferum; 

Fradlum atqne domitum eft. fupeiat, &. crefcit malis; 

my quondam throne to my husband's concubines ! Hence- 
forth, the Earth must be my place of habitation, whilst 
those immoral tetiants wilt possess Heaven, once my 
lawful abode! From one part of the sky (the Northern 
Heavens) that lofty constellation Arctos is guiding the 
Grecian fleets, as it shines in the elevated regions of the 
ice-cold polar firmament; in another part (the Southern 
Heavens) where the duration of the day is lenphened 
and the warming influence of the spring is experienced, 
Taurus (the second sign of the Zodiac) the bearer of the 
Tynan captive, Europa, across the waves, is shining in 
all his radiance— At a greater distance off (the Eastern 
Heavens) the Atlantides, wandering erratically, show them- 
selves as a group of constellations universally to be dreaded 
by the various crafts as they traverse the watery main, 
fearing the threatening tempests; Orion, yonder, too, scares 
the Gods themselves with his angry and flaming sword, 
nnd Perseus has in his retinue of golden stars (z6) (com- 
memorative of the shower in which Jupiter embraced his 


Mother Danae). In another part of the Heavens, the 
Twin Tyndaridoe, Castor and PolUix, shine forth as brilliant 
constellations (and Juno gazing earthwards, espies the . 
refuge land of Latona, when pursued by the P>thon, which 
became the birth place of Apollo and Diana), for the 
security of which children, Delos, hitherto a floating island 
(tossed hither and thither by the tempestuous waves— 
sometimes above the water's surface and at other times 
submerged) became at last firmly fixed and acquired a 
solid foundation— (Neptune out of pity for the sufferings 
of I^tona having struck it with his trident). Not only 
does Bacchus, but his mother even (Semele) consorts 
with the Cods above, and lest anything should be wanting 
to confirm all this opprobrium, the heavens ostentatiously 
parade the coronet of that Cnossian wench Ariadne I But I 
complain, moreover, of still more chronic grievances- 
one too cruel and dreadful to relate: that the Theban 
land should so abound in infamous step-daughters, every 
time it has been ordained that I should be made a step- 
motherl It is permitted, too, that Alcmene, my triumphant 
rival, should ascend and usurp my very throne, whilst no 
less her son should eventually take possession of the 
promised constellation — he, at whose birth the world lost 
an entire day (one day short in the calendar of time), 
and Phfjebus, having been commanded to slacken the 
progress of his chanot, illumined the sea with a day-star 
and shed his diurnal rays inlo the ocean's bosom I (thus 
there were three consecutive nights). After all this can 
my anger be made to cease, and will not my insulted 
nature give way to violent rage? and my cruel grief urge 
me on still more to wage perpetual warfare, all prospects 
of a Iruce being entirely out of the question 1 But why 
do I speak in that grandiose way of wars? What can 
possibly be brought about? For whatever horrible visit- 
ations that a hostde earth could devise, whatever the sea 
or air has ever brought inlo existence — whatever has par- 
taken of the terrible — whatever dreadful calamities— wnat- 
soever of a pestilential character and whatsoever has 
savoured of the cruel and atrocious (Juno here alludes to 
the Bull, the Scorpion, the Giants, the Crab, the Hydra 
and the Stymphalides), every thing has been disabled or 
subdued by Hercules— he conquers every thing in his 

Eath, and he increases in his capabilities as his obstacles 
ecome more difficult! He derives only profit from my 
anger, and whilst 1 might appear to be austere in my 
commands, he is simply turmng my hatred into his own 
glorification; 1 have, however, fully setUed the question 
as to his paternal origin (Jupiter) and it is I who have 
been throwing in his way, all this time, the opponunVtves 

n laudcs runs 
Men vertit odia. (lum nimU Cxva impero, 
Patrem probavi : glorias feci locum : 
Qua Sol Kdit(:eiis, quaque deponeiis diem, 
Biaos propinqua liagil ^thiopas face, 
iDdomita virtus colilur; & toto Deus 
Notralur orbe. Monllru jam defunt mihi; 
Minorque labor e(1 Herculi juffa exfeijui, 
Quam mihi jubere. la:luE imperia excipit. 
Qua fera t^ronni julfa violcDto qucanl 
Nocere juveniP nempe pro lelis getit, 
Qux limuil, & quce fudil: annatus venil 
Leone & hydra Nee falis temc patent: 
Effregit ecce limen infenii Jovis, 
Et opima vifii regis ad fuperos refert. 
Parum eft reverti : fcedus Umbrarum peril. 
Vidi ipfa, vidi no&e difcuffa ioferflm, 
El Oite domito, fpolia jadlanlem patri 
Fralemo. cur noD viiftum & opprefTum irabil 
Ipfum catenis paria fortitum Jovi i 
Lreboquc capto polilur, & relegil Slyga- 
Palefadta ab imis Maaibus retro via eft, 
K\ faoa (line Mortis in Rperto jaceul. 
Al ille, rupto carcere Umbrarum, feron 
De me triumphat, & fuperbifica maau 
Atrum per urbes ducil Argolicas coiieni. 
Vifo labantera Ccrbero vidi diem, 
Pavidumque folem : me quoque invafil tremor, 
Et terna monftri colla devi^i inlueus, 
Timui impernfre, I.evia fed niraium queror, 
CtPlo timendum eH; regna ue fumma occupel. 
Qui vicit ima. fceplra pneripiet patri. 
Nee in aftra leata veDicl, ul Bacchus, via: 
Iter ruina quferet, & vacuo volet 
Regnare mundo. Robore experio lumel, 

for gaining his renown ! Wherever Phcebus rises, or 
wherever fie sets in those regions, where he deeply tans 
the two Kthiopian races, with the nearness of his'fierce 
ra)^ (see note at end), his indomitable valor is held up 
as an object of veneration, indeed he is spoken of as a 
God, all over the Earth I There are no monsters, no 
difficullies now, for him to encoiinier, for it is less a labor 
for Hercules lo exetute my commands, than it is for me 
to issue them— he undertakes his labor with an air of joy 
and triumph I What truculent mandate of the tyrant 
Eur^'stheus can redound with injury to this violent youth 
arismg out of its execution? For he actually re-inforces 
his strength with ihem as weapons, those very things which 
jc /in,t, somewhat disconcerted him, \j\il ^tach wtNtxtiM&- 

4 3,-68] 


less he finally subdued— he sallies forth, forsooth, furnished 
with mementoes of the Nemean Lion, and the formidable 
Hydra. Nor is this earth considered by him, an arena suffi- 
ciently ample for his daring exploits ! He breaks through the 
territories of Jupiter Infemus (Pluto) and afterwards brings 
that especial prerogative— Pluto's emblem of Power- 
Cerberus as a trophy from the conquered king, when he 
rejoins the living beings on the earth above; but his 
having returned from the regions of Pluto is only a 
trifling matter to be alluded (o, for he actually violates 
the established agreement, as regards the exclusive domi- 
nion over the Manes, entered inlo with his brothers 
Jupiter and Neptune. I myself have seen him, positively 
seen him with my own eyes, after he had dispersed the 
daritness of the infernal regions, and after Pluto had been 
brought into subjection, boastingly displaying to his father 
the spoils which had been taken from that father's brother I 
Why! I wonder why he did not drag Pluto along, as 
well, conquered and beaten down and held in chains 1 
the one loo, who claims equal rights in his own Kingdom 
to those possessed by his brother m his! Holding Erebus 
captive, he had the Stygian Kingdom entirely in his power, 
and he lays bare ali the mysteries thereofl And the path 
from the abode of the Manes towards the earth has been 
brought into view, and the solemn secrets of sad mortality 
revealed! But having burst open the prisons of the dead 
he savagely triumphs over me, and drags with haughty 
display the frightful Cerberus through the cities of Argos 
—I have actually seen the bright day grow dim at the 
sight of Cerberus, and Phoebus himself tremble at his 
aspect! A tremor, indeed, comes across myself, in-as- 
much as, casting my eyes in his direction, 1 have had 
misgivinjra as to my prudence in having urged on my 
commands respecdng that three-headed monster. Yet 
I am complaining, now, only of trifles I But we must 
now be apprehensive for the safety of Heaven itself, as 
he who so easily subdued the Kingdom below will aspire 
to occupy the regions above! He will seize, in short, on 
his own father's sceptre I Nor will his passage towards 
heaven be efTecied so quietly as Bacchus made his, 
Hercules will push his way by causing the utter downfall 
of every obstacle that obstructs his path, and he will do 
his best to find the heavens deserted by the Gods and 
empty to his grasp! He swells out with puffed-up pride 
now that he has discovered his own strength and capa- 
bilities. And judging from what he has already achieved. 
he fancies that he can subdue heaven by his own unaidea 
strength ! It is true that he has borne the heavens above 
his head, nor has the difficulty of raising such an immet\?it 



Et pofTe cfelum viribus v 

Didicit lereado. fubdidil mundo capul, 70 

Nee fleiil humerus molis [mmenTa: labor, 

Mediufque collo fedil Hcrculm polus. 

Immoln cervix fidera & ctelum lulit, 

Et me prementein. Qu;crit ad fuperos viam. 

Perge ira, perge, & magna Tnedilaiilem opprime. 75 

Coiigtedere; manibus ipfa dilacera tuU. 

Quid iBDtB mandas odia? difcedant ferx: 

Ipfe imperando fefTus EuT^llheus vaceL 

Titanns nufos niaipere imprrium Jovis 

Emille: Siculi venticix laxa specum. Bo 

Tellus giganle Doris excufTo tremens, 

SuppofiU monlhi colln terrifici levet. 

SabiimU alias Luna conclplaC feras. 

Sed vidl Ida. Qusiis Alcidx paremJ 

Nemo eH, nifi ipfe, bella Jam fccum gerat 85 

Adfint ab imo Tartari fundo cxciiie 

Eumenldes: rgnem flammex fpar^ant coma:: 

Vlperea ficvx verbera inculiant manus. 

I nane, Tuperbe, ctElituro fedes pete; 

Humana lemne, jam Styga & Manes, ferox, go 

FugilTe credls? helc tlbl odendam inferos. 

Revocaho in alta cutiditam caliginc 

Ultra Docealum exfilia difcordem Deom, 

Quam munll iagen; motitls oppoliti fpecus. 

Educam, & imo Dili« e regno exlrsham 95 

Quidquid reliAum ell. veaiat invifum Scelus, 

Suumque lambens fanguinem Impietas ferox, 

Errorque, & in fe Temper annatus Furor. 

Hoc hoc miniHro noftcr utalur dolor. 

Incipite, famula: Dilts: ardenlem incltx 100 

Concutile pinum: & agmen horrcndum anguibus 

Megicra ducal; alque luflifica manu 

Vallani rogo Hagraole corripiDt trabem. 

Hoc agile, ptcoas petiie violatie Slygls: 

Concutile pe<f%us: acrior mentem excoqual 105 

mass in the least impaired his powerful shoulders, and 
the sky even has rested on the middle of his immense 
neck; this neck, without yielding, has sustained the weight 
of the stars and firmament containing them, and myself 
pressing down as well with all my force, and yet, knowing 
all this, I persevere in testing his capabilities further. 
He is seeking the way, though, to Heaven, therefore let 
me persevere with my wrathful work, I say— let me still 
persevere, and let me stop him, who contemplates such 
extravagant designs— let me dispute his progress— Oh, 
Juno! Juno! destroy him piecemeal rather with thine 
own hands! Why dost thou indulge in these odious 
mandxtes? Give Up all idea about the wild Beasts and 


Monstere! For Eurystheus, himself will soon be tired out 
in enforcing other commands; let me rather send forth 
the I'itans, who once had the audacity themselves to 
itivade the realms of Jupiter! Lay bare, if you like, the 
cavernous interior of the Sicilian Vortex (.4itna), and the 
land of Doris, which already trembles with every move- 
ment of the Giant, Enceladus, will then materially relieve 
the pressure now exerted on the terrific monster, now 
lying underneath it (by being opened up, it will relieve 
the giant somewhat). Will lofty Phtebe think of some fresh 
wild Beast or new Monster hitherto unknown on this 
earth? No! she will say; for he has overcome them all 
such as I have to do with. (The Neniiean Lion, the 
ancients thought, fell from the Moon,) Are you, she will 
say, seekinj? for any one to come forward as the equal 
of Alcidesr Why! there can be no one his equal, out 
himself, then let nim in some manner or other make war 
with himself! Let the Eumenides (Furies) be stirred to 
action and appear on the scene, from the remotest depths 
of Tartarus, their flaming locks will scatter broadcast 
their hideous fires ttorches) and their savage hands shall 
strike their viperous blows! Go, if you like, oh! thou 
puffed up man, and seek out the habitations of heavenly 
tenants, and henceforth look disdain fully upon mere 
human belongings, but do you really persuade yourself 
that you have done with the Styx and the Manes after 
all your ferocity ! I will show you, here, on earth, things 
yet more terrible than ever you beheld in the regions 
below— I will invoke the Goddess Discord, who hides 
down deep in the lowest regions of darkness, beyond the 
prisons where the wicked are banished, and whom a huge 
cavern in a mountain opposite protects in solemn seclu- 
sion, and 1 will rake up from the domains of Pluto and 
the remotest parts thereof everything that is left in it 
of a hellish character to favor my ends! Odious crimes 
shall enter on the scene and raging Impiety madly lapping 
up its own blood (Parricidal and traticidal slaugnier), 
mental wandering [hallucinations) and raving madness 
(this is what Juno has had in store for Hercules) which 
is always armed against the objects themselves that are 
atflicted within (in reference to the way, in which madmen 
are dangerous to themselves as well as to others). Oh ! ye 
Furies, ye servile throng of Pluto's, begin with this— yes! 
let my angered mind turn to account this instrument of 
my wrath, as the means of wreaking my vengeance— haslen 
then and brandish the burning torches (pine-stems) and 
Megsera shall lead on the terror-striking troop with their 
horrible serpents and I require that they will, with iheir 
grief-spreading hands, sei^e the terror- producing totchc'i 


Quam qui cmniuis ignis j^lnxis fuiiC. 
Ut poffit aoirao captus Atcictes ogi, 
Magno furore percitus, nobis prius 
Infouiciulum eft. Juno, cur Dondum furisr 
Me, me, fororea mente dejetflaro roei 
Verfate primam, facere fi quidquani appnro 
Dignum noverca. jam odia mutentur men. 
Nalos reversus videat iocolumes, precor, 
Monuque fartis redeaL inveai diem, 
Invira quo nos Herculis virtus juvet: 
Me pariter & fe vincat; & cupiat marl 
Ab iuferis reversus. heic prorit mihi, 
Jove elTe genilum. ftabo, & ut certo exeunt 
Emifla nervo tela, librabo manum: 
Regam furenlis aniia: pugnanti Hcrculi 
Tandem Tavebo. fcelere perfefto, licet, 
AdmiItU illas genilor in eielum manus. 
Movenda jam fuut beltaj clarefcit dies, 
Oituque Titan lucidus croceo fubit. 


Cborus e Thebanis a defcriplione onus diei, magnalura 
ftudiaque dainnat, Herculem audacice in laboribu* 
fubeuadis taxat, vit;£ denique humilia lauilal 
tranquillitatcm optalque. 

JAM rara micant fidera prono 
Languida mundo: nox vidla vagos 
Contrahit ignes: luce renata 
Cogit nitidum Fhofphoros agmen: 
Sign urn cein glaciale poli 
Seplem Oellia Arcades urr:e 
Lucem verfo temone vacant : 
Jam CEcnileU evoflus equls 
Titan Tumroa profpicit CEta: 

from the burning pile— Do all this in earnest, I say, seek 
for ade(|uate punishment, for the violation of the Stygian 
Realms. Exhaust all lo that end, and for my own part, 
let a more ardent fire stir up ray revengeful soul than 
anything that ever yet raged or came forth from the 
summits of Mlus^—a.wd. in order vhat AHdcs, sliiced up 



i intenscsl madness, shall be duly brought under my 

influence, methinks 1 should first become maddened my- 
self! Juno! Juno! Why art thou not already at rages 
height? Oh ye sisters (Furies), exercise your skill upon 
me, transform me, that I may be dispossessed of my 
ordinary (healthy) mind if I am to prepare myself for 
the execution of any scheme worthy of an angered step- 
mother !— Let my hatred even be diverted into a fresn 
channel — Let me then pray, that on his return Hercules 
may see his sons in health and safety, and may he come 
back to us strong in his mighty arm! I have really 
arrived at that day on whicli the odius strength ofHercules 
will be of assistance to me! I can tolerate his conquering 
me, so long as he is conquered himself as well (Juno 
here alludes to the slaughter of his wife and sons during 
his madness in firosfitefu), and may he wish when he returns 
from the infernal regions, for death itself! Under these 
circumstances, it will be a source of gain to me, that he 
is really the veritable son of Jupiter f I stipulate firmly, 
however, that the arrows which are sent forth from his 
bow shall be directed with a sure aim and steady nerve 
—I will poise his hand myself! 1 will preside over the 
movements of the raging combatant— 1 shall, literally, 
at last^ be espousing tne very cause of Hercules in thus 
inflammg his warlike spirit! And when the crime is 
carried out to my satisfaction (slaughtering his wife and 
two sons), let his father forthwith admit him into Olympus 
with his hands stained and reeking with their guilty work. 
Now then for war! Operations must begin! The light 
of day is beginning to show itself and bright Titan enters 
upon the scene, with all his nascent glor)-, in the saffron- 
tinted Eastern Horizon. 


_B Chorus of Thebans Iwginning with a description of 
t the dawn of day alludes to the manners and customs 
f of the times, condemning the pursuits and under- 
I takings of the nobles— They reprove Hercules for 
I his audacity in the attempting of his various labors, 
r and finally extol and sigh for that tranquillity', which 
I is only to be realized by leading a retired life. 

lEHOLD ! The stars now scarcely perceptible are 

T shining but feebly In the setting sky, and night 

drawing in slowly calls together the scattered lumi- 

'" (planets). Phosphorus, too, disbands her shmit\^ 

-• at tAe approach of the newiy-born day— T' " 








Jam Cadtneis iadytit Bacchis 

Afperfa die dumela rubenl: 


Lsbot exoritur durvis, * omncs 

Agiui curns, aperilque domos. 

Paflor gelida cans pmina 

Grege dimiffo pnbuU caqiit. 


Ludil pralo liber aperto 

Noudum rupla fronte juveacus. 

Viicaa; repnranl ubera malres. 

Errat curfu levis incerlo 

Molli petuktia htedus [n herba. 


Pendcl fummo flridula ramo. 

Pcnnafque novo ttaxlere foli 

Gedit querulos inter aido^ 

Thracia pellex ; lurbaque circa 

Confufa fona', munnnre mixlo 


Tcftata diem, catbafa venlis 

Credit, dubius navila viue, 

LaKos aura complcntc fmus. 

Hie exefis pendens fcopulis, 

Aut deceptoa inftiuil homos; 


FrtemJB de«ira. feniH Iremulum 

Hiec, innocui quibus e(l vit» 

TranquiUa quies, & IWa fuo 


Parvoijue domus, fpes & in agriii. 

Turbiue magno fpes rollicili 

Urbibus erranl, ircpidiqiic metus. 

Ille fuperbos aditus regam, 

DuraTiiue fores, expers fomiii, 


Colit: hie nullo fine bcaluEi 

Compoiiit opes, gozis iohians, 

Et congedo pauper in auro ell. 

FliK^uque nugis mobile vulgus 


Aura tumidum lollit inani: 

Ilic claTnofi rabiofa fori 

Jurgia veadens improbus, iraa 

Et verba local. Novit paucos 

Secura quies, qui velods 


Memores kvi, lemjiora nuoquam 
Redilura teneal. Dum fata linunl, 

Arcadian Bears, with their seven stars, the Northern siRn- | 

posts of ihe distant Pole, invoke the coininK light 

as the 1 

Chari()t of Phcebtis reverses 

ts direction! Behold! 

Titan 1 

rises from the azure water 

with his steeds 

refreshed | 

thereby as he brings into \ 
/jDii- ii-Jib welcome aay—'l'hi. 

iew the summits 


Eta- 1 

tjroves scattered i; 

■ecl^vhere 1 





. ^lay their verdancy, whilst the scene is opened withT. 

the Bacchic revels, and bright Phcebe, the sister of 
Phtebus, steals away only ("to repeat the story of her 
birth") to return to us again! Hard toil is now demanded 
of man, and he busies himself with his manifold concerns, 
and the light of day reveals the nakedness of many a 
homestead! The shepherd, having driven away his herds, 
gathers as a reserve the scanty produce, rendered cold 
and crisp by the hoar frost— The young bull, with its 
rudimentary horns (the superjacent cuticle not yet broken 
through! 5cami>ers with wild freedom over (he open 
mead — The mothers deprived of their milk seek to reple- 
nish their exhausted udders— the lustful goal wanders 
nimbly, with uncertain destination, over the velvety sod — 
The Thracian nightingale (Philomela) perched on a top- 
most branch gives forth her plaintive notes, and longs 
to test her wings in sight of rising Sol, and busies herself 
with the affairs of her nest— in gleefully ministering to 
the wants of her clamorous progeny— and the confusion 
of the singing multitude around announces from a medley 
of throats the coming of bright day— The mariner, careless 
of the dangers incidental to his calling, confidently trusts 
his canvas to the winds as the breeze expands his full- 1 
set sails— Then another man, a fisherman resting on the I 
wave-indented rock, is engaged either in baiting afresh hit fl 
unsuccessful hook, or, all anxiety, beholds in mental | 

Eros|)ecl the reward of his patience already grasped in 
is right hand, whilst he is really only made conscious 
that a struggling fish is doing its test to slip away from 
his line I The following things are of value to a man; the 
tranquil quiet of an innocent life and a home which is 
satisfied with its modest belongings; the looking forward 
with hope to the fruits of his lands— anxious cares present 
themselves in cities in a discomposing whirl, and amidst 
trembline fears — and he who seeks ambitiously to ap- 
proach the dwellings of kings and to enter at doors difficult 
of access, will assuredly bid goodbye to sleep as his 
reward— he who lavs up, without bounds, riches as the 
summuin bonura of happiness, panting for further wealth, 
is altogether a pauper, nevertheless, with all his coffers 
containing their accumulated gold! Popularity bewilders 
one man, and sets him entirely beside himself, and the 
ignoble herd, more fickle than the passing waves, capti- 
vate his elated imagination with their hollow applause! 
and surely, that man is a knavish rascal, who amidst 
the fierce strife of the noisy forum sells at a price, as he 
would merchandize, his stinging dentmciations or honeyed 
"'--juence (as the case might be) inerely to gain verdicls 
bis Utigioiis clients! Uninterrupted serenity is a 






Vivile ItEti. properal curfu 
Vita citato, volucrique die 
Rota pnccipitis venitur aDiii. 
Dime persgoDt peofa Soroies, 
Nee futt retro fik revoivmiL 
At geDa hominum fcrtur rapidis 
Obvta falls, incerta fuiJ 
Stygios ultro quEcrimiis undas. 
NuDium, Alcide, pedlore fmti 
Properas miEftos vifere Manes. 
Cerlo veaiunt ordine Parca;. 
Nulli juOb celTare licet, 
Nulli fcriptum proferre diem. 
Recipil populOii uma citatoa. 

Tradal, & uniiieis fatna per urbcs 
GaiTuIa laudet. ccelo<|Ue parem 
Tollal & aftris: alius cumi 
SublimiB eat, me mea lellus 
Lore fecrelo tuloijue legal. 
Venit ad pigras cana fenedlus: 
Humilique loco, fed certa fedet 
Sordida parvx rortuna damu^: 
Alte virtus animoro. cadlt. 
.Sed micftn venit crine folulu 
Megara, parvum comiUUa gregem: 
Tardufque fcnio graditur Alcida: parens. 




Mcgara abfentiam Ilerculia dellet eoumeralis ip(ii 

l.yci vim & inrolentiam conqaerilur. DerpoDdenlem 

animum Megaram & defperaiitem comblatur 



E Olympi ledlor, & mundi arbiter, 
Jam (lalue laiidem gravibus rtrumnis modum, 
Finemque cUdi. nmla lu» iinquam niihi 

Stranger to few except those who, mindful of the fleeting- 
ness of lime, pass iheir lives profitably, as if ihey can 
never expect them to return! Whilst the Fates permit, 
lead your lives with a joyful heart—Life hastens alon^ 
mih a quickened stride, and the tevolutioti oClhe v^ar is 




ily precipiiated by each flying day. 
Parcffi perform their allotted tasks, 

, nor do Ihey ever 
unwind the threads they have once woven; hut the race 
of mankind at large is borne forward to meet its rapid 
destiny, uncertain of what that fatal um may declare, 
whilst we are only seeking carelessly, as it were, the 
Stygian Streams ! Oh ! Alcides, do not with your stout 
heart hasten too eagerly to visit the sadness-ridden Manes! 
The Parcse come on the appointed day with certain 
precision; it is not allowed for them to cease from thctr 
ordained task at any command, or to publish the prescribed 
term of life at any bidding— the fatal um receives only 
those whose lots are enrolled therein— Glory attends one 
man in many lands, and busy fame praises throughout 
all the cities' of the world, and raises him equally to 
Heaven and the Stars ! Another is borne aloft in chariot 
triumphant. May our own land then protect us, surrounded 
by our own Lares and Penates in security I Grey old age 
quickly overtakes the weak, but moderate means in a 
small habitation ensures safety, and puts one out of 
harm's way— whilst wealth unassured in this manner, is 
alu'ays a doubtful possession. Sublime heroism tells 
heavily, when once it begins to totter — But Megara, 
with a look of sadness, is now approaching, her locks 
hanging down loosely, accompanied by her family of 
little ones, and the father of Hercules, Amphitryon, follows 
her, but with his gait rendered slow through the advances 
of old age. 


Megara bewails the absence of Hercules in enumerating 
her troubles— she complains of the violence and iuso- 

klence of Lycus, Amphitryon pities the despondent 
state of Me^ara's mind, and lenders her consolatioa i 
in her despair. ' 

OH I Monarch of mighty Olympus and arbiter of the 
world's destinies; hy this time decree a remedy for 
my grievous sufrermgB, and vouchsafe an end to 
these misfortunes, lor never does (here arrive a day, which 
affi^ds me cbe slightest security from one trouble or another, 



Secura fulfit. fnis allerius mali 

Gradus eft futuri, prolenus reduci oovus 

Fantlur hoflis, antequam !stam domum 

Contingat, aliud jurfna ad bellum meal. 

Nee ulla requies, tempus aut ullum diLtur, 

Nil! dum jubetur: remiitur n primo ftalim 

Intefla JUQO, nninquid immuDis fuil 

Inraiit[s aslasi monftra fuperavit prius, 

Quam noFTe poITet. gemimi cridali caput 

Aogues ferebani ora, quoa contra obvius 

Reptavit infant; igneos ferpentjum 

Oculoa remirTa lumine sc placido intueO!^, 

Arflos fereniB viUtibus nodos tulit; 

El turn i da tenera guttura clidens moDU, 

Prolusll hydrcE: Mxaali pcmix fera, 

Multo decorum prxfereos auro caput, 

Deprenfn curfu eft. manimus Ncmee timor 

Gentuit lacertis preHus Herculeis leo. 

Quid ftabula memorem dira Billonii gregis, 

Suifque regcm pabulum armentii datum? 

Solicumque denfis hifpidam Erymanthi jugis 

Arcadia quaterc tiemora Mxaolium fuem! 

Taurumque centum noa levem populis mctum? 

Inter remotos gcniis Hefperiie greges 

PaftoT tiifotmis litoria TorlefTii 

Peremlus, a<fla eft prxda ab Occafu ultimo. 

Notum Cithiron pavit Oceaoo pecua. 

Penetrare jufTus Solts lellivi plagas, 

El adufta medius regna qua: lorrel dies. 

Utrinque monies folvit abrupto objice, 

Et jam ruenli fecit Oceano viam. 

Poft bsec, adoitus nemoris opulenti domos, 

Aurirern vigilis fpolia Terpentis tulit. 

Quid? fevB Lerm monftra, numcrofum malum, 

Non igne demum viciC, & docuit mori? 

.Solitafque pennis condere obduAis diem 

Petiit ab ipfis nubibus Stymphalidas ? 

Non vicil ilium cxiibis Temper tori 

Kegina geiitis vidua Thermodontix : 

Ncc ad omne clarum facious audaces manus 

and the end of one calamity is only the beginning of 
another. From afar off, a fresh enemy prepares lo enter 
on the scene, and before he (Alcides) reaches his wel- 
come home, he is forthwith commanded to enter upon 
some fresh contest: nor is there any respite or any oppor- 
tunity afforded for rest, but the brief inten-o! between 
one command and that which is to follow I Implacable 
Juno is always in foremost pursuit! Why, I ask, was the 
t/ie leader infant even allowed lo be free from her resent- 

u™«s-^,l HERCULES FURENS. 17 

mentr The iwo cresled snakes darted at the infant's 
ciadle, but that infant strangled thetn as they advanced; 
he had actually conquered those monsters, before he had 
lurived at the years of knowledge— he regarded their 
fiery e^'cs with a placid and careless ga^e, bore their 
encircling pressure with a serene countenance and, seizing 
their swelling poison-charged throats with his tender in- 
fantile hands, tie squeezed out their Uvea! Thus, as a 
Erelude to his victory over the Hydra, he commenced 
is conquering career with the serpenis! The swift stag 
of M^nalus, with his head rendered glaring with his large 
golden horns, was arrested in his flight by Hercules. 
That great terror of the forests, the Nemsean Lion, groaned 
aloua when pressed by the brawny anns of Hercules 1 
What shall I say of those terrible horses of the Thracian 
King Diomedes or of thai very king, who was delivered 
over for destruction to the voracity of his own cattle? 
Or the brisded Mienalian Boar, which ravaged the sum- 
mits of Erymanthus, and was wont to cause the Arcadian 
Croves to' quake again with his presence? Or of the 
Bull of Crete which was the great terror of a hundred 
communities and was actually brought alive into Pelopon- 
nesus; how amongst the distant flocks of the Hesperian 
confines, their shepherd, the three-bodied monster Geryon 
was slain by Hercules, and his flocks seized as spoil from 
the extreme West, where Cithseron subsequently fed those 
well-known herds near the territories of Oceanus? Her- 
cules was commanded to penetrate countries, visited 
by the dreadful summer sun, — the kingdoms, where every- 
thing was absolutely burnt up, whilst the mid-day pre- 
vailed. All obstacles being Broken down he actually 
divided mountains on both sides, and opened up a broad 
road for the in-rushing Ocean I After all these exploits, 
he gained access to the territories of the gold-laden grove 
(Garden of the Hesperides) and seized upon the golden 
spoils (apples) guarded by a watchful serpent! (one that 
never slept), \Vhat next? Did he not conquer by casting 
it into the flames, the monstrous Hydra of Lema, that 
Kiemarkable object of dread, and demonstrated that it, 
pren, could be made to die! He then seeks out, from 
i clouds themselves, those noisome Stymphalidie which 
re wont with their expanded wings to darken the very 
f around ! Nor was the Virgin Oueen of the Thermo- 
n race with her entire army of celibate women-soldiers 
jual to him in the contesti Nor did he deem it all an 
piominious task, when, with his brave and able hands, 

e cleansed the stables of Augeus! But what do all these 

exploits now avail him? He is now with no city to 
itSeati. And the lands which hive acknowledged h\ra 


Stabuli fugavit turprs Augin; labor- 
Quid idn profuDl! orbe defcDfo carel. 
Senfere letne pacia auilorem (ax 
AbeOe leiris. prarperum oc felix fcelus, 
Virtus vocalur. fonlibus parent boni. 
Jul efl in nrmis, oppriniit leges tJmor. 
Ante ora vidi noJtra, Iracalenla manu 
Natos patemi cadere regni vindices: 
Ipfamque Cadmi nobilis (lirpem uUimnm 
Occidere. vidi regium capitis decus 
Cum cuplle ntptum, quis rntis Thebas dent? 
Ferax Deonim tena quern dominum Ircmis? 
E cujus irris, eqne fcecundg finu 
Sirica juventus orta cum ferro ftetit; 
Cujufque muros Dsnis Amphion Jove 
SCruxit, conoro faia modutiLtu Irahens; 
In cujui urbem Don femel DivQm parens 
Cielo reliflo venit; hxc qus ccelitcs 
Kecepit, & quz fecit, & (fas fit loqui) 
Forloffe fBciet, fordido prcmitur jugo. 
Cidmea proles, dvitafque Amphioais, 
Quo decididis? tremitis ignavuni exfulem, 
Suis carentcm finibuH, noHns gravem? 
Qui fcelera terra, quique perfequitur mnri, 
Ac l3:va jufta fceptra confringit maiiu, 
Nunc fcrvit abfens, fertque qiiw ferri vclat: 
Tenelque Thebaa eiful tJerculeas Lycus. 
Sed Don tenebit. adcrit, & pienos petet, 
Subitufque ad adra emerget: invenial viam, 
Aut faciei. Adiis fofpes & remees, precor: 
Tandcmque veniax vidlor ad viiftam domuni. 
Emerge, conjux, atque difpulfas maou 
Abrumpe lenebras : nulla fi retro via, 
Iterque claurum ell, arbe diduiflo redi; 
Et quidquid atra noifte poireffum latet, 
Emille lecuni. dirulis quails jagis 
FraKCps citato flumini quffrens iter, 
QuDndam ftetifti, fcllTa cum vaflu impetu 
Paluere Tempe. peAore impulfus tuo. 
Hue mons & illuc cecidii, & rupio aggere 
Nova cucurrit ThefFalus lorrens via. 
Talis pareotes, liberos, palrlam peleiis, 

as the author of their peaceful security, now find him away 
from his tutelary cares! Prosperous and successful crime 
now receives the name of Valor ! The good are now made 
to obey the badl There is a recognized and lawful 
right awarded to arms, and very fear puts the laws in 
abeyance 1 Before my very own eyes J have seen sons . 
cut doivn hy merciless hands, and whose only s' ' ' 

een SODS . 
sin had I 

ub« .is-.i,] HERCULES FURENS. 

line of the House of Cadmus I and I have seen the very 
rjown seized rouehly from the august head which was 
wearing it, and the head itself removed with it at the 
same lime. Who, I ask, shall weep sufficiently for what 
has befallen Thebes? Oh! Earthl who so easily creates! 
Gods, of what men art thou afraid? And out of whose 
lands, from an equally productive origin sprang youth, 
who boldly stood forth with their weapons unsheathed 
ready for war. and of whose city Amphion, the son of 
Jove, laid the walls, which he easily called into his ser- 
vice by the enchanlins; melodies of his lyre— into whose 
city the Parent of the Gods, having quitted his heavenly 
abode, has come more than once ; that city, which has 
achieved this distinction and, may I be permitted to say 
it, will do so again perhaps, is now oppressed with a 
heav>' yoke! O! Offspring of Cadmus! Oh! City of 
Amphion I To what hast thou fallen I Dost thou tremble 
at the sight of a base exile, with no country that he can 
c^l his own, simply because he is a nuisance to us? 
whilst he, who follows up and punishes crimes commit- 
ted on land as well as on sea, and breaks down the harsh 
rule of tiTannical kings with the strong arm of justice, 
is now away from us and practically a slave himself (that 
is, serving under Eurystheus), and is putting up at the 
present moment with the very things he would not per- 
mit others to suffer, if he were only present! That 
wTCtched exile, Lycus, possesses Herculean Thebes now. 
but he will not hold it long; Hercules will return and 

gunish him condignly and will then make a sudden 
ight to the Heavens to which he will soon find a way, 
and if not, he will make one! I pray, spouse of mine, 
come back as the deliverer! Be thou present! Come at 
length as the salvator of a down-trodden home I Come out 
of that infernal abyss, consort mine, and escape from 
that darkness which thou hast so successfully dispelled 
wilh thy mighty arm — if there be no way easy for return 
and the exit is closed up, come I say if the very orb 
itself requires to be rent in twain to effect a passage! 
And if anything under the dominion of sombre Nox 
should lie concealed, bring it forth with thee, and as 
thou once stood, when thou sought thy precipitous way 
by swiftly flowing rivers, having first severed the very 
moimtains which obstructed thy path!— when Tempe 
lay open, cut through by thy tremendous force, a moun- 
tain here forced against by thy chest— a mountain there, 
fell as thou proceeded, the opposing mass being a\\ <i\s- 
pcrsed. the Thessnlian streams folJowed in a ne«\Y 



Erunipc, reram terroinos lecuni efferens; 

El qaidquld avida (o1 per annonun gradu^ 

Abfcondit 3eU&, rcddc; & oblilos ful, 

LuciTque pavidos ante te populos age. 

Indigna le fuul fpolia, 11 Uuiluni refers. 

Quantum impcraliun efl. Magna fed Dimium loquor, 

Ignara noIlrBe Conh, Uade iltum tnihi. 

Quo le luamque dexteram acnpleiflaj, diem, 

Rcdilufque lenlos ncc niei memorcs qucrai? 

Tibi, o Deorum dudtor, jadomili ferect 

Cenlena rauri cotia: tibi, frugum poteus, 

Secreta reddam facra: libi muta fide 

LoDgas Eleufm laclta jaiflabit faces. 

Turn reftitutaii Ihitribtu rcbor meis 

Animas, & ipfum regna moderantem fun 

Florere patrcm. fi qua te mijor tenet 

Claufum poteftas; lequimur. aul omnes luos 

Defende reditu fbrpes; aul omnes trahe. 

Ttahes, Dec ullus eriget fnuftos Dens. 

AMrH. O focia DoUri fanguini^ Cafta fide 

Servaos torum nalofque magnanimi Herculis, 

Meliora meute concipe, atque ouimum excita. 

Aderil profetflo, qua! is ex omni folet 

Lahore, major, meg. Quod nimia miferi voluol, 
Hue facile credunt. amph. Immo quod metuuut nimi^i, 
Nutiquam amovcri pofle, ncc lolli patant. 
Prooa eft timorl femper in pejus fides. 
MEG. Demerfus, nc defolTus, & tolo infuper 
t>pprefTus orbe, qunm viam ad fuperos babel ? 
AMPH. Quam tunc habebal, cum per arentem plagam^ 
Et Huifluantes more turbati luari.'i 

created channel I Come forth such an one as thou ut, 
seeking parents, children, country! thus bringing with 
thee the termination of our troubles, and whatever 
the rapacious destructive ness of time has moved away 
through so many passing years restore ! Put out of the 
question (drive away) the Manes that have forgotten their 
former condition on earth, and would fear the light of 
day. Such spoils as those are quite unworthy of thy 
prowess, do therefore only what thou art bidden, if thou 
dost come back I But, perhaps, being ignorant of what 
our own lot may turn out to be, I am speaking too 
volubly upon matters of such grave importance! A]asl 
When will the day arrive on which I shall embrace thee, 
and shake thy right hand? nor shall I ever relent at thy 
slow return or fancy thou hast forgotten mel 01 Leader 
of the Codsl May they present for thy honor, as a be- 

Lines 390-320] HERCULES FURENS. 21 

fitting sacrifice, a hundred untamed bulls whose necks 
have never borne the yoke! O thou Goddess, who pre- 
sidest over our harvests, I will tender thee my devotion 
in the sacred mysteries 1 I will silently, with dumb rever- 
ence, lay at thy altar on Eleusis the grand and burning 
torch I Then I will conjure up to my imagination the soxns 
returned to my brothers restored to me, and the fact 
that my parent still flourishes and rules his kingdom with 
mildness. If any greater power still detains thee we will 
be in thy wake; either as a deliverer defend us on thy 
return, or take us as all things are, but thou, in particular, 
take us under thy protection— let not another God have 
to extricate us from our forlorn condition! 


O tender companion of my race, guarding with thy 
chaste care the couch and the infantile onspring of 
the mighty Hercules, think in your mind of better thmgs, 
check thy angry impulses ; Hercules will assuredly return 
reinvigorated, as he always does after everyone of his 


Those that are miserable are apt to believe readily 
that which they are prone to fear the most. 


But there is another view of the matter: some fear too 
much, and suppose that the sources of their alarm can 
neither be averted nor entirely removed. In a state of 
fear, the mind is always inclined to believe the worst! 


Sunk down, buried away, and furthermore the entire 
world pressing bii» down, by what road can he find Vv\s 
majr back amongst the Living} 


Abilt arenas; bifque difcedens frelucn, 
Et bis reciuTCDS : cumque deferta rale 
Dqircnfus hxfil Syrtium brevibus vedu, 
Et pappe fixa maiia faperftvit pefles. 
MF^. Iniqua rani maximiii virtulibus 
Foituna parcil : nemo fc tulo diu 
Pcrkulis offerrc tam crebis poleft. 
Quern facpe tranfit, cafus, aliqunndo invenil. 
Sed ecce Tkvus, ac mlnas vultu gerens, 
"Et qualis animo eft, lalis incetTu venit 
Alicna dextra fcepira concuiiens Lycus. 


Lycus Thebia a Creonte in exillium miffua, Hercule ad inferi 

profedln, cx(o Creonle cum filiis, quo regDum occu- 

palum Obi firmet^ Megarie nupUiui ambil, 


s regcns o|iuleuta Tliebanre loco, 
p,t omot quidquid uberi cingil falo 
Obltqua Phocii, quidquid IfmeDos rigat, 
Quidquid Cilhtcron verticc cxcclfo videt, 
El bina findeus IlUimas exilis Freta, 
Non Vetera patria: jura poffideo domus 
Ignavus hzrcs: nobilcs nou funt milii 
Avi, nee altis inclytum tilulis geDusj 
Sed clara virtuii. qui genuii jadlat fuum 
AlicDOi laudat. Rapla fed tiepida manu 
.Scepb*a obiineutor: omuis in ferro e(l Talus. 
Quod civibus lenere te invitis fcias, 
Striiflus tuetur enfis. aliens in loco 
Ilauil Habile regDUm efl. una Ted noilraR potest 
Fundare vires, junfltt regali face 
'I'halamifque Megata. ducel e generc iuclylo 
Novitas colorem noftra. non equidem reor 


Just the same road as when he passed over the 
burning plains, and sands shifting like a troubled sea, 
/Aai sea ebbing twice, and flowing iwice, m turns, and 

u«> 3..-34!] HERCULES FURENS. i.i 

when he was obliged to leave his vessel, il having 
grounded on the low sandbanks of the Syrtes, and the 
craft being stuck fast^ he trampled down the sea, con- 
tending successfully with his feet, and cleared a passage 
for himself. 


Unjust fate rarely shows mercy to the greatest merits, 
and no one can expose himself for long to fre<iuent dan- 
gers, with impunity; an evil, which we can tide over very 
frequently, will sometimes land us on a rock ! Hut behold 
thai cruel wretch Lycus, carrying his menacing nature in 
the very lineaments of his visage; whatever is passing in 
his mind, the same is indicated faithfully in his general 
demeanour, and this even whilst he is dangling in his 
bands (carelessly as it would seem) the very sceptre, which 
ighifully belongs to another! 


Bycus is ordered from Thebes into exile, by Creon— Her- 
cules having set out for the infernal regions; and 
Creon with his sons being slain, Lycus establishes 
himself on the throne and governs the kingdom. He 
then seeks to marry Megara, using every stratagem, 
and determines to offer violence m case of refusal. 

s nJer of ihe opulent Theban territories and whatever 

borders upon the transversely situated Phocis with 

' its fertile soil, whatever irrigates the Ismenian 

s and whatever Cithxron looks down upon from its 

lofly mountain-summit, I do not regard myself by any 
means a contemptible inheritor of such a home with all 
the ancient rights appertaining to such a country ;^it is 
true, I cannot boast of noble ancestors, or of a race 
celebrated for titles, but my own personal valor gives ine 
some cJaim to renown— he who brags of his ancestry 
simply praises others, not himself! But when sceptres are 
taken from others, the only safetj- then rests in the sword 
of the possessor. A kingdom is not to be depended on 
when you are ruling in another's place! But there is one 
thing which can confirm my power. Megara must be 
' >ined to me by the marriage tie, and conducted by the 
" al Nuptial Ccremonyl And my new position w\\\ 
- g/ory ansing from my union with a i\o\)\e 

io inec 



Fore ut reciifct, ac meos fpernal loroi. 

Quod fi impotenli pertinait noimo abnnet, , 

Slat lollere □miiem penilus Herculenm domum. 

Invidia faiflum oc fenno popularly preroet? 

Ars prima regni, pofTe te iovidiim pali. 

TcnlemU5 igitur: tors dedil nobis locum. 

Namque ipfa triHi veflis oblentu cnpiit 

Velata, juxta priefides adftal Dcos, 

I^lerique ndhwrel verus AlcidiC fator. 

MEc. Quidnam ifte, nollri generis exitium ac lues, 

Nov! paral? quid lenlol? LVC. O cIhtuid trahens 

A flirpe nomen regia, faeilis mea 

PBTUmper aure verba patienti excipe. 

Si a^ema Temper odia mortales agant, 

Ncc cteplus uuquam cedal ex aoimis furor, 

Sed arroa Telix ttae]t1, infelix porel; 

Nihil relinquent bella: lum vaftis ager 

SquiUebil arvis, fubdila ledlis face 

Alius fepultos obrucl eenles cinis. 

Pacem reduci velle, viflori expedil; 

ViAo DecelTe e(l. particeps regoo veoi: 

Sociemus animos. pignos hoc iidei cape: 

Continge dextnim. quid truci vuliu files J 

MEi;. Egone ut parentis faaguioe afperfam mauum 

Fralrumque gemina ciede conlingam? prius 

Exftinguci Ortus, referet Occafus diem : 

Fax ante lida Divibus & flammis erit: 

Et Scylla Siculum juDget AufoDio latus: 

Priufque multo ricibus allcmis fugax 

Euripus imda Habit Euboica piger. 

Fatrem abdulifti, regna, germanos, larem, 

Patriam: quid ultra etl^ uoa res fuperell mihi, 

Fratre ac parenle carior, regno ac lare. 

Odium lui: quod elTe cum populo mihi 

Comtnune doleo, pars quota ex illo mea ell r 

Dominare tumidus, fpiritus altos gei^: 

Sequilur fuperbos ultor a tergo Deus 

racel 1 do not imagine that such a difficulty could arise 
as that she should refuse my offer or that her inclination 
should lead her to spurn my couchl But if she is persis- 
tent with any of her impotent resistance, and denies me, 
I am resolved to stamp out completely root and branch 
all traces of the House of Hercules, although outside 
indignation and popular clamor niiglit be dead against 
me I The first art in managing a kingdom is that you 
should be lo able to bear up against unpopularity. Let 
' ' le ha ' 

me try therefore; good fortune has thrown a kingdom in 
-iw way. And for" the matter of that, although the father 
f"^ Alcides sticks close to hei side as she stands before 

my M 
or A. 


[► What fresh devilry is Lycus devising; 
compass the destruction of our ra( 
r aliempting? 


OI ihou, inheriting an illustrious name from thy royal 
ancestors, listen to me for a little with a patient ear; if 
mortals are always bent on cultivating eternal hatred, and 
fury, which, you must know, once encouraged never quits 
the human heart, that man is fortunate who wields the 
weapons necessary for his purpose ; and that man so far 
is unlucky who has to obey, since war leaves nothing to 
the vanquished! Then it' is that the land will present 
naught but unfilled fields, and that bespread with the 
burning torch, the accumulated ashes will overwhelm the 
buried inhabitants! The conquered, be sure of that, are 
as wilUng for peace as it is in the interests of the con- 
queror to be; but this is indispensably the case as 
regards the vanquished! Come then as the partner of 
m^ kingdom, and let us be with our hearts united like- 
wise. Take therefore this pledge of my serious intentions, 
■ shake this right hand of mine! Why art thou thus silent 
Old with those cruel looks of thine, too? 


Shall I, dost thou think, be induced to touch even the 
hand of one stained with the blood of my parent and 
that of my brothers likewise? A double slaughter for- 
sooth I First, let me see day utterly done away with, and 
night to take up its place, let there be a cordial amal- 
gamation of the cold snows with the scorching fiery 
elementsl And Scylla join the Sicilian lands to the 
^iiusonian main! And first too, let me behold the streams 
^^M the Euripus. with its uncertain tides occurring so 
HBequently, stand suddenly sdll and render muddy the 
^^■ubiean shoresi Thou hast robbed me of my father, 
^^nrr kinsmen, my kingdom, my Lares and my counlr>'l 
Wtui can go beyond this? One greater tiling, however, 
h left to /ne (fearer to me if possible, than parent, \irol\ieti 

le ' 


I'iiebaoa novi regno, quid matres loquar 

PalTas S; aufas fcelera? quid geminum nefas, 

MixtumqUE nomen coajugis, nali, patri«? , 

Quid biua fratrum callra? quid tolidcm rogos? 

Riget Tupcrba Tantalis ludlu parcDS, 

Mreftufque Phrygio manat in Sipylo lapis. 

Quin ipfe torvum fubrigcns crida caput 

Illytica Cadmus regna pennenfus fuga, 

Longos reliquit corporis trafti nolaa. 

Hcec te manenl exempliL dominare, ut lubet: 

Dual folila regni fata 1e nollri vocenl. 

LYC. Agedum, cfferalas rabida voces amove : 

Et difce regum impcria ab Alcide pati. 

Ego, rapta qaamviii fcq)tra vidlrici geram 

UexUa, regamque cudi^b fine legum meCu, 

Quas anna vincunt, pauca pro caufa loquor 

Noftia. Cniento cecidit ia bello paler; 

Cecidere fratres? anna non fervaiit modum; 

Nee lemperari facile, nee reptimi potefl 

Stridli enris ira. bella deledtat cruor. 

Sed ille r^no pro fuo: nos improba 

Cupidine a^i? quicritur belli exitU!i. 

Non caufa. Sed dudc pereat oiriDis meinoria. 

Curu vi&M anna proruit, & Tti5lu«i decet 

Deponere odia. non ut iollexo genu 

Retail tent adores, petimus, hoc ipfum placet, 

Ammo niinas quod capis maguo tuas, 

Ea repe codjuk digna: fociemus loroa. 

MEO. Gelidus per artus vadit exfangues tremor. 

Quod facinui aurcs pepulit? baud equidem liornli, 

Cum pace nipta betlicus muros fragor 

Circumronaret. pertuli iDtrepide omnia. 

Thalamos tremiico : cnpta nunc videor mihi. 

Graven! catenae corpus, & longa fame 

Lares and kingdom, my hatred of thee! What I do grieve 
for, is that my grief is participated in by my own people, 
but nevertheless how large a share therem has fallen 
to ray lot! Go thou on, governing with thy puffed up 
importance, keep up thy spirits to elevation pitch; a 
revenging deity is following at thy heels I I know all 
about the Theban kingdom, but how shall 1 describe the 
sufferings of some mothers and the dreadful deeds of 
which others have been guilty? Shall I speak of the two- 
fold crime — patricide and incest, and the name of the wife, 
son and father? How shall I speak of two hostile camps 
made up of brothers fighting against each other? What 
of so many funeral piles, and the behaviour of the 
flames? The proud parent, daughter of Tantalus, is dried 
up and cold with grief, and now, as a rock sheds her 

Lines 386-419] HERCULES FURENS. 27 

tears on the Phrygian SipylusI But Cadmus raising his 
threatening crest has left manv deep traces of his tortuous 
flieht, as ne traversed the Ulyrian plains; these records 
wiU serve as a jguide for thee f Rule as thou thinkest fit, 
whilst the traditional destinies of our kingdom summon 
thee to govern 1 


Come now, although mad with rage, put aside angry 
words and learn to obey the commands of kings from 
the example shown thee by thy own Alcides; although 
I wear a sceptre in my hands, which I have assumed as 
a conqueror, I will govern everything without any regard 
for the laws^ over which arms always possess dominion! 
Shall I now say a few words in my own behalf? Thy 
father only fell in a bloody contest. Thy brothers did 
so likewise. The law of arms admits of no stereotyped 
fashions, and the human passions evoked by the unsheatned 
sword cannot be modified to our own desires, or indeed 
repressed in any way. Blood is the normal delight of 
warriors; but thy father, thou wilt say, fought for his own 
crown, and I only fought for the wicked desire of gaining 
it .from him! The end of war seems to be the chief 
object sought for and not the cause which gave rise to it. 
But now all considerations are put aside, for, wh'en the 
conqueror lays down his arms, it is only right that the 
vanquished should throw aside any useless hatred he 
may feel towards the conqueror; nor do we require, either, 
that you should worship the one holding the sceptre on 
bended knees. But this fact does please me that thou 
shouldst accept thy downfall as thou art doing, with 
a haughtiness of aemeanour, and thus, in a manner, 
worthy of the consort of a king ; let us share, then, the 
nuptial couch! 


A cold tremor creeps over my bloodless limbs! What 
revolting utterances do now assail my ears! Indeed I 
shuddered not, when on the approach of my departed 
peace, the clang of warlike arms surrounded the city on 
all sides— I bore it all with an intrepid spirit; but at the 
thought of marriage with thee I tremble indeed ! I now 
seem to mvselC veriJy, a slave I Mv very body (ee\s 
aAready to be growing^ weary with chains, and thus may 

aS SENECA'S TR.\GEDIES. |Lin« ,>o- 

Maii protrahntur lenta, Don viacet iidem j 

Vis ulln nonram: morini, Alcidc, liui. 

LVC. Animofne merrus iaferis conjux fucit? 

UEG. Infema letigit, jiolTet, ut fupera alTequi. 

LVC. Telluris ilium pondus immenfz premit. 

MEG. Nullti prcmctur onere, qui ctelum Inlit. 

tvc Cogfre. MEG. Cogi qui poteft, nefcil mori. 

LVC. EfFare, Ihalamis quod novis polius parem 

LVC. Moriere demens? meg. Conjugi occurmin mm. 

LVC Sceptroue noflro potior efl famulus libi ! 

UEG. Quot ille famulas b-adidit reges necl ! 

LVC. Cur ergo regi fcrvit, & palitur jugum? 

HCG. Imperia dura tollc. quid virtus erit? 

LVC. Objici feris roonHrifque, vittutem pulas? 

MBC. Virlutis eft domarc, quse ciuidli pnvenl. 435 

a slow death, protracted by chronic starvation, be my fate ! 
No force shall ever change my resolution! Oh AlcidesI 
I will die thine onlyl 

Does thy husband's being hidden away ii 
gions inspire thee with tliis lofty toner 



The Earth's inirnense weight is now pressing him down. 

He who bore the heavens on his shoulders, is not 
pressed down by any present weight! 


You will be compelled by force! 


He knows not how to die, who yields 10 force'. 

Lioes 4ao-435] HERCULES FURENS. 29 


Speak, what can I prepare for you, as a regal present, 
better than a fresh marriage? 


Either thy death or mine. 


Thou wih die mad, then? 


I shall go to meet my husband. 


Slavery, then, is preferable in thy sight than to share 
my sceptre? 


How many kings has that slave, as thou termest him, 
handed over to destruction? 


Why then does he serve a king, and bear his yoke? 


Remove tyrannical commands, and what room is there 
left for the display of valor? 


Etost thou call it valor, to throw thyself in the way of 
wild beasts and monsters? 


It is valor to subdue that of which every one goes in dread. 


SENECA'S TRAGEDIES. [Lin« 436-455 

LVC. Tcnebile loqucBtem miigiuL Tartareu: [iremun). 
MEG. Nod en ad aftta mollis e lerrU via. 
LVC. Quo patie geuilus ctelitum fperat HonidsJ 
AMm. Mirerandi) conjux Herculis magai file: 
Partes meic filnl, reddere Alcldx patrem, 
Genufque verum. pod tot ingeotis viri 
MemoriDda fndla, pollque pacalum manu 
Quodcuntiue Titan ortus & labena videt, 
Poll moDftn lot perdumita, pod Phlegram impio 
Sparfam cruore, podque defenfo-i Decs, 
Nondum liquet de patre! mentimut Jovem? 
Junonis odio ctede, lvc. Quid violas Jovem! 
Morlale cicla non polcll juogi genus. 
AMPK. CummuDis ida pluribus caufa ell Deis. 
LVC. Farauline fuerant awe quam fietent Dei? 
AMPK. Pallor Pher?!os Delius pavit greges. 
I.VC Sed tion per omues exful erra%'i< pln^^. 
AUFH. Queni profuga (erra mater erranle edidii. 
LVC. Non moaHj-B, fxvBS Phrebus aut limuit feras. 
AMPU. Primuii fagittas imbuit Phabi draco. 

The shades of Tai 
forth his great deeds. 


him from heralding 


The way from Earth lo Heaven is not a soft and easy path. 

From what father 
heavenly home? 

t a sot) be horn, to aspire lo a 


Be silent, oh I miserable spouse of Hercules, it is my 
mission to give up to Alcides the name of his father and 
his true pedigree, after so many memorable achievements 
of that great man ; as Titan rose in his majestic glory 
and when he descended below the horizon Hercules saw 
every thing that boded destruction and pacified every 
thing around with his mighty arm I After the subjection 
of so many monsters— after the impious blood which 
covered the land of Phlegra following his defence of the 
Cods (the blood of the giants], does he not as yet, do 

LiDes 43«-4S5l HERCULES FURENS. 31 

you suppose, become solicitous himself respecting his 
true paternity ? Are we, do you suppose, inventing some 
lie regarding Jupiter? No I but thou canst believe without 
any misgiving in the hatred of Juno I 


Why dost thou insult Tupiter thus? a race of mortals 
cannot possibly be allied with the Gods. 


But many of the Gods are traceable to mortal origin. 


But were they slaves, before they became Gods ? 


Delius (surname of Apollo) as a shepherd fed the 
Pheraean herds. 


But he did not wander about, as an exile, through 
every country that he traversed. 


But it was he, whom his fugitive mother (Latona) left 
on a floating island (Delos). 


Did Phoebus fear monsters or wild beasts? 


PhcBbus had his arrows dipped from the very first \t\ 
the blood of the Dragon. 

32 SENECA'S TRAGEDIES. [Lin« ,s6-,». 

LVC Quam gravia, parvus tuleril, ignoras, mala? 

AMPH. E matiis ulero fulmme ejciflus puer, 

Max fulminanti proiimua palri nelit. 

Quid? qui gubemat anra, qui nubes qualil. 

Nod taluil infans rupis lasex fpecu? 46a 

Sallicila tajiti prelia naules hi^enl, 

Semperque magno conflitit, nafci Dcum. 

LVC. QuemcuDque miferum videris, horainem Idas. 

AHPII. Quemcunque forteni videris, mircniro neges. 

LVC, Forteni vocemus, cujus e» humeris leo 465 

Donum puellx faAus, & clava excidil, 

Fulfilque pidtum vefle Sidoaia latus? 

Forlcm vocemus, cujus horrcnlcs comfC 

Maduero nardo? laude qui aotas manus 

Ad non virilem lympani mnvit fonum, 47a 

Mitra feioccm barbara fronlem premens? 

AMPH. Non erubefcit Bacchus Eftufos tenet 

SpacIifTe crines, nee nianu molli levein 

VibralTe Ihyrfum, cum panim forti grodu 

Auro decorum fyrma barbarico IrahiL 475 

Pod multa virtus opera laxari folet. 

LYC. Teulhrantis hoc falelur cverii domus, 

Peconimque ritu virginum opprelTi greges. 

Hac tiulla JuHO, uullus Euryftheus jubet: 

Ipfius hccc funt opera, ampk, Non nolli omnia. 480 

Ipfiua opus eft, ciftibus fradlua fuis 

Are you ignorant of the dangers undergone by Hercules, 
when young: 


Out of his mother's womb the lightning cast forth the 
boy, and immediately that boy stood in nearest relation- 
ship to the Thundererl What nextl He who rules the 
firmament and shakes the heavens, till they tremble again 
—did he not, as an infant, lie concealed in a cave on 
the tide-worn Idasan rock? Such precious nativities as 
that of Jupiter, always entail the most anxious consider- 
ations, and it has always necessarily amounted to a matter 
of great moment, to be born a God I 

Whatever man you may have seen and delected a 
capable of misery, put that man down as belonging I 
fAe race of mortals. 

Line* 456-4«il HERCULES FURENS. 33 


You will not acknowledge then, that a man can be 
miserable, when you have had the amplest proof of his 
being a hero I 


Shall we regard that man as a hero, who removes from 
his shoulders the Nemsean Lion's skin and presents it to 
a favorite wench— who lavs aside his club, and adorns 
his side, set off with a Sidonian robe ? Shall we call that 
man a hero whose frightful locks were made moist with 
greasy perfumes and with his warlike hands keeps up a 
gleeful tattoo, as he listens to the childish jinglings of a 
tambourine, or who encircles his ferocious frontispiece 
with the mitre of a barbarian ? 


The effeminate Bacchus was not ashamed of allowing 
his locks to hang down, and dangle carelessly, like some 
dandy gendy flourishing his graceful thyrsus, whilst, with 
a by no means firm or masculine step, he sfrode along 
with a woman's train at his heels, ornamented with bar- 
barian gold trimmings (such as they wear in Phrygia 
and Lyaia)! After many conquests, you know, the most 
valorous enjoy relaxation and amusement! 


The ruined House of Eurytus bears testimony to a 
great deal and entire groups of virgins oppressed like so 
many cattle ! Juno, thou knowest full well, was not at the 
bottom of this -There was no Eurystheus concerned in 
giving any command in all that Dusiness— these were 
entirely the acts of Alcides himself I 


Thou art not acquainted with eveiything. It was cet- 
tainJr his work, when Eryx out of his rash challenge, lo 

Kryx, & Eryci juniflus Anteu* Libys. 

Et qui hofjiitiili c^e maoaJiles Inci 

Bibere juftum fungumem Buriridii. 

Ipfius opus eCl, vulneti & ttrro obvills. 

Mortem coaAus, integer CygDus, piiti : 

Nee UDUS una Geryon vidlus raatiu 

Eris inter iftos; qui lamen nullo flupto 

Lxferc Ihalamos. LYC. Quod Jovi, hoc regi lict^t; 

Jovi dedifti conjugcm, regi dabis. 

Et le magialro nan novum hoc difcet nurus, 

Etimn viro piobanle, meliorem fequi. 

Sia copidsui pertinox laxlis negatj 

Vel ex cotiAa nobilem parlum feram^ 

HEC Umbne Creontis, & penutes Labdaci, 

Et DupHaies impii tEdipodic faces, 

Nunc folita nortro tata conjugio date. 

Nunc, nuDi: cnienla: regis .Egypli nunis, 

Adeile, muUo fanguinc infeflie msDus: 

Deell uoa numero Dajiais; explebo oefss. 

LYC. Coniugia quoniam pervicnK noflra abnuis, 

Regemqae terres; fcepffa quid pofriDl, fcies. 

Compleetere aras, niUlus eripiet Dens 

Tc mihi; nee, orbe fi remolito queal 

Ad fupera vidlor Duminn Alcideii velii. 

Congerite lilvas, tempi a fupplicibus fuis 

Injefla flagrenl r conjugein & lolum gttgem 

ConTutnat unus igne fubjeflo rogus. 

AMPH. Hoc munus a le genilor Akidx pelo, 

Ragare quod me deceaC, ut primus cadam. 

LVC. Qui raorte cunftoa loere fuppHcium jidiet, 

Nefcit lyruinus elTe. diverfa irroga: 

Miferum vela perirc; felicem jube. 

Ego, dum cremandis Irabibus accrefcit rogns, 

Saero regeniem mnria vntivo colani. 

Hercules was worsted in the encounter with his o 
favorite ccestus, as atso ihe Libyan Antijeus, who vr»s 
handed over lo the same fate and whose destiny was 
linked with that of Eryx! And shall I speak of the altars 
which dripped with the gore of bidden guests and which 
altars afterwards absorbed the justly-shed blood of Busirisl 
This, too, was his work— the invulnerable Cycnus, who 
defied tlie sword and withstood the brunt of wounds, w 
compelled to die by the hands of Hercules! Nor v 
Ger>'on, the triple-bodied giant, the only one that has 
fallen by his single unaided hand, but who, oeverthel^s, 
could not plead guilty to having violated his couch with 
their adulterous machinations, and you, l.ycus, will be 
Mnoagsl the rest! 




What is lawful for Jupiter is perintssible in a kinj;! 
Thou surrendered Alcmena as a wife to Jupiter because 
he was a god, and thou shalt give Megara to me as a 
wife, because I am thy king I And she as a daughter- 
in-law will discover ihis not to be entirely a novel pro- 
ceeding, following thy example, the husband, too, finding 
this arrangement ratified, has only to go in quest of one 
more worlhv, but if she persistently refuses to join my 

' couch, I will even guarantee under compulsion, thai there J 

K^atl yet be a royal offspring by me! 

' Ohl the manes of Creonl OhI the Penates of I^b- ' 
dacus and the incestuous nuptials of the impious .^di- 
pns!— Come tell me of the invariable fatalities, which 
awaited thy betrothals 1 Come oh! thou cruel bride of 
^gyptus the king, come show me thy hands stained with 
the blood of thy husbands. One of the number of the 
Danaides in the account (Hypemnestra) and I will be 
the one to make up the complement of the wickedness 
in my own person (meantni; following the example that 
she might kill Lycus). 


Since thou obstinately refuaest to accept my hand, thou ' 
art simply trying to terrify thy king. IJost thou know 
what the sceptre enables a king to do! To destroy thy 
altars so that no God shall snatch thee from me, nor if 
the orb itself were rent in twain, would Alcides the con- 
queror be able to be carried to the Gods above with the 
entire forests massed together, and the temples with their 
worshippers thrown in, there shall form one grand con- 
flagration and one huge pile set into a blaze'shall turn 
' ilo cinders, parent and children ! 

Ih father of Alcides, I seek the privilege to demand ^ 
which becomes me, that is, may I die first. 

He who orders everj- one to expiate his crimes with ' 
death indiscriminately, scarcely understands what the 
essence of power really is; ask therefore for something 
different. To compel, for instance, the miserable to live 
with the view of acquiring happiness I, whilst the burning 
pile ETOws larger and larger, with the combustibles for 
the destruction of the temples, will subscribe my worship 
to the God of the seas, and obsene the fiacred vow&J 
which J hare registered. 


rumma, proh ctrlelliuni 
Reclur pnrenrquc, cujus encuffis 
Humana telis, impiam regU feri 
Compefce dexiram. Quid Dcos frullra prccor? 
Ubicuoque ea, audi, nale. Cur Tubito libonl 
' '" ■ '.eoipla? cur mugit rolum? 

bnuit e fuDito fragoc. 
: CD, ea fonitus Herculei gradus. 


15 partes Chorus ofliciunique viriliter defenilil, precibus 
AmphilryonU afpirans Herculis redilum vovet, 
iitqui; arguk Orphei exemplo. 


V / FORTiiNA viris invida forlibas, 

QuBtn nou a^qna boniE praemia (tividis! 
EurytUieus facili regncl in olio: 
Alcmena geninis bella per omnia 
Monftris exagitel ccEiiferam manum: 
Serpenlis refecel colla feracia: 
Deceplis referat mala fororlbus, 
Cum romno dedcril pervigilcs genas 
Pomis diritibas prxpofitus diaco. « 
Intravit Scythix multEvagas dotnos, 
El: genlu palriis fedibui horptlas: 
Calcavitque Treli terga rigenCia, 
Kt mulis taciturn litoribus mare. 
Illtc dura caient xquoca fluiflibus; 
Et, qua plena rates carbafa tenderanl, 
Intunfis teritur remita Sanniili:>. 
Slat ponlus vicibus mobilis annuls, 
Navem nunc facilis, nunc equitem pati. 
Illic qutc viduia gentibui [mperal, 
Aantla religans ilia balleo, 
Detranit fpotium nob lie corpori, 
El pellam, & nivei vlncula pe<£loris, 
Viiftorem poll to Turpi ciens genu. 
Qua fpe pirecipiles aiflus ad inferox, 
Audax ire vias irremeabiles, 
Vididi Slculse regna Proferpioie? 
lUic nulla Nolo, nulla Favonio 
ConfurguQt lumidis fluiflibus tcquora. 
Non illic geminum Tyodarida; genus 


Oh! Chief sovereign of the Gods I Oh, the Ruler and 
Parent of Heaven's inhabitants, at whose missiles all 
human things tremble, arrest the impious right arm of 
t/ij's ferocious kingl Why do 1 enUeai rtit Gooa in vain 3 

And wherever thou art, OhI Son!— Why do the temples 
trembling with motion suddenly totter?— Why is the eartn in 
a state of tremulousness? An infernal crash sounds too, 
now as if coining from the lowermost depths! We are 
heard '. it is— ll is certainly the sound of footsteps announc- 
Bfng the arrival of Hercules! 

le chorus valiantly espouses the parts of the actors and 
their performance, and joining in the solicitations of 
Amphitryon, prays for the relief of Hercules and 
evinces it in imitation of Orpheus. 
Vh! Fortune jealous of the brave, what unequal lots 
f do you award to the deserving? Eurystheus may 
continue his reign, in uninterrupted tranquillity. 
Jhe son of Alcmena in all his encounters will only exer- 
~^ his heaven-lifting hands upon horrible monsters, he 
y cui off the heads of the Hydra as they continue lo 
rappear— he may tell the story of the golden apples. 
ticn he took from the disappointed Hesperides (sisters) 
Irhen the dragon, set to guard them, abandoned its watch- 
Till eyes, to a heavy sleep 1 He penetrated amongst the 
wandering tribes of Scythm, and races who appeared like 
strangers even in their own lands, he has trampled on 
the frozen surface of the seas, and the shores thereof 
giving forth no sound. (The waters being frozen, no waves 
could flow.) And where sailing crafts had stretched out 
full set sails, the paths are now traversed by the chariots 
of the hirsute Sannatian (who lets his hair and l>eard 
grow undisturbed as a symbol of Liberty.) The sea 
mobile one portion of the year is frozen during the other. 
(Following the seasons.) At one time affording scope for 
the floating crafts, at another, doing duly for the mounted 
traveller.— ITi ere, she who commands Ine haughty Ama- 
zons, engirdling her loins with her golden belt, detaches 
this noble ornament from her person, and the shield 
which she carries and the gorgeous chains which bang 
down over her snow-white bosom, gazing veneratingly 
t the conqueror on her bended knees. By what encolir- 
■png hop^ was Hercules inspired, when he descended 
I the bottomless steeps of the infernal regions, daring 
9 traverse, as he did, along the path, whence notoriously, 
D return is ever looked for! Hast thou ever contem- 
lated in iby mind's eye, the Kingdom of Sicilian Pro- 
Tpine. (Pluto carried her off froin Sicily. 1 There, no 
Hilheily winds do blow, there the sea surges with no 
rollen waves, at the advent of welcome Zephyrs.— There 
i guidii^ )iffht of Tn-in Tyndaridx (Castor and PoUiii) 


38 SENECA'S TRAGKOIES. |Un« „,-i^, 

Succuminl limidis fidcra navibus. 

Slat iiig;rD pelagus gurgiic knguidiim ; 

El, cum Mors avidb palliila denlibiia JJJ 

Centn innuTnems Manibux intulil, 

Udo tol populi remige tranrcunL 

RvincRS utmam jura tene Slygis, 

Parcarumque colos iion revoculiiles ! 

Heic, qui rex populis pluribus impernt, 560 

Bello cum peteres NefloreBin Pylon, 

Tecum confeniit peflifeias manus, 

Telum tergemiDa curpidc pricrereiis; 

Effugii lenui vulnere Tancius, 

Et morlis dominus pertimuit mori. jfij 

Falum rumpe manu: irinibus Inferis 

ProfpeiVus palest lucis, & inviiis 

Limei del facilK ad fuperus vias. 

Iramites potuit flcAere cnnlibus 

Umbrarum domiiioE, K piece fupplid JJB 

Orpheus, Eurydicen dum repetit ruam. 

QuEE filvas, & avcE raxaqlie traiemt 

Ars, qux prxbuerat Huminibus moras; 1 

Ad cujus ronitum iquftiteranl fefic; 

Mulcet nan folilis vocibua inferos, 5)15 

Et funlis reronnt claiius in locls. 

I)el1cnl Eorydicen Thteiciie nucus, 

Deflenl & lacrimis dillicites Dei; 

E^ qui fronte nimis uimina letricn 

Qufsruilt, ac velerci^ excutiuiil reos, jSa' 

Flcules EurydicED Juridici r»leDI. 

'I'andem mortis, ail, vincitnur, arbiter; 

Kvnde nd fuperos; lege Inmen data: 

Tu pod terga lui perge viri comes; 

Tu Don ante tuam refjiice coniugcm, 58$ 

Quam cum clara Deos obtulciit ilies, 

Spattanique aderil janua Ticnnri. 

Cklit verus atnor, uec palilur, moras. 

Muiius, dum prapcral cemere, pet<1i<lil. 

(^ure vJQci potait regin caulihus S90 

Msn: vinci polerif regia viribus 



Scilem ccierofque Deos prccatur vcniam Hercules, quod 
jufTus Ccrbenim fupCTis invirum Iranerir. 

Vw^ LUCIS alme reflor, & cceli decuA, 
Qui alterua curtu fpatia flammifero ambiens, 

ofTere no aid to the liinid mariner !— The sea, there, stands 
;int like some black gulf— and when pa\t; Mots with 

u^« 5„_5,3l HERCULES FURENS. m 

her devouring grasp, conducis her countless victims to join 
the Manes, the numberless passengers pass over piloted 
by a sohtary steersman (Charon) !— I wish that you could 
break down the unrelenting laws of cruel Styx, and that 
the distaff of the Parc-e might be deprived of its mission. 
Here again, when you went to war against Nestorian 
Pylos, the King Pluto who rules over the numberless 
Manes, turned his pestiferous hands against thee, carrying 
in his advance, his three-pointed lance and when suffer- 
ing only from a slight wound he fled, and the proud 
president of Mors was afraid to die himself!— Break 
through the decrees of fale with thy strong arm, let the 
prospect of approaching light show itself to those dark 
abodes, and may those impassable ways offer a ready 
passage to places above I Orpheus was wont to subdue 
the implacable rulers of the Manes, with his melodious 
incantations and humble praj'ers, when he sought for his 
Eur>-dice;hewhose lyre enchanted the woods, the feathered 
creation and the very rocks which hitherto had arrested 
the flow of rivers— at whose notes, the wild beasts stood 
amazed ! He soothed the infernal inhabitants, with 
sounds to which they were quite unaccustomed, where 
indeed all was dread silence! for his lyre sounded even 
with more mellifluous clearness where silence prevailed. 
The daughters of Thrace bewailed the loss of Eurydice, 
and the Gods who are not much addicted to tears wept 
alsol At last! that arbiter of Death exclaims, "We are 
conquered!" Go thou back to the regions above, but 
with this understanding, diat thou, Eurydice, accompanied 
by thy husband, shall walk behind him, and thou, Orpheus, 
shall not turn thy eyes to gaze behind thee, before the light 
of dav appears, which the Gods will have afforded and the 
portals of Spartan Trenarus shall be opened! True love 
nates and does not brook delay, and whilst Orpheus in his 
eagerness to look back at his spouse, lets go his chance and 
violates his vow, and Eurydice disappears. What a royal 
mind could be constrained to do by the force of harmoni- 
ous sounds, that same royal mind could be fully subdued 
(backed up by the strength of a Hero like HerculesI 
I ACT in. 


Hercules asks for the pardon of Phcebus, and the rest of 
the Gods, that although having been commanded, he 
had dragged the hateful Cerberus to the regions above. 

OH ! beneficent Ruler of the Light and Ornament of 
Heaven, who in describing thy circuit in tliy flame- 
be^iring chariot showest thy illustrious countenance 




illuftre lielis exftris letiis capin, 
Da, Phccbe, veninm, (1 quid illicitum tui 
Vulere vuttus. julTus in laceni extuli 
ArcuiA mundi. luque carlenQin nibiler 
PareurqDC, virus fulmine oppofito lege; 
Et lu lecundo morta qui rceptro regis, 
Imns ptle undas, quifquis ex olio lupicit 
TcrrcDa, facie poUui meluens oova, 
Aciem refle^al, oraijue in ciclum erigat, 
PortcniH fugieiui, hoc nefos cernant iluo, 
(jut idveiit, & (|nE jufliL In pipnas meas, 
Alque in labores noa Talis leme pntenl. 
JuaODJ! odia vidi iuaccena omnibus, 
Ignotn PiicEbo; quxque delcrior polu» 
Obfcura diro fpiUla conceflit Jovi. 
El H placercDl tcrtix fortis loca, 
kcgnare polui ; noflis Kemic chaos, 
Kt nofle quiddam gravius, & lri(l« Deos, 
El fata vici, morte conlemta redii. 
Quid rellal aliud? vidi & oftendi inferos. 
Da, fi quid ultra eft. lam diu poteris manus 
CelTnre nostras, Juno? quid vinci jubes? 
Sed templa quarc miles infeDus tenet? 
Limeniiue facruin terror nrmorum obfideP 


Ilcrculem reducem gratalur Amphitryon, illi quxrenti Dsirat, 

quo in loco re;, finl. dum Hercules proficifcituT ad 

Qccidendum Lycum, Thefeus rogalUB ab 

.•\mphiiryone cxponii, quw apud 

inferos gellrril Hercules. 


lis vola decipiunt m 
An ille domilor orbls, & Grajflm decus, 
Trifti fileulem nubilo Uquit domum? 
Ellne ille nalus? membra Ixtilia ftupcnl. 
O oalel certa & [era Thebanim falusi 
Teneone in auras edllnm; an vann fnior 
Deccptus umbraP tune rs? agnorco toros, 

to each hemisphere ahematelv and sheddest the splend- 
our of thy ray^ upon the gladsome earth! Oh! Phcebus, 
grant me thy pardon, if what has been revealed to the 
eyes of mortals has been brought into thy sight - obeying 
my orders, I have drawn forth the hidden secrets of the 
regions below; and oh! thou arbiter and parent ofceles- 

^' tial subjects yupiter), protect my mortal gaxe, fix>m the 
lightning to which it is exposed; and thou, the Ruler of 
the seas (Neptune;, with thy sceptre, which is the second 
in rank, hie thee to the lowermost oceanic depths; who- 
soever on hieh beholds the things on earth, and fears 
-being defiled by the visage of this newly imported 
monster, let him cast aside nis apprehensions; by avert- 
ing his gaze, and raising his face towards Heaven, avoid 
air mental association with monsters! There are two, 
however, who may indulge in viewing it, he who carried 
it forth, and she, who gave the orders for it to be done. 
And as if there were not sufficient on this earth, to be 
turned towards ray punishment and increase my labore, 
I have seen, owing to Juno's persecuting hatred, things 
unknown to Phu:bus himself, and those obscure regions 
in space, which 'the Antarctic pole gives up to the dommion 
of tnat cruel Plulo (called also Jupiter Dirusl; if it had 
suited my fancv to have accepted the lot of a Triumvir 
I could have taken Pluto's place and ruled m>'self in thai 
third kingdom ! I have overcome the chaos of F^temal 
Night and something more terrible than night— bodi the 
cruel Gods and the Kales themselves! I return as the 
very conqueror of IJeath itselfl What is there now for 
me to dor I have seen and made kno»*n the secrets of 
Hell; tell me, if there can be anything beyond all this? 
How long, Juno, wilt thou permit my hands to cease from 
such labors? What art thou now ordering to be con- 
quered by me, Juno? AVhy does the temfying soldier 
mount guard at the portals of thy temples: And why 
does the clang of arms with the natural dread of military 
weapons take possession of their sacred thresholds? (De- 
lerring the worshippers from entering them, out of fear.) 



f It 7H1CH is it? Is it the realization of my fondest 
Vy desire, or merely some passing phantasy playing 
tricks with my distorted vision' Is it the con- 
queror of the world, and the proud ornament of the 
Grecian race? Has he really quitted the dark abodes 
of the Manes, where all is solemn silence? Whence has 
he sprung? Is this my son? My very limbs and senses 
are overpowered with ioy! Oh my son, thou tardy but 
not the less cerUin salvator of unhappy Thebes! Do I 
merely seem to be holding on to thee m the air, or art 
thou really Hercules in the Hesh again? Or is it, thai I 


IFumcroriiue, & alio nobilem truaco monum. 

KEKC. Unde ille, gentlor, Tquallor. & lugubribus 

Aniiifin conjux? unde Inm fedo obfiti 

PEcdorc nati? qax domuni clades gravat? 

AMPH. Socet ell peremlus: legua poflirdit I.ycus: 

Nato^ poreulcm, conjugem lelo petit. 

tll!HC. IngralB lellus^ nemo oil llerculex dcimu-s 

Auxilia venil? vidit hoc taulum tiefns 

Defenfus orbis? cur diem quedu lero? 

Madletar bodia. THES. Hanc r^ral vinus milnin, 

Fialque fummus haflis AlcidK Lycus? 

Ad haurienduni faDguinem inimkum frror. 

HKKc Thefeu, refiftc; ne qua vis Tuliila iiigrual. 

Me betia pofcuDL. didcr amplexus pnreu^, 

Conjuxque differ: nuntiel [)iti I.ycus 

Me jam rediffe. THES. Flebileoi ei oculis fuga 

R^ina vultum: tuque oato forpile 

Lacrimas cadenles repriioe: II nuvi Ilerculem, 

Lycn5 Creonti debita.^ pieuas dnbil; 

Leulum eft, dabil; dni; hoc quotjuc eft Icnlum; ile 

AMPH. Votum fecUDtleC. qui polell^ noflrum l)eus, 

Rebufque lapfis adfiL. O iiiagtii comes 

Magnanime naij, pandc virtulum orflinem : 

Quara loDga mieAos ducat ad Manes via:, 

Ut vincia lulerit dura Tartnreus couis, 

TiiES. Memorare cogis aAa, fccuric quoquc 

Ilorrenda menti: vix adhuc Genu eft Mrx 

Vilalis aurx: torpet acies luiniuum. 

Ilehelefque vifu-i vix diem fcruiil. 

am under ihe influence of some spell or ridiculous Ghosl? 
Art thou Hercules? I recognize thy brawny muscles, 
thy massive shoulders and inose formidalile arms, with 
which thou alone couldsl wield that enormous ciiib thou 
art now carrying! 

Oh ! iny father, How have all these lugvibrious surroundings 
been brought about? .And my wile, too, attired in tnoum- 
in^ habiliments! How is that my children are covered 
with dirt and clad in filthy rags? What dreadfu! calamity 
oppresses my home? 


Thy father-in-law is slain— l.ycus has possessed himself 
of the Kingdom and he is seekiny; lo take the lives of 
tSy children, ihy father and thy wite ! 



Ungrateful Earth! Has no one come to the aid of I he' 
oppressed home of Hercules? And has that orb, which 
1 nave defended, looked on at such atrocious crimes with 
indifference? tiul why should I lose lime in eniply 
cnmplaintsr The enemy must be sacrificed! 

Will thy acknowledged valor permit of such a report, 
and that Lycus is to lie honored and magnified, and to 
be held up as a most important enemy of Alcides? No! 
1 am the one destined to shed his hostile blood! 


Stop. Theseus! Let there be no sudden attack made 
by thecl Matters require me to do all the fighting part 
of this business. Defer your embraces for the present, 
oh! my parent, and my wife defer them too, 1 pray! 
Let Lycus himself make it known to Pluto, that I have 
returned ! 


Oh Queen ! banish that doleful expression from thy 
eyes, and do thou with thy son, here in safety, repress 
those falling tears. If I know any thing of Hercules, 
Lycus will suffer due punishment for the slaughter of 
Creon: to say he will l)e punished is a dull idea! he is 
lieing punished! that loo is an inademiale conception, as 
to his deserts! Death was too good for him! 

Our propitious iJeiiy, who is able to do it, will favor 
our prayers, and will he present in this, our affliction 1 
oh! magnanimous comrade of my illustrious son, place 
before me some description of his valorous deeds; tell 
ine bj- what tedious route he went, in order to reach 
those sorrowful Manes in the regions below I and how the 
dog of Tartarus was made to submit to that terrific force, 
thai must have been brought to bear in order to effect 
his subjection! 

Thou art really forcing me to relate scenes, and acts. 
which are heart-rending, even to a mind that is freed 
from all apprehension of danger — I have now scarcely 
any confidence in myself, even whilst 1 am breathing the 
invigoraun^ air of mother earth, once more— The keenness 
of my vision is obscured, and my weakness of sight is 
such, that I tolerate with difficiillv the un.K customed lighl 
of day I 


MeinmilTe dulce eft. fare cnfus horri 

THES, Fas otane raundi, tequc dominnnlem precor 

Regno capoci; leque, quam tola irriln 

QuEcfivit Mtaa maiefi ut jura sbdita 

Et ogwrta lerria, liceal impune doqui. 

RparUtia lelius uobile altoltit jugum, 

Denfis uhl xquor Teenanls filvi^ premU: 


1 fotvi 


vin doD 

Hialque rupes alia, & itninenru fpeeu 
liigens vorogo faucibus VBl\i!i patel, 
Lalumquc pnndil amnibtis popuUs \ler^ 
Non cEEca lenebrU incipil primo via: 
Tenuis reliiflx lucis a trtgo nitor. 
FuIgonjuB dnbius foils affticfti isdil, 
K[ ludit aciem. uoAe Tie mixta folet 
FnEbere lumen primas aul ferufi dicK 
Hinc ampla vacuis fpatin laumlur locis, 
Id qux omtle inerfum percal humanum geiiui. 
Nee ire labor ell, ipfa deducil via: 
Vt fxpe puppe« icflus invitas rapit; 
Sic pronua aer urget alque avidum chaos: 
GraduTiii)ue retro Heiflere haud uiu|uain ftouDl 
UmbriE teuaces. inius innnenfi finus 
Placido quieta labitur Lethe vado, 
Demitque curas: Dcve remenndi omplius 
Palest facuIlBi, (letibus multis gravcm 
Involvit anrneTD. quails incnta vagus 
Mxoiider uiida ludit, & cedil fibi, 
Indolque: dubius, lilns an foiitem petal, 
Palus iuertis fietia Cucyli jacet; 
Hie vulmr, illic lu^ifcr bubo geniit, 
Omenque Irillc refonai iafauftce Itrigis; 

Sti6e, Theseus, whatever fears may still be lurking in 
the recesses of thy raagnaninioua soul and do not deny 
thyself the fullest heart-felt joy, at the happy resiut 
of^ thy labors. What has been hard to endure is 
sometimes pleasing lo remember! even to speak of the 
most dreadful misfortunes! 

I entreat all the recognized deities of the skies above, 
and 1 pray thee, Pluto, who rulest paramount in f~ 
capacious kingdom, and thee, Proserpine for whom t 

Lines 6S4-M81 HERCULES FURENS. 45 

mother sought and how vainly in the territories of yEtna, 
(Proserpine had been carried off by Pluto, whilst collecting 
flowers) that I mav be p)ermitted. without a vote of censure 
for speaking of tne powers hidden, and mysteries shut 
up in the lower regions of the earth— The land of Sparta 
boasts of a famous mountain, where Taenarus overhangs 
the sea, with its dense forests and casts a shade on the 
waters beneath. Here the domains of relendess Pluto 
point out a passage and the lofty jutting promontory 
gapes with a wide aperture, and a huge gulf bearing 
down to an immense cavern, opens, as it were, its vora- 
cious, terrible throat and lays bare that broad way traversed 
by the numerous peoples of this earth, on their road to 
the regions below. At first, the path only begins to 
grow dull from the comparative darkness, a slight glimmer 
of light only remaining behind, which is sncd by the 
more oblique solar rays, but these rays, at length, lose 
all pretensions to brigntness when puzzled Phcebus con- 
tenas in vain with the circumambient medium (a modified 
twilight) and which deceives the vision as regards range 
and accuracy, just as that light does^ which is the result 
of night intermingling with the light of early Dawn or 
expinng Day!— (The Poet here Sludes to that short 
interval, the very incipient stage, when Phcebus and Phoebe 
are changing their chariots— out identifies his twilight 
as permanent with that which is only sadder and short- 
lived!) Thus then with this admixture of night, the rising 
and setting day, doles out its modicum ofillumination. 
— Here, immense spaces are set free in various directions, 
in which all the human race merging thereto are destined 
to perish! Nor is it a difficult task to enter there, the 
patn itself conducts you, and as the furious tides divert 
the unwilling steersman, as he struggles with his craft, so 
with an irresistible air and devouring gloom, they are 
urged on in their downward course as the grasping snades 
never permit a retrograde step to be taken— Within, silent 
Lethe flows, with a placid stream, in an extensively 
circuitous course, and removes all human cares, nor is 
there my possibility left open for a return, for Lethe 
difiiises herself, as a river with numberless windings, just 
as the wandering Meander sports, with her precarious 
streams she yielas to her own uncertainty, knowing not 
whether to approach the shore or return to the great, 
great sea!— Here are the foul marshy shores of the 
sluggish Coc3ftus— here the vulture— there the common owl 
mves forth its plaintive cry, and the air resounds with 
the sad notes of^that disaster-foreboding bird, the screech- 
owl! -The black leaves 073 the dusky branches Yiangmj 
from the yew trees round about, are horrible to be\\o\d, 

SlerilLs profundi vaflilas TqaalM foli, 
Et f<nla Icllos torpet xtnuo liln; 
Renumgne micfliii lioU & maiidi ullimji: 
InoDOtm aer hziTt; ft pien> Tcdel 
Noi itn iDDDdo. cunifta Dnmne hoirida, 
Ipfaqne mone prjoi t(i Monti Incus. 
AMTH. Quid, ille opaca qui tegil fceplro lo 
Q»4 fede pofilus lempciu populos leva! 
THES. En in recelTu Tanari obfcuro locus. 
Quein giBvibus lunbri^ fpifla caligo alligaL I 
A foDlc difcoTi Duuial hinc uno Ulcv; 
Alter, quioo rimjlis, (huDC juianl Ute'i) 
Taceote ficnun derehtns flavio Styga: 
At hie Inmultu i^ilui ingenti ferox. 
Et faiu fluftu Tolvit Acheron luvins 
Renavieari. cingilnr dnpltci rado 
AdTcrTB Dilis r^iiL, atque ingem domus 
Cmbraiile luco tegitur; hie vaHo fpeco 
Pendeol lyranni liinina: hoc umbris iter; 
Hxc porta reEi*'i camptu banc circa Jacet. 
In quo fuperbo dig«rit vullD fedcns 

those trees which possess the power of i 
slup^nsh sleep— there, sad hunger is j 

gapings_ '-""-"" 't "T"iiir ijgiiii 



There are no rejoicing meads— no semblance of germin- 
ation— nothing havinj! any pretensions to verdure, nor does 
the ripe corn float in the Zephyr's breeze— no orchards 
containing trees with fruit-laden branches. The sterile 
expansiveness of the earth below is hideous to behold, 
and the foul soil is actually torpid from its, never-changing 
condition (stagnation). There, is experienced some idea 
of the sorrowful end of things and the finale of all else 
mundane! There, the air itself stands in a dead, dead 
calm, and perpetual black night settles down in this 
sorrowful region— all things are rendered horrible in their 
aspect of grief, and the abode of Mors is more appalling 
than Death itself! 


TeU me about him who governs those dark abodes 
subject to his sceptre. On what sort of a throne does he 
' 'raself, who rules over such helpless liinid 


There i 

which thit _ . . 

blackness I Here, from this one source is a double, but 
yet one representing two different streams, one similar to 
the quiet river to which it leads, directing with its silent 
course, the sacred Styx; this is the river, by which the 
Gods are wont to swear— The other is the Acheron, but 
this fierce river is hurried onwards wilh tremendous 
roaring sounds and carries away huge rocks, with its 
impetuosity, rendering itself impassable either to or fro! 
The Palace of Phito opposite is surrounded by a double 
ford, and the huge habitation is hedged in by a shady . 
grove! Here, at ihe mouth of an immense cave, hang 
dowD tremendous rocks, forming the roof of the threshold 
of the Tyrant Pluto— This, too, is the way to the Manes, 

this is the gate of his Kingdom. Around this lies a vast 
plain in which, sitting w/Si a proud v/sage, he receives 
jad airaages about the soalsj as soon as they arrive. 

- RnafliTiiinlus illo; ■ITielidis hoc audit loi 
<Juod ijuifquc fecit, patilur: auiflorem fee 
Repelit, fuoque preroilur eicmplo ooci 
Vidi cruEDlas carceie includi duces, 
Et impotenlis terga plebeja mana 
Sciadi lyranni. Quisquis ell placidc potel 
Doniinufqua vils fervat inncjcuas mm 
El incrueatum mitis imperium re^t, 
Animicquc porcit: longa permenfus d 
Felicis xvi Tpalia, vel ccclum peliL 
Vel liela felii neoiutia Elyfii loca, 
Judex futurus. Sanguine humano abflinc. 
Quicunque rcgnas. fcelera. taxoiilur modn 
Majorc veHra. amph. Certus inclufos 
Locus nocentesf ulqne text fama, imp 
Supplicia vindis ficva perpetuis domatit? 

Cervice fasum grande Sjfyphia fedel. 

There is a dreadful look of majesty 
face, which, nevertheless, bears the 

brothers, Jupiter and Neptune, and 
his Rodly onpin— The countenance i 
only that look which Jupiter puts 

lightninKS 1— A prwit narr nf tk,<, r, 


nevertheless, which would have been justly owing i 
them? Who is this Judge who seeks for the truth, and i 
who, the dispenser of Justice? 


^V Not one judge only sits on the lofty judgment seat, and 
^■'posses his sentences upon the trembling prisoners. In 
that court sits the Gnossian Minos; in another Rlmda- 
manthus, the father-in-law of Thetis, hears cases too, and 
each criminal suffers for the offences which he has com- 
mitted. The crime is traced to the author and the guilt' 
Ut one is chastised according to his acts — I have seen ' ' 
^k'tbtrsiy Kings shut up in dungeons, and the back _. _.._ 
^^ cowardly tyrant cut and slashed by one of the lowest 
^T rabble! Whoever rules with moderation and restrains his 
hands from committing injustice, as the arbiter of the lives 
and desrinies of others, and reigns with mildness, avoiding 
the unjust shedding of blood, and who is sparing of the 
lives of his subjects, having thus passed through an 
extended period of a happy career, is either a candidate 
for Heaven, or is happy m the thought of enjoying some 
gladdening refuge in the Groves of Eiysiuml buch a 
man as that, for example, is reserved to act as the judge 
of mankind; and whoever thou art, who reignest above 
all, abstain from the shedding of human blood, for thy 
crimes are only punished in a more severe manner, if 
thou dost so I 

I Does an appointed place hold the guilty, as prisoners? 
td as report goes, do they ullerly crush out the spirits 
the offenders for their cruel sins, by loading them 
Ui perpetual chair"* 
There, Oiat wretched Ixion— the father of the Centaurs. 
is caught up, and spun round on a swiftly rotating wheel 
which never stops in its whirling! An enormous rock, 
in another place. i)erpetually rests on the head of 
il One old man (Tantalusl eagerly chases the 
mid-slream, and il recedes from him. )USl a^ \\e \S 

M Pill TR VON. 

c ferval Dirinem cultu S: nfpcflu horrUII 
Pnvidofque Manes fquallidus gedat fcii 
Impexa pendel bnrba, dcfoniiem fmum 
Nodus coerce), concavie luccnl ceno:, 
Regit ipfe coalo ponitor louga laleni : 
Hie onere vacuam lilori puppiro applit 
Repeiebat umbras; pofcit Alcides viam 
Cedeule turba: dims exclamst Ch^Lcon, 
Quo ]wrgis audax? fide properanlem graduml 
Nod palTus ullos luilus AlcmeDa moras, 
Ipfo couflum navilam conlo domat, 
Sculditque puppem. cymba populorum capax 
Snccubuit uni. fedil, & ^avior rulis 
Utrinque Lethen latere titubanti tiJbil. 
Tunc viifla tiepidaat monllra, CeotauiH tnicn, 
l-apithzque tnulto id bella rucceaH mero. 
StygiiE pnludia ultimos quKreoi linus, 
Fcecuuda mergit capita Lemcuus lobos. 
Pan ha;c avaii Ditis apparet domui: 
Hie frems umbras lernlal Stygius cnnis, 
(Jul triau vallo capita conculiens foiio 
Kegnum tuelur: fordidum tnlio caput 
Lainbunt culubric: vipcris horreDl juhit: 
Lougufque (urta Tibilat cauda dracri; 


i Now tell me all ahoul this elorious struggle of my son 
Srith Cerberus) ; does he allude to it as a token of regard 

fom his Uncle (Pluto); or does he speak of it merely 

s one of the spoib of war: 

I A dismai-looking rock overhangs the tardy stream; the 
laier on alt sides in this part of the Styx is more or 
"s quiescent, but here the channel is slow and sluggish, 
_.i here a dirty old man, horrid to behold as regards hia 
ippearance and manner, takes charge of this portion of 
the river, and pilots the trembling Manes from one part 
of the stream to another— his uncombed beard hangs 
down, and a careless bandage keeps together around his 
person his slovenly garments, his hollow cheeks are 
flushed and he, as the sole ferryman, guides his craft 
with a long pole— Here, steering his craft on its back- 
ward journey, without a passenger, he seeks the shore 
again for a fresh cargo. Alcides demands a passage 
across— a crowd of temtied Manes make way for him; 
the dreadful Charon shouts out: "Where art thou going, 
bold man? Stay thy hurrj-ing progress." Not brooking 
any delay or interruption, the Son of Alcraena, with a 
blow from his own pole quails the obstinate old waterman, 
and jumps into the craft, but this said craft unaccus- 
tomed to accommodate so many passengers at a time, 
sinks quite low with the weight of one i that one Hercules ! 
He sits down and the frail craft being so much more 
loaded than with its ordinary freight, rolls from side to 
side and ships the Stygian water, as it flows over the 
gunwale 1 Then the van<iuished monsters are all in a 
tremble, ihe cruel Centaurs, and the dastardly Lapithx 
who never ventured upon a battle, unless duly primed 
with plenty of winel And the Hydra of Lerna itself 
seeks some of the distant recesses of the Stygian Marsh, 
and in a slate of trejjidation, submerges its repuUulating 
headl After all this the habitation of the avaricious 
Pluto comes in sight and here it is, that the cruel monster, 
the Dog Cerberus, terrifies the Manes excessively.^and 
it is this said monster, which with its three heads and a 
bark like thunder itself, guards these Stygian realms of 
I'luto— snakes lick his head, foul with the rankest poison, 
and the crests of those vipers are horrifying to Ewhold, 
and a long dragon with its tortuous tail hisses savagely, 
■b anger being on a par with its ii^'liiiess, as it suspected J 


Far ira, furm.-e. (eafil ul motus pedum, 
Atlollil hirlos uigue vibrato comas, 
MifTumque espial aurc fnbieifla fonum, 
Sentire & umbras foUtus. ut proprior netU 
love natus, antro fedit incenus canis, 
Et ulerque limuit. eccc, latralu e™"' 
I^ca niuta terret, fibilal lotos miunx 
Serpens per annos ; vocis hon^nilx frigor 
Per ora miflus leriia fclices quoquc 
Exterret umbras, folvit a lieva feros 
Tunc ipfe ridtuK, & Cleoa^eam caput 
Opponit, ac fe tcgmine iogenli cicpit : 
ViArice magnum deitcra tobur gereoB, 
Hue nunc & illuc verbere affiduo rotat, 
Ingeminat ifius. domitus infrcgil minas, 
Et curnfln lalTus capita rubmifil canis, 
Amroque loto celTil. extimuit fcdeos 
Ulerque folio dominus, & dnci jubel: 
Me quoque pelenti muDus Alcidx dedit. 
Tunc gravio. monllii colla permuLcens manu 
Adamanle texlo viQcit. oblitus fui 
Cuftos opaci pervigil regtii CDDiti 
Cotnponit aures limidus; & paliens trahi, 
llerumque falTus, ore fubmilTo ubfequens 
lltrumque cauda pulfat anguifera Itttua 
Poftquam ell ad oras Txnari venlum, & nilor 
Percuflil oculos lucis ignoix, navos 
ReAimit aninios viuflus, S: vados furens 
QuafTat caleoas: pene vi^orem nbHulil, 
Pmnumque retro vexil, S movil gradu. 
Tunc & meas refpextt Alctdes mnnus: 
Geminii utcrque viribus tro^tum can em 
Ira forentem, & bclla lentanlem irrila, 
Intulimus orbi. vidit ut clarum letheia, 
El pura nitidi fpalia coDfpexil poll, 
Oborta noi ell, luniina in terram dedit, 
Compreffit oculos, & diem invirum espulit, 
Aciemque retro flexit, mque omni peliil 
Ccrvice tenant; turn fab Herculea caput 
Ablcondit umbra. Denfa fed liEto veuil 
Clamore turlia, Troatibus laurum gerens, 
Magnique meritas Ilerculis lauden canJl. 


the sound of appro^chitig foolsleps; ihe ciragon moving 
in a vibratorj' manner, Cerberus bristles up his shagE>' 
locks and endeavours with subverted ear to Cittch the 
sound so novel to him, being accustomed onlj; to tlie 
gentle timid tread of the Manes 1 As the son of Jupiter 
stood up, the Dog crouched in his den, with his conlidence 
somewhat shaken, and the pair of them seem t-cared at 


U«* jiv-s.^, HERCULES FURENS. 

each other's presence! When, behold I he suddeniy startles 
the silent place; the dragon hissing menacingly, whilst 
Cerbenis shakes his very sides with the prodigious efforts 
he had made, and at last a horrible crashing sound sent 
forth simultaneouslv from his three heads, frightens the 
Manes also; then Hercules, removes the Nemean Lion's 
skin from his shoulders, and winds it round the fierce 
jaws of Cerberus, and with that huge covering serving as 
a buckler, Hercules protects himself at the same time.— 
Hercules, then carrj-ing in his conquering right hand his 
fermidable club, wnirls it round right and left, dealing 
lllows incessantly. Cerberus groans again at the reception 
jof these blows, and betne cowed abandons his menacing 
^attitude, and the Dog droops his three heads, in token 
of submission and gives up the possession of his den! 
The dual Potenlates. Pluto and Proserpine, sitting on 
ttieir throne, were utterly scared, and ordered Cerbenis. 
lo be led away, and myself to be delivered up to Alcides. 
who demanded my release, as an offering of^submission I 
Then, Hercules, stroking the hideous neck of the monster, 
secured it with a chain of adamantine strength, and that 
watch^jog, the jEUardian of the dark kingdom, drooped 
his ears timidly and suffered himself to be led away, 
and acknowledging his conquering master with a down- 
trodden look, he submissively naps his sides with his 

ra^n-moimted tail! After this, we neared the entrance 

f Tainanis, and the glare of the approaching light, 

altogether unknown to him, troubled nis eyesight, and 

although bound as he was, he Ijeean to evince symptoms 
of his old ferocity, and furious at his imprisonment rattled 
his chains defiantly— in fact, he nearly got the better of 
the conqueror and succeeded in urging him backwards 
in a headlong manner and began to accelerate his pace, 
thinking that he had gained his liberty, and then Alcides 
summoned my aid to the rescue, and each of us putting 
out our united strength, and dragging on the cnonster in 
a lowering rage at having made so futile an attempt to 
cope with us Tor the mastery, we at length brouglit bim 
to Mother Earth! .\nd as he beheld the clear atmosphere 
aroimd, and as he stared at the luminous portions o( the 
lieautiful sky, for his night was over, and he now had 
onlv the upper earth to look upon, he closed his eyes, 
and avoided the painful sight of day, as he averted his 
ga/el He then bent his three heads towards the ground 
and crouched himself behind Hercules, to shade himself 
from its influence. Then rame onward a dense throng 
^ih the loudest shouts ol jov, wearing laurel wreaths 
lund their foreheads, and (ftc'reiipon liegan to c>iairt 
■■■ lie gloriously earned deeds of the mighty Hcrcuks\ 

Triflis, & fiNa metuendn nigra, 
Sed frequcDS matiaa comltanle IuHhi. 
QuantUii incedit populus per urbrs 
Ad novi lodoB nvidus [heatri: 
Quanlns Elpum rail a<l Tonanlem, 
Quinta cnm racniin revncnvll xltas: 
QuiuiU, cum longx reilil ham noiflis 
Crefccre & foninos eupieni quielos 
Lfbra, Phtcbeoi lenel icqua currus: 
Turba recretom Cererein frequentaL 
Et citi teflis prop«rant relirfis 
Anici aoAem celrbrare mylla:: 
Tania pn campus ngitur Tileiites 
Tnrba; pars larJa eradicnii fciicdin, 
Triflis, & langit Tatiate vlla: 
I'an odhuc curril melioris xvi, 
Virgincs nondum Ihalamia jugalx, 
Et cDinis nondum pofilb ephebl, 
Matris & iiomen modo doclus infaos: 
His dalum Talis, minus ut limerent, 
Igne pnelato relevaic naiflem. 
Cxteti vadunt pa opaca Itiftis: 
Qualis eft nobis animus, remola 
Luce, cum morllus fibi tjuifque Tenlil 
Obnilum tula capul cITe letro. 
Slal chaiis denfum, Icnebrxque lurjiei, 
Et colar Doi5li>i malus, ac fiicnlis 

Otinn mnndL "'"—""- "■■'■— 


lower parts of the world, one of his labors, this was t _ 
one wanting to deprive Plulo of his kingdom, his third 
share of the universe. He did venture to enter that 
sombre entrance, where the mournful paths lead to the 
far-off Manes, and where there was a dark forest greatly 
to be dreaded, but frequented by a large crowd being 
constantly recruited by fresh arrivals, as they are about to 
descend into those regions, just indeed, as large concourses 
of people in the cities anxious lo witness some new play 
or other enterlainmenl rush out together. Just as they 
hurry impetuously, too, to the fStes of the Thunderer held 
al Elis, when the fifth summer renews the Olympian 
celebrations; just as when the long hours of night return 
and Libra, eager to increase the hours of quiet repose. 
drives the chariot of Phoebus at an equal distance from 
either hemisphere. (That is, makes the day and night each 
of twelve hours' duration.) A large assemblage at such a 
time attends the secret ceremonies of Ceres, and the Attic 
Priests hasten with all speed from their deserted home- 
steads to celebrate the night. So great then, and just on 
such a scale, is the crowd that wends its way across the 
silent plains towards the Infernal Regions, some hobbling 
along bent down by sheer old age, mournful and tired 
out of the length of life— others, younger, run nimbly 
enough to this rendezvous.— virgins not yet yoked to the 
marnage tied, and youthful striplings with their locks, as 
yet, of no studied fashion, and not consecrated to any 
deity I and the infant which has only just learned to say 
"Mother"; but thus is conceded to them exclusively, and 
in order that they should fear the darkness less, a torch 
or light of some sort is carried in front of them, to dispel 
the fear of such darkness ! The rest pass on sadly enough 
through the black nighl, and such is the state of mind 
with all of us, when the li^ht is taken away; it is then 
that each one feels sad withm himself, and is disposed to 
think that he has the entire weight of the earth pressing 
down on his head! There is then presented to the mind, 
an idea of Immovable Dense Chaos and profoundest 
darkness and the hideous appearance of black night, added 
to this, some idea of the absolute quiescence of the silent 
world, where no speech is heard, and where rainless vapor, 
mock resemblances only, serve to represent clouds I May 
old age be tardy in conducting us Ihitherl No one arrives 
there too late, and when once he does arrive he can 
never expect lo return! \Vhat can please mankind lo 
hasten on to such an appalling fate? All this crowd 
wandering from every land will pass on to join the Manes. 
^^id serve as additional layers m the Stagnant Coc^t\i*\ 
|»; Mors! Everything fs gathering itself Up for lH\ tttvai 

JennixiK mir.hus nurus 
'.elfcm dcpofiio jugo 

Alcidie domuii Jfllwr 
TMnrv«fi„s vada Tartttri 
Pacalis redil infers. 

m^a r'^'"' """"^ 

wuKta (egc populo. 




grasp, what the rising of Phcebua brings into view, and 
what his setting hides from the sight, be sparing to those 
who must come to thee eventually! Oh! Mors! we are 
preparing for thee, be slow in clainiinE us; we are fast 
hastening to our (loom! and the first hour that pave us 
"life" was labelled "Death"! The joyful DayofThebes 
has arrived, and as suppliants, all of vou greet with your 
wavering hands the sacred altars. Slay the fat victims; 
and young women joining yourselves with the young men, 
swell the solemn choir and join in the reverential song 
and dance! (Dancing was practised as a religious cere- 
mony in the temples, not like that of the roystering 
bacchanalian reveller, but a solemn dance performed with 
devout and graceful movements of the body.) Let the 
husbandman till the fertile fields, and laying aside the 
plough, cease from his toilsome labor I By the strong 
arm of Hercules, Aurora and Hespenis have been made 
tranquil— those who sleep at nighi, and those who work 
by day, and where the sun at Mtd-day refuses to poor 
mortals a protecting shade from his scorching raysl The 
labors of Hercules have subdued every obstacle in exis- 
tence, wherever the soil is bathed by the sea (Tethys, 
the wife of Oceanus) in its lone circuitous course! The 
infernal regions having been brought into subjection, 
Hercules has been conveyed to us over the streams of 
Tartarus. No fear remams to us now— there is now 
nothing, beyond the regions below, to rob us of our 
tranquillity! And thou, Priest of the Godsl crown thy 
locks, erect with saintly fear, with the Poplar wreath, held 
, so dear to our immortal Hercules! 




has invoked, becomes mad and under the Influence 
of his madness, acute delirium supervenes, he kills 
his wife and children, then he falls into a deep sleep I 


Lvcus killed by my avenging right hand falls with his 
face to the earth, then every companion of the 
tyrant, and everyone who was an accessory in his 
guilt lies prostrate also. Now, as conqueror, 1 will offer 
sacrifices to my Father, and the rest of the Gods, and I . 


Nunc facra patri vii!lor & fuperls feran), 

CiEfifque meritas vidlimis btds colam. , 

Te. ic, Inbonim Tocia & adjulrix, pr«iir, 

Belligeia Pallas, cujua in lieva ciet 

Xgh fcroces ore faxiRco minas 

Adiit Lycurgi domilor & nibri maris, 

Teflam virenli cufpidem thyrfo eetena: 

Gemiouinque nuAen, PhcFbus & Phcebi foror, 

Soror ragittis aptior, Phtebus lync; 

FraWrque quifquis incolit cieluin meus, 

NOQ ex DovercB fniler: hue appelllte 

Greges opimos. ijuidquid Indorum fcges, 

Arabefque odoris quidquid aiboribus Ugunt, 

Confcrti in nras; piuguis exundel vapor. 

Populea aoftras arbor eioraet comas: 

Te raiuas olex Irondi gentili tegat, 

Thcfeu. Tonantem noftra adorabit manus: 

Tu conditorcs nrbis, S rdveflria 

Trncis antra Zdhi, nobilis Dircen aqux, 

Lareinque regis adveua Tyrium coles. 

Date tnra flammis. ampH. Nate, mananles prius 

Manus cruenia ciede & hoUili expia. 

HKRC Ulinam cniorem capitis invifi Deis 

Libare poflem, gratior null us liquor 

TiDxilTel arns: viiftima haud ulla amplior 

Potefl, magifque opima roaftari Jovi, 

Quam rex iniquus. AMrH Kitiiat genitor tutiK 

Opla labores: ilelur altquando oliuni, 

Quiefque feffis. HERC. Ipfc concipiam preces 

Jove meque dignas. Sler fuo cceluin loco, 

Tellusqae & lelher: allra inodenros agani 

.'Elerna curfus: alia pox gentes alat : 

Fcmim omne lental rurls innocui labor: 

Enfcrque laleant: Dulla lempellas fretum 

Violenta turbel: nullus irato Jove 

Exfilint ignis: nullu.<; hibema nive 

Nutritoa agros amoia everfos liohat; 

Venenn ceflent: nulla nociluro gravis 

Succo lumercat herba: non ficvi nc truces 

Regnent tyranni. Si ijuod cliamnum eft fcelus 

will worship at the altars so well deserving tiftbe victimB 
slain by me. I adjure thee, oh! warlike I'alla.'il who hast', 
been my aid and abettor, who with /ligis in thy left hand 
mounted with the head of the Gor{{on. dartest forth ils 
ferocious menacing ji'iinces from its sione-convei"' 

visage— the Conc[ueror of Lycurgus and the Red sea 

the distant Indies, is present bearing his sricar bouiid 
round with the verdant ivy ; ihe twin aeity, Phoebus and 
the sister of Phttbus (Phtebe), the sister renowned forhor 
skill with the bow, and Ph<ebiis for proficiency on the' 

Lines 898-937] HERCULES FURENS. 59 

harp; whosoever of my brothers, who are denizens of the 
celestial abodes, not orothers, indeed, as from my step- 
mother's side (Juno)— bring hither the fattest cattle— what- 
ever fruitful produce from the far Indies -and whatever 
the wandering Arabs can cull from their fragrant shrubs, 
heap them up liberally on the altar— let redolent fumes 
therefrom ascend towards heaven. I will.adom my own 
locks with the poplar, and thou, Theseus, shalt wear on 
thy head a branch of olive from the city of Minerva; my 
especial privilege shall be to offer my homage to Jupiter 
Tonans; thou shalt pay reverence to the founder of the 
city, and the sylvan caves of the Truculent Zethus, the 
celebrated fountain of Dirce, and the household gods 
brought hither by Cadmus, the Tyrian king— Throw plenty 
of incense upon the joyous flames ! 


Oh ! my son I first of all, atone for having steeped thy 
hands in the blood of thy enemy! (Lycus) 


I would offer, as a libation to the Gods, the blood of 
that wicked tyrant, for nothing that takes a fluid form 
could have besprinkled the altar more satisfactorily; no 
other victim could possibly have been more equal to the 
occasion, and surely no more glorious an object could 
be sacrificed to Jupiter, than an iniquitous king! 


Would that my son should now pray that his labors 
might cease; at all events, let a little respite be afforded 
to thee, and rest from thy fatigue 1 


I myself will devise entreaties worthy of Jupiter and 
consistent with my own dignity; for example, let the 
heavens above, the earth beneath and the very atmosphere 
around stand exactly as they are; let the constellations 
pursue their eternal courses uninterrupted, let permanent 
peace reign amongst the nations. Let iron be used only 
in the operation of cultivating the soil, away with swords ! 
I^t them lie for ever hidden from sight! Let no violent 
storms disturb the tranquil surface of the ocean! No 
lightning dart forth from the hand of angry ]up\leT\ \u^\. 
no river swollen by the melting of the winter s stvovjs, 


Imc lulnB eil> 

JOCK, E^hl, A [Mill ]>!■■ 

Ccrricc jadal: qndqwl ibi^bbbi par 
HicBTqae gelido trigUi fptia ivlcit, 
L'no iapeta tnaSMt: ft tobb pdrt 
Fn^nqae Tun oolb. akpb. QmiJ Ti 
Qao, Bflic, T>ltB lue ft hoc Bcm refcn^ 
Aciojac fairara nrbidi iiiIimi rides? 
BIXC- PcTdoBiU leUui, tomdt oe&raBi fica, 
lalena noftniB regiu loifeTe uafielst: 
lowmnc CDJmB eft: d^nos Alddz labor. 
la atu numdi fpalii fiiblimU laat: 
PclaUiT riha. iJlra ptoninil [lateT. 
QuKi li DcgWTl? DOB capil 1cm Hemlcm. 
Tuvlanijiic fnpaU reddit. en Bltni vocn 
Oouus Dnmim oxliu. & laxst fores. 
UlW Tcianle. rccipU. & rcfens polnm? 
Ad contDmacu juDUB mimdi Inho? 
DnbiUtut edam? viacla Sunnto exnam, 
Coatmjne patris jmpM rvgnam impolens 
Avam n-folvam. Bella TilMoes purenl 
Me ducc furenles: faia cum lilvis feram. 
Kapiamque dextra plena CeDUnris jug>. 
Jam monle gemioo limilem ad fapenis *gaai. 
Videal rob (JITa Pelion Cbiion ruiim: 
Id ctclam Olympos lertio pafitu; gradu 
Penreniet, aul minetur. amph. Infandos procnl 

swamj) the lands or injure the harvesLs. as they pursue 
iheir ordinary courec! I^i plants, which yield their 
poisonous juices dwindle into harmless weeds! l,et not 
the luxuriant herbage be charged with injurious sap! I.ei 
cruel and bloody tjrants cease to rulel And if there be 
any. even now, wickedness to be perpetrated upon the 
Earth, or whatever monster else is in preparation, let mine 
lie the hand to deal with tt, and let it come on without 
delay I (The madness of Hercules is now beginning to 
show itself) But what is this? darkness has appeared at 
raid-day; Phfebus is gliding alon^ with an obscured 
countenance, although no cloud is apparent 1 Who is 
driving the day back and sen^ng \\. qt\ agaia to ilus 

A\Ti}' does the unaccountable night show its black 
presence? Why do so many stars make themselves seen 
in the heavens'? Behold the Lion, niv first labor shines 
forth and over no small space in the Heavenly tract, and 
is growing nuite excited, boiling over with anger and 
prepares to open his jaws I Now he will make an attack 
upon some star or other! There he is menacing with 
his enormous visage and he is breathing out flames and 
brightens up again" that mane of his, as he jerks it back 
on hb neck, and he will leap over in one bound the 
stars in the middle of the Zodiac, which preside over the | 
destinies of fruitful autumn, and the cold winter in icy ', 
spaces and will make for and break the neck of Taurus,, 
^^ivhich brings back the springl 

^H What is this sudden calamity? Why, my son, dost thoa I 
^Ksst such savage looks? first here, then there? Dost thoii I 
^^We any imaginary sky with thy disturbed visual organs^J 


The Earth has been conquered— the seas have ceased i 
to rage, the infernal regions have felt my power. Heaven J 
is sale— that is a task worthy of Akides; I shall be borne 
through the elevated regions of space to the sublime 
Heaven— let me seek my proper place in the sky, my 
father promised to make me a constellation I But what 
if he should refuse? the Earth is not capable of holding 
me and she must therefore hand me to the regions above, 
my proper place I Behold I the entire community of the 
Gods willingly invite me to join them, and receive me 
with open doors; and only one dissentient, Juno, put her 
' veto to the arrangement— Receive me and unlock the 
[Htrlab of Oljnnpus, luno, or I shall have to force the 
sates of the haughty Heavens I Is that even a matter for 
hesitation? Then I will let loose the chains that bind 
down Saturn, and liberate the Grandfather, who waged a 
futile war against my cruel father, and when the Titans 
have prepared themselves for battle they will rejoice in 
me as their leader; I will pile up huge rocks ana forests 
together, will root up with my powerful hands the Thes- 
salian mountains thickly inhabited by the Centaurs, and 
thus I shall be able with tlie double mountain assisting 
my progress to larve my way to the Gods I Chiron will 
then see his Pelion under Ossa— OljTnpus on the top ol 
all will serve as a third ladder, and I shall be able to 
leap lo Heaven, or i shull he bii;b enough to spring up lo \x\ 

Avetle fcufiu: pefloris fani p3.ruin, 

Magoi tamen, compefce dememem impelura. 

llERC. Quid hoc? gigantes srma pedileri inoveiil 

Profugil umbras Tilyos, ac laecruni gcrens 

E[ inane pciflus, quam prope a ccelo llelil r 

Labat C[thEerou, >lta Polleue Cremit, 

Macetumqae Tempc. rapuit hie Piodi Jubq: 

Hie rapuit OUten. faivit horrendam Mimas. 

Flammifera Eriunys vecbere CKCuffo foEiat, 

Rogifqae adullas propiuj ac propius fudes 

Id am tendiu faeva Tifiphoae capDl 

SerpcDtibus vallata, pofl raptum canem 

Ptmun vacanlem claulit oppofila face, 

Hed eccc proles regis inimici latet, 

Lyci nefandum remen. inviro pairi 

Hicc dexCra jam vos reddel. exculiat leves 

Nervus Tagittas. tela fie mini decet 

Ilcrculea. amI'U. Quo fc ciecus impegit furor? 

Vaduni coaAis flexil arcum comibus, 

Pbardranujue folvil. flridet emi(rn impetu 

Anindo. medio fpiculum collo fug it 

V'ulnere relicto. kerc. Cctcram pralem ei^am, 

Omuefque latebras. quid moroil miijus mihi 

3ellUTn Mjccnis redni; HI Cy¥!oi>e» 

Everfa manibus faxa noltris coDcidant, 

Hue nU & illuc aula disjcAo objice, 

Rumpalque poneii. co lumen impulfum label. 

Peiiucet omnia regia, hie video alKlitum 

Nulum fcclefti patris. amph. En, blanda:; manas 

Ad genua lendeos, voce mifernnda rogat 

-Scelus nefandum, trifle, & afpeAu horridum, 

Dcxira precante rapuit, & circa (ureoa 

Bis ter rolalum mifil: aR illi cspul 

Sonuil; cerebro leftn Hifperfo mndent. 

At mifcra parvum protegens nalum finu 

Mcgara, furenli fimilis e lalebris fugit. 


Pray lay aside those impious thoughts, the outpourings 
no doubt of a magnanimous soul! There is, however, 
little sanity in such ravings! Check therefore this mad 

impetuosity I 


What do I see yonder? Ahl the destructive Giantsare 
taking up arms against the Gods. Tityus has effected his . 
escape from the Manes, and carrying about with him an 
inside mangled and gnawed away ! Ahl how nearly he once 
reached Heaven I The Baeotian Cithwron is tottering, lofiy 
Pallene trembles and Macetum, too, hitherto a '"I'empe ' 
in (IS serenity, is cimvulsed with dreadi One of the Titans 

u«* ««-.»,i HERCULES FURENS. 

has gained the summit of I*indus, and another has $otl 
possession of (Eta! That hideous Mimas is beside him- 
self with raijel EJinnys with her flaming torches smacks 
her scourging whips with sonorous ferocity, and approaches 
nearer and nearer to my face with her flammg Ares, 
whilst she feeds the burning pile with fuel, and savage 
Tisiphone with her head wreathed with serpents, who, 
after Cerberus had been capttu-cd, puarded the door 
that was then left unprotected, and with her threatening 
torch preventing any egress from the dark prison! Uut 
see! lookl there lies hidden the offspring of my enemy 
ihe tine— the accursed seed of Lycus— but this hand shall 
forthwith send thee on to Ihy hateful father, my strong 
arm shall shoot forth the nimble arrows! It is for just 
-uch a desirable object as this, that the darts of a Hercules 
sliould be employed 1 


Why does such blind rage take possession of Hercules? 
There! he has bent his strong bow with all his might 
and sent the arrow on its fatal mission, the deadly reed 
whizzes again from the force with which it was shot forth. 
Ah! the point has passed through the middle of the neck 
of one of his own children, and the arrow is sti!l stick'"" 
in the wound! 


1 wil! destroy the rest of the offspring, and demolish | 
utterly their places of concealment; why should I delay? 
A more important war awaits my presence at Mycenje. 
that the walls raised by the Cyclopes shall fall overturned 
by my hands. Here is a palace I and there u vain | 
obstacle. I'he bolls and bars being cast aside, the doon 
shall be burst open, and the pillars supporting it shall l 
fall headtonu. All the palace is visible oy the t-ij^ht of ] 

K-l see nidden there Ihe second son of that wicked f 
AMPUtTRVoN {fii Theseus). 
holdl TheseusI the little child stretching forth its 
nanas and asking for mercy with a piteous cry! What 
relendess crime, heart-rending and horrible to have to 
witness! He seizes the right hand imploring for mercy, 
and Hercules cruelly whirls his little son round and round 
twiie or thrice, and dashes it to the ground— the head of 
the little son sounded on the stone floor, and the walls 
were moistened with the scattered lirainsl^ But unhappy 
Megant, who had been nursing the younger of the sons in 
. . her bosom, fled at the same time from the place of con- 
^fealmenl, Hercules ■iupposini: she was Juno. 



KEKC LicM ToDantis [fjf^g 

Pcm mndecBivjne uuki hzc dtxm- A faiM. 

AMTH. Qdo mifcra posis? *]»« lii£an, aat latebnoi |i«l»l 

NaDos Eklntis Ilmnic iaieaSa eft Iocbi: 

AmpleclcTC ipTom potiai, A Uasda prece 

Lelurc (enta. meg. Puce jwn, csolwt, [itcot, 

Affiotcc ttr^aaiB', natia hie rahus tnos, 

HatriUi^ae leddil; ccmis. al (cndol manasr 

tmr. leneo novetcaiii : feqncre, <l> pcmas mihl, 

Jugoqoe pTdrnm libera torpi Jorem. 

Sol anlc maliem paKralam hoc monftruni occidat 

mtfi. Quo lendis ameia! rangDiDcm finidcs tnum! 

AllPM PiTcfaAus inrans ieneo vnltn palris 

Pent ante mlniu: rpiriiam eripuit limor. 

Id coDjugaa dddc dara HbraEnr giarU, 

Perfr^t oH>: corpori Imoco caput 

Abell, nee nrquam ell. cemcre hoc Bud« njmu 

Vivu reDe<!lns? (i piget luAus, habcs 

Uoncm piraUini. peifius ld lela iuilae; 

Vel Hipitem iftum c»<ic monftroram illiura 

CoDverte. (alliiin ac noniiiii Inrpem (uo 

KeiDove parenrem, uc tux laudi oblliepaL 

THEs. Quo te ipfe, fenior, obvium moni iagcrii? 

Quo petgis imens' pralnge. & obinfius bte^, 

Unumqae manibiu aafer HerculeJi fcelus. 

muc. Bene babet; pudendi regis excirn cti dumu 

Tibi hunc dicatuTD, maiimi coniux Jovis, 

Gr^em cecidi. vata perTalvi liben^ 

Te diena: & Argos viflimas aliu dabit 

AMPll. Nondum lilalli, nate; coufununa racrum. 

Slat, ecce, ad aras hollia, eifpoflat manum 

Cervice prona. prxbeo, occarro, infequor: 

MaAa. Quid hot eft* errat acies luuiinmn, 

Virufque mtetoi hd'elal. An vid<.-o Hen-iilis 



(Still supposing Megara to be Juno.) You may fleff" 
an asylum into the very arms of Jiipiler, but this right 
hand of mine shall search thee out and wrest thee even 
from his very einbracel 


Where art thou going, oh I unfortunate Megara? what 
place of exile, what hiding-place shalt thou seek? There 
IS alwolniely no place of security, no means of escape 
from outraged Hercules; embrace him rather and try to 
soften his wrath with humble and winning entreaties! 


Spare me, husband, I now implore thee, recognise ihy 
OH7J dear Megara; ihe child possesses ihy ' 




No! 1 am holding my step-mother (Jiino); follow and 
receive ihy punishment at my hands, and liberate Jupiter 
from such a hateful yoke: but before I kill thee let ihe 
put this little monster out of the way. 


hou art sacrificing thy 


The infant is already dead— indeed was frightened to 
death liv ihe fiery looks of its father, long before it v/as 
woimded by the arrow! Fear snatched away its life! His 
heavy ilub is poised above his wife, and ne breaks her 
liones with his blow! Her head is detached from her 
body and cannot be found in its entire state— it has been 
smashed lo pieces! Oh! for mv tenacious old age, thou 
daresi too much even lo think of such a sight— If my 
grief bears me down, death is ready to thy hand, select 
this breast of mine for thy arrows, or turn against me 
ihai clubofthinestained with the slaughter of the monsters; 

Eit away thy supposed father and nd thy name of one so 
wly, lest my doleful utterances should sully thy triumphs! 


_ Why in thy old age, shouldst thou court death for thy- 
self in this war? Where art thou going, imprudent man? 
Flee, and hidaen far away, deprive the nanas of Hercules 
of this one crime at alt events! 


!l is well the race of this shameless usurper is now 
estinct— To thee, oh spouse of glorious Jupiter. I have 
dedicated the victims which I have sacrified to thee with 

oy; thou art worthy 

ifford others for Iheet 

Thou hast not yet sacrificed any. Oh son I finish thy 
offerings— Behold 1 a sacrifice now stands before the altar 
aad awaits thy hand with lowered head, it waits for a 
mortal below. I am here,— Amphitryon.— I am approach- 
ing thee, I persist in my appeal: strike— sacrifice me! 
What do I see at this moment! the eyes of Her' 



ring diiD, and grief weakens his vision! Do I twjV 
the hand of Hercules Irembling: A lethar^c s,\ce\i 



Mauus liemeiiles! vullua in fomniim caiiil, 
El felTa cervix capile fubmisso Ubat; 
Flexo genu jam loluR ad terrain rult: 
L'l ctefa filvis omus, aul partus inari 
Datura moles, vivis? an leto dedit 
Idem, luos qui milit nd mortem, furor? 
Sopor clt, reciprocos fpirilus molu<; agil, 
Detur quieti tempus, ut fomno gravi 
Vis vitfta morbi pciflus opprelTum level. 
Removele, famuli, tela, nc repetal Furcn^. 


Deoc, lldera, & elen 


n llerculis Chorus aduocal; fomnura, qui furorem 

ledare folet, precalur, m grnvi fopore prelTum 

Iletculem iiiciiti rel\itUBt, puetos denique 

caTos deflct 


■, mngnurque pareos 
.^Lheris alii, tellutque fcttiK lOjj 

El vaga ponti mobilis unda. 

Traflufque maris fiindis radios, 

Noiiemque fugas ore decern, 

Fervide Titan, ohitus pariter toM 

Tecum Alcides vidit & ortus, 

Novitque tUBs ulrafque domos. 

Solvite tanlis animum mnnftri'!; 

Solvile, fuperi: reAam in ineliits 

Fledtile rocnlem. Inqae o Homitor, tOtS 

Sonine, malorum, requies animi, 

Pars huniana: melior vitn?. 

Volueer, raalris genus AUrjiu, 

Fraler dune languide Mortis, 

Veris mifcens falfa, fuluri |M» 

Cenus, S: idem peffimus auiftnr: 

Paler o rerura, portut vitie, 

Luc is requies, noiflifque comes, 

Qui par regi famuloque veuis, 

I'iacidus fefTum lenif^ue fovens; 19^ 

seizes his eyelids and his wearied head falls towards his 
chest, and now, with his knees giving away, he falls bodily 
upon the earth, thoroughly overcome by exhaustion 1 ia 
the same way as the ash, when it is felled in the forest, 
or as a mass of stone is thrown into the water to serve 
' p/er or a protection from the sea. (.Amphitryon 


.. ^iroaches him.) Art thou alive, son ? or has the same rage 
handed thee over to death, thou who hast sent so many, 
so many of thy own fleM and blood to that bourne? 
No! it IS sleep! his respiration is being carried on— the 
movements of his diorax show inspiration and expiration 1 
Lei him then be given up to rest, so that the severity of 
his disease mav be overcome by a heavy sleep, and 
slumber calm down his agitated nerves! Here! Atten- 
dants! remove all dangerous weapons, lest he may wake 


ic Chorus invokes the Deities, the Stars and the Elements, 
wliirh exercise influence over the lymphatic {victims of 
severe fright), the limalic (absolute madness), and those 
tftherwise of unsound mind, to join in the general grief 

». and implores commiseration and help for Hercules: the 
Chonis prays for that slumber which is wont to 
allay madness, and that by being thrown into a pro- 
found sleep, he may Ije restored to reason— it likewise 
ponrs forth a lament for the death of his boys! 

MA\ the firmament mourn, and the mighlv Parent of 
ihc lofty heavens, and the fruitful earth and thou 
Deiiy of the wandering waves of ihe rolline sea 
(Neptune) and thou (Phtebus) above all these, who sheddest 
the rays over thy ocean tracts, and with thy glorious 
presence drivest away dull night, for Alcides has been 
with ihee, accompanied thee in thy progress both when thou 
hast disappeared below the Horizon to illumine another 
part of the world— he is familiar with both thy retreatsl 
flh! release his disordered mind from so many monstrous 
delusions. Oh! ye Gods above! liberate his imprisoned 
mind train his mental impressions into a more healthy 
channel, and thou, oh ! Somnus! the dissipator of sensorial 
disturbance, Ihe donor of tranquil thought and the better 
portion of human life {namely sleep) — On ! winged Somnus, 
claiming Astnea for his maternal descent. Oh! thou gentle 
brother of implacable Mors! mingling the menial concep- 
tions—the possible with the impossible— sometimes in the 
form of enlightening impressions revealing the truth, 
sometimes keepitig back from our knowledge evils which 
are impending! Oh thou father of Nature, the refuge of 
life, the repose of day and the welcome companion of 
night, who comest alike to visit the Monarch and the 
riave, kind to the weary, cherishing and mild I Thou 
^bculcatest upon the human mind, naturally featM O^ 
^jbudatma some idea of that long sleep, which a^waixs. MS 


Expulil Eellus. Ted, ul ingenti 
VexaliL Nolo fcrval longait 
Un'la luinuttu&, & jam venlo 
CelTaate luroet. pelle infanos 
Flnflus nnimi. redeal pictas, 
Virtufque vjro: vel fil polius 
Mens vefano concita motu; 
Error c«cuG, qua crepit, eat. 
Solus ie jam pneftare poreft 
Fuior infonlem. Proxima puris 
Sors ell manibus, Dcfcire nefas. 
Nunc Hcrculeis percufTa foncnl 
Pe<5loni palmis: mundum Tolitos 
Fcrre lacenoii verbeni pulfent 
Viiflrice manu; gemitus valloa 
Audiat lElher, audial atii 
Regintt poli, vaftifque ferox 
Qui colla geril vincla colenis, 
Imu latitacs Cerberus aalro. 
Refonci morfto clamore chaos, 
Lateque pntens unda prorundi, 
El, qui melius tua tela tameii 
Sen feral, acr. 

Pe^ora taolis obCelTa nialis 
Non fuDt idtu rerieoda lev! : 
Uno planflu tria regna fonent. 
Fa tu cnllo decus ac telum 
Sufpcnfa diu fortis anindo, 
PhaietiTcque graves, dole fiEva Tei 
Verbera tergo : acdanl humeros 

allhy train of thought! Behold him now, stretched 

upon the ground, he is tossing about disturbed by hideous 
dreams, not as yet in any way is this frightful visitation 
mitigated; accustotoed to rest his head on his ponderous 
club, he tries to seize it in vain with his right hand, 
swaying his arms to and fro with his fruidess endeavours ; 
nor has he got rid of his anger entirely, for as the sea, 
stirred up by the force of the tempestuous south wind, 
retains for some time its disturbed condition, and even 
when the wind ceases lo blow, it retains an ani^ry 
attitude! Oh! drive away the tumultuous waves from the 
mind of Aleides, let his former piety and submissive 
virtue return to the miserable man I Or, would it not 
be better, that he should retain his present disordered 
intellect, stirred op with tnad passions, and his blind 
irresponsible delirium continue, as it commenced ? — for this 
madness alone can entide him to be considered free 
from guilt The next virtue probably to that of possessing 
hands that have not yet been polluted by crime of any 
sort, is to be in a happy stale of ignorance that they have 
been so contaminated! Now this huge breast of Hercules 
resounds with the blows with which he strikes it! How 
he belabors his arms, those arms which were wont to 
sustain the weight of the heavens. How his sonorous 
groans will reach to the sky, and the queen of the black 
universe will likewise hear them, and the fierce Cerberus that 
stills wears the huge chains on his conquered neck, barking 
aloud from his low cave. How sombre Chaos will resound 
with his lugubrious shouts! how the broad waters of the 
vasty deep, and lasdy the air itself will feel the distur- 
bance which had much belter have been by his arrows 
as of old! (alluding to the Stymphalides.) A breast 
besieged by so many inward commotions, connected with 
so much wickedness committed, must not be visited by 
light blows! How the three Kingdoms {Heaven. Earth 
and Hell) resound simultaneously with the piteous cries! 
And ihou. oh! arrow 1 so long triumphant and suspended 
from his neck as an ornament, as well as a vehicle of 
force, and you, the heavily armed quivers, strike implac- 
ably thy cruel master on his savage back 1 Let him 
punish his own powerful shoulders with his own great 
strength, and let his mighty club with its rough knots 
punish his own body! Let his shoulders wince again 
with the intensity of the pain inflicted on himself. And 
. children, who never have been able to folio* 

you. children, who never have been aoie to toiiow tne i 

track of your noble parent, yet tyrant Kings will be 
avenged by this cruel blow— you, who had not yet acquired 
Bnace in your bodily movements in the Grecian PalsesUa i 

USpaHiiv-piaixJ—yoa that were not formidable opponenVa J 



Non vos psIriEE laudis comite^ 

Ulli ficvo vulnere regcs; 

Non ArgivB membra palieltra 

Fleftere dodll, fortes caftu, I 

Fortcfque maou; jam lamcn nufi 

Telura Scylhici leve coryti 

MLtTuni certa libritre mann, 

Tulofque fuga figere cervos, 

Noadumque fcnc lerga jobate; I 

Ite D(l S^gioi umbric portu&, 

lie innocuEe, quas In primo 

Limme vitx fceluE opprefCii 

Patriurquc furor; iie infauftum 

Genus, o pueii, noli per iter I 

Trifle labdris: itc, iralos 

Virue rcgcs. 


Hercules expcrreflus Si meati reftilutus, podquom fuai a fc 

interfeiflos comperilTet, maous flbi inferre paral ; [Kitris 

precibus viflus fibi pnrcit, Aihenafqu These! con- 

niio purgandus proiicifcllur. 

VjTUIS hie locus? qu£e regio! qua mundi plaga? 
Ubi fum! fub orlu folis, an Tub eardine 
Glacialis Urfie! numquid Hefperii maris 
Exlrema tellua hunc dat Oceano moduin! 
Quas trahimus auras? quod folum fefTo Tubefl? 
Certe redimus. unde proflrata domo 
Video cruenla corpora? an Doodum eicnil 
Simulncra mens infema? poll reditus quoque 
Obemi ocuioa lurba feralis meos. 
Pudet rftteri. pareo: nerciu quod niihi, 
Nefcio quod animus grande prxfogil malum. 
Ubi eft parcn.'i? ubi ilia nalorum grege 
Animora conjui? cur latas laivum vacat 
Spolio leonis? quonam abiit legimen meum, 
Idcmque fomDO mollis Ilercnleo tonu? 
Ubi leU^ abi btcus? anna quU vivo mihi 
Detrahere potuitf fpolia mii^ tatila abftulit? 
Ipfumque quis non Herculia fomuum hoiruit? 

with the coestus, but who already had attempted to hurl 
forth will a firm hand the light arrow, the dart of the 
Scythian, and to strike the stag which seeks its safely in 
flight, but had not yet attempted the sanie on the badi 


the Maned Lion! Go to the Stygian refuge, to the 
lades below, go, innocent victiius, whom the wickedness 
and madness of a father have sacrificed at the I'ery 
threshold of life. Go, unlucky progeny— Oh! Hoys! go by 
the sad path, made known to us all by your fathers 
' ibor, Ro and join the indignant rulers (Pliito and Proserf 
■) of the sombre Empire ! 


ercules wakes, with his mind restored, and learns that 
he has killed his own children. He prepares to lay 
hands on himself, but prevailed on, by the entreaties 
of his father, he refrains from suicide, and at the 
suggestion of Theseus, he sLirts for Athens, and 
undergoes the ordeal of atonement. 


THAI' place is this? What country? What region 
' of the Globe? Where am I? Am I at the extre- 
mities of the East, where Phuebus starts on his 
journey, or under the sky of the Icy Bear? Whether 
that land which stretches out to the sea of Hesperia and 
affords thereby a boundary- of the Ocean? What air am 
I breathinsf What ground is supporting my wear}' body? 
I surely have returned to Thebes— How is it that I 
behold bloody carcasses lying about on the floors of the 
Palace? Or have I not yet got rid of the infernal spectres, 
which have been haunting my imagination? Since my return 
from Hell, the mournful Ghosts are perpetually before 
my eyes! I am ashamed to confess it— I know not what 
has come to me, I cannot guess, of what terrible calamity 
my troubled mind is warning ""■! Whprp is mv P.irpnt? 



Where is my Parent? 
iged about her young 

children? Why is my left shoulder deprived of the 
Nerasean lion's skin? iVherc has that defensive ct 
disappeared and which has served me as a soft bed_. 

when in ihe arms of gentle sleep? Where are my a 

; my bow? Who could dare to_take awa^ r 

Where i , __ _ ___ .... , , 

I any life remained in me? Who could have 
carried off so heavy a trophy, as my club? Who is there 
Uiat has not dreaded Hercules, even when he was asleep? 

^^t will please me to meet my proud conqueror— yes ! 

^■pdeed it «-JIJ be a pleasure! Arise, t/iou Conqueror, betote 



Libet meum videre viiflorem, libet. 

Eitfurge, viflor, quem novum ccclo paler 

UcDuil re1ii5to: cujus in TieIu (lelit 

Nox loDgior, quam nodra. quod ceroo nefifi.' 

Nnti cnicnia dedc confeifli jacent; 

Perempla copjux, qurs Ljcus regnura oblinel? 

Quj& tanta Thebis fcclera moUri aufus eit, 

Xerculc reverfo? quifquis IfroeDi loco, 

AflKH quiiquis itvb, qui gemiuo niari 

Pulfala PclopL; regna Dardunii colis, 

Succurre, txix cladis auflorem indica. 

K.uat irs in onujes. hoflls eft, quifquis mihi 

Non monflrat hoftera. viaor AlcidEe lates? 

Procede: feu tu vludjcas cumia truces 

Thracis cruenti, five GeiyoD;e pecus, 

Libynve dominos: nulla pugnaadi mom ed. 

En nudus ndlla, vel meis armis licet 

Petos inermem. cur meos Thefeus fugit 

Palerque vultus? ora cur coodunl fua? 

DifTerte fletus. quis mcos dederil aeci 

Omnea fimul, profnre: quid, genilor. fdes? 

Al lu cde, Thefea; fed lua, TTiefeu, fide. 

Ulerque lacitus ora pudibiinda oblegil; 

Furlimquc iDcrimas fundit. in Iniiti:^ malis 

Quid ell pudendum? numquid Argivx impolens 

Dominator urbis? numquid infedum Lyci 

Pereunlis agmen ckde nos tanta obruit! 

Pet, le, meonim facinorum laudem precor, 

Genitor, tuique nominis femper mihi 

Numen fecundum; fare, quis fudit domum? 

Cui prEEda jacui > AMPK. TaciU (ic abeani mala. 

HEK.C. Ut inullus ego lim? ampu. Sxpe vindiifta obfuil. 

KERC. Quifquamne fegnis tania toleravil mala? 

AMFH. Mnjora quifquis timuit. HEEC. Hi.s etioni, paler, 

Quidquun timer! majus aut gravius patel\! 

him whose father begat him auite unexpectedly, when 
he quitted heaven on one of his peregnnadons, and at 
whose nadvity, the night was rendered more prolonged 
than it is now-a-day ! Xo ! what signs of wickedness do 
I now behold? My sons are lying there struck down by 
some bloody slaughterer's hand I My wife too slain ! I 
wonder what new Lycus now holds the reigns of govern- 
ment 1 What man has dared to attempt such murderous 
deeds, in this, my Thebes? even, loo, after I, Hercules. 
have come back! Whoever dwelleth in the plains of 
Ismen us— Whosoever tiileth the fields of Attica— Whoever 
thou art, who dwellest in the Kingdom of Dardanian 
Pelops, whose shores are washed by the waves of two 
se^ help ;ne— disclose to me the author of this savage 

Lin« „i*-.,^i HERCULES FURENS. 73 

slaughter! Let my fullest measure of wrath fall on all! 
He is my enemy, who knows and does not point out to 
me the greatest of my enemies! Where hidest thou, thou 
Conqueror of AJcides? Come forth whether thou art 
avenging the bloody King of Thrace (Diomedes), who was 
devoured by the very horses that dragged his chariot, 
or lo avenj;e Geryon, whose flocks, 1 look, from him, or 
the two kmgs of Libya! There admits of no delay, in 
my preparing for battle! But here I am, unarmed—or is 
it that it is sought lo come upon me in a defenceless 
condition? Why do Theseus and my father avoid ray 
ven' gaze? Why do they bury their faces? Away with 
usclesSi weeping I I^t me be informed; who has handed 
over to cruel death my all— my wife, my sons? Why, 
my Father, art thou silent? But thou, Theseus, tell me 
on thy sacred honor, in which I repose so much confi- 
dence Behold ! they both hide their confused faces in 
silence, and tears, difficult to restrain, are shed by each 
of them; but why is there all this reserve, in the midst 
of iuch a category of crimes? Whether, tell me, is it the 
impotent ruler of the city of Argos, or is it the odious 
race of Lycus, that has overwhelmed me with so much 
slaughter? I beseech thee, my Father, for thy approval 
of my actions of one possessing my name, and one which 
has always ranked willi me as second only Pray, speak, 
who has ruined ray home, to whose vengeance have I 
fallen a prey? 

Let those deeds be remembered only in silence 1 

That I may be unrevenged, dost thou mean ? 


I'Vengeance has often proved an obstacle to its cherisherl J 

|What man has ever tolerated such wickedness with 
mposure ? 

tThe man, who has feared that greater misfortunes are J 
; for him. 


LOh! my father, what greater or more dreadful calami- ^ 
B caaia be derised than these, in order to inspire fe&T^ 


1. Cladis tuic pare ifta, quam nofti, quota eft? 
nc. Mifercre, genitor: fuppliccs teodo amnus. 
Qaid hoc? moDus refugjl. hie ecral fcelus. 
Unde hie cruor? quid ills puerili madeiis 
Aniodo leto, linifla LerOEeu oec&i 
Jam tela video nollra, noo quasro maoum. 
Quis potuit arcum fledlcre! au( quic dextern 
Sinuare nervum vix recedentcm mihi? 
Ad vos revertor: geailor, hoc □□njum eft fceius? 
Tacuere; noflnim c(t. ampm. Lufius eft iHic luus ; 
Crimen nuvercse. cafus hie culpa earet. 

'. Nune parte ab omni, geuilor, iratus tono, 
UDiiie nollri; vindica fers maou 
Saltern nepotes: ftelliger muadus fonet, 
Flammsi & hie it ille jaculelur polus: 
Rupes ligatum Cafpix corpus trahaat, 
Alque ales avida. cur Proraelhei vacant 
Scopuli? paretur verticc immenfo feras 
Volucrefque pafceDS Caucafi abramptum lalus, 
Nudumque filvis, quie poatum Scytheo 
SyroplegBs aiiflal, hinc & hinc vindtas maaus 
Diliendat alto : camque revocala vice 
lu Te cuibunt h\a, qui? in coeluia exprimunt 
Adlis utrinque rupibua medium mare, 
Ego inquieta moulium jaceam mora. 
Quin ftruflum acervaos n em ore conge do aggerem, 
Crnore corpus impio rparfum creroo? 
Sic^ lie agendum eft: mferis reddam Herculetii. 
AMPH. Nondum tumullu peiflus atlonito caret. 
Mulavit iras: quodque hibet proprium furor, 
In fe ipfe fievit. KERC. Dira Furiuum loca 
El iufcrorum career, & fonti plaga 
Decreta turbx, & Ti quod exAlium Islet 
Ulterius Erebo, Cerbero ignotum & mihi, 
Hue me nbde lellus: Tarlari ad linem ultimum 


Those passages in thy own misfortunes which thou 
hast actually experiencetl, do they not (litTiish but feeble 
episodes in the chapter of disasters: 

Pity me, father, I will extend my suppliant hands. 
What do I see? He actually refuses my proffered palms, 
for in these hands rests the wickedness of crime ; whence 
comes all this blood? How comes it that the arrow, 
stained with the blood of the slaughtered LemKan Hydra 
is still wet with the gore of the murdered children? I 
recognise at once, ray o«ti arrow, I do not require to 


In this lamentable matter, the grieving part is thine, 
- criminal portion, that of ihy step-mother; this calam- 
is not remotely traceable to thy culpability. 

!-■«. ..,.-r=,i HERCULES FURENS 75 

search for the hand that shot it forth, for who is tliere. 
that could bend my Iww? Or what right hand could have 
drawn the string, which I could only do with difficulty? 
I appeal again to you, Oh Father 1 Is this indeed my 
crime? There is no answer! It is mine! 


^P Qhl irate father (Jupiter), send forth thy thunder in 
* every direction, think not of my misfortunes, vindicaie 
the slaughter of thy ^ndsons, at least, although the visit- 
ation may be slow m its arrival! Let the starry firma- 
ment resound with thy thunders, and the sky, here, there, 
everj-where be filled with thy lightnings; let mv body be 
chained to one of the rocks of Taurus, and llie greedy 
vulture feed on my carcass, why should the rock of Pro- 
metheus be vacant now? Let there be appropriated for 
my punishment, a spot on the abrupt mountain-side of 
Caucasus, where no verdure prevails, and where the sum- 
mer affords a place of refuse for wild beasts and birds 
of prey. And the nigged Symplegades, which contract 
the entrance of the Euxine Sea, shall widen the channel, 
with a hand of mine bound Co each of them from above, 
and when those mobile rocks, approach each other (their 
movements are altematel and drive upwards towards the 
sky the intervening waves, the rocks beating them on 
either side. I shall act as an obstacle to their mutual 
contact! Or shall I pile up and set fire to a huge mound 
from the thick groves, and consume with the flames my 
body, besmeared with sinful blood! So well I let this be 
I done thus, and 1 will return as "Hercules Secundus" to 
" E shades below ! 


(^ The mind of Hercules is not freed from tumultuous 
nights, but his anger has only assumed another phase. 


If there be any dreadful snot, amount the imprisoned 
bwer regions and the abode of the Furies, or a place 
set apart for the guiltiest of mortals— and if there be 
any more distant place of exile in Erebus, not known 
to Cerl>etus and myself— there let me hide myself away 
' >m this Earth I I will go and abide in the extremest 


I! g. 
indarie.s of Tariams! Oh! my too savage dSspositionV 

Maarunia ibo. pedlu-i o aimium forum I 

Quii vos per omneni, liberi, fporfos domiim 

Deflere digne polerit? hie durug malis 

I.acrimiire vultiis aefcit. Hue carem date; 

Dale hue fngillaa; Itipitem hue valluni dale. 

Tibl tela fraugam noftra; tibi noRros, puer, 

Kumpcmus arcuii, ac tuis ftipes gmvia 

Ardebil uinbns: jpra Lemieia frequens 

Pharetia telis in tuos ibit rogos. 

Dent onnii pceoas: von quoque iiifaullas meis 

Cremabo telis, o oovercales manus. 

THES. Quis nuEneti unquam fceleris errori addidil^ 

HERC. Ssepe error ingeos Teelens obtiuuil locum. 

TUBS. Nunc Hercule opus eft. perfer banc mDleiii niali. 

HEKc. Non fic furore ceffit eiftimflus pudor, 

Populos ul omnes impio afpeflu fugem. 

Arnm, armo, Thefeu, llagilo ptopere mihi 

Sublradla reddi. fuia (i laem e(l mihi, 

Relerte mauibas tela: H remanel furor, 

Paler, recede, mortis iaveniun viam, 

AMPH. Per fandla generis facro, per jus Qomiois 

Utnimque noftri, five mc allorBm vocaSj 

Seu tu parentem; perque veneraudos piis 

CanoK, feneflK parcc defertie, preeor, 

Auuifqae feffis: unicum lapfffi domus 

Firmamen, unum lumen aftliflo malis 

Teroel referva. ouUub ex te contigit 

FrufluB laborum. temper nut dubium mare, 

Ant monilra limui. quifquls in toto furil 

Rex fievus orbe, manibus, aul aris uoceos, 

A me timetur. femper ahfenlis pater 

Frudtum lui, laAamque Ji afpedlum peto. 

KBRC. Cur animam in ifla luce deliueani amplius. 

Morerquc, nihil ed; cunifla jam amili bona: 

Menlcm, arma, famam, cciQJugem, nalos, monua; 

Who could bewail, ohi my children, sufficiently at the 
sight of my dear ones scattered about on the floor of 
the Palace. This harsh visage of mine, hardened by 
misfortune, knows not how to familiarise itself with tears 1 
Here! give me my sword I hand me hither my arrows, 
bring along my redoubtable club. (Looking first at one 
son and then at the other.) For thee, I will break iny 
arrows; for thee, my boys, I will snap my bow in two— 
and this formidable weapon (the club) shall burn for thy 
infanticidal death, and the quiver filled with the Lemfean 
arrows shall be handed over to the funeral pile I Let 
my deadly weapons suffer their turn of destruction ! I 
wfll burn them also with the fatal arrows ! But oh 1 ye 
awful instruments of a step-mother's persecution ! 

Lines ,aa«-ia6o] HERCULES FURENS. 77 


Whoever adds to an error, intentionally, invests such 
error with the odium of a crime. 


An error of magnitude oftentimes acquires the stigma 
of wickedness! 


Now we stand in need of toleration on the part of 
Hercules; bear patiently this load of misfortune! 


My pride and dignity have not to such an extent been 
stamped out, by my delirious attack, that I should drive 
everyone away from beholding my wicked presence! 
Nay! Theseus! My arms! I demand that my arms 
which have been talten away, shall be given up forth- 
with; if my mind be in a sound state, hand me my 
arrows, if my delirium still continues. Oh Father, get out 
of my path, I will find an easy way of seeking my death ! 


By the sacred mystery of thy descent, by that respect 
which is due to me and my name ! Whether thou callest 
me, parent, or simply look upon me, as having merely 
brought thee up, and by these hoary locks, always rever- 
enced by gooa men, I pray thee spare my aeclining 
years, and my old age, bereft of earthly consolation; 
thou one prop of a fallen dynasty; afford me some ray 
of compassion for my misfortunes which I share witn 
thee. None of the results of thy glorious deeds have been 
transferred from thee to myself, for I have held the 
treacherous sea in great dread, as well as monsters of 
every sort, and even whatever cruel king, that rages in 
any part of the world, that stains his hands with the 
blood of others, or pollutes the sacred altars with human 
sacrifices, is held by me in the greatest fear; but as thy 
father, I have looked forward with joyful hope, to thy 
successful exploits, and to hail thy presence and behold 
thy visage! 


Why should I wish to pass my life any longer in the 
light of day? Why should I hesitate about it? There is 
no reason for it I have already lost my possessions, 
my mind,— my arms,— my reputatioiL — my wife,— my 
cmldren.— TAe glory of my exploits! — Even my madtie^, 




78 SENECA'S TRAGEDIES. [Line, „fi,-,^, 

Eliam farorem. uemo poUulu queal 

Aniinci mederi: morte ranntidum ell fcclus. 

AMl'H. Pcrimes parentem? hekc Faccre ne poHlm, occidatn, 

AMPH. Geaiiore coram? KeRC. Cernere hiinc docui Dcfas. 

AMTH- Memoranda potius omnibu!; faifla inluens, 1165 

HERC. Veniam dabil Tibi ipre, qui nuUi dedit? 

Laudanda feci juffus, hoc unum meum eft. 

Succurre, genUor, live le pielas movet, 

Seu triftle fatum, five violatse decus 1270 

Vittutis: eff« lu-ma; viucatur mea 

FortuDn dexlra. tkks. Sunt quidem pntriEC pieces 

Sails efficaces. fed lameo noftro quoque 

Movere fletu. furge, & ndverfa impelu 

Perfringe foliln: dudc luum Dulli imparem 1375 

Animum malo refume. nunc magna libi 

Vinule agendum eft: Hcrculcm irofci vctn. 

KeRC. Si vivo, Ted fceleca: 11 morior. luli. 

Purgare lerras propero: jamdudum mihi 

Monftnim impium, favumque & immilc, ac ferum laSo 

Oberrat: agedum, deitra, conare aggredi 

Ingcns opus, labore bifleno ompliu'. 

Ignavc, celTas? fortis in pueros modo, 

Pavidafque malres? anna Dili danCur mihi, 

Aul omne Pindi Thracis exfcindam neraus, 1285 

Bacchique Uicos, & Cithseronis juga 

Mecum cremabo : tota cum domibus fui'i, 

Dominifque redla, cum Deis templa omnibus 

Thebana fupra corpus cxctpiam meum, 

AU|ue urbe verfa coadar. &, (1 fortibus 1190 

Lcve pondU! humeris mnenia immifTa incidenl, 

Seplcmque opertus dod lalis portis premar, 

()nus oinne, media parte quod mundi Tedel, 

Dtriniil<iue fuperos, in nieuin vertam caput. 

during which interval I was at all events free from self- 
reproach! No one with his mind thus contaminated can 
ever expect to be cured. No ! my crime must be healed 
by the one remedy— Death ! 

DoHt thou wish to kill thy parent? 


Lest I might do so. I will kill myself. 


What! before Ihe very eyes of thy father? 


I have learned to know the extent of my 
FTC own eyes! 


Instead of taking heed of exploits, remembered l)y all 
of us— seek forgiveness, for the great crime done by thy 

hands ! 


Shall 1 crave for pardon for myself, who have never 
vouchsafed it to others? Under commands, I have done 
things to be praised, but this one deed is my own, very 
own doing! Help me, Father, whether thy attection leads 
thee to do so. or ray sad condition, or the honor of that 
vaJor, which I ha\'e tarnished! Bring me forth my arms! 
With my own right hand, shall my triumphant destiny 
be determined— by my own death ! 

Thy father's entreaties indeed, are suffii icnUy toui lung, 
but thou wih surely be moved a lillle by mv neepmg 
solicitations.— Exert thyself, Hercules I with ihv atcustom- 
ed energy of rharaclcr.— Now pray resume the courage, 
which thou hast always shown when confronted by every 
danRer; now do let this great bravery, lie shown bv thee; 
now say to thyself; "Hercules, check thy angry feelings!' 


If I live, I have committed crimes and am a criminal — 
if I put an end to my life, I shall certainly escape ray 
wretchedness— I shall hasten to clear myself out from 
this Earth— an impious monster, cruel, fierce, indomitable 
monster wanders about perpetually in my person] Come 
to my aid. Ohl my right nandl endeavour that a great 
work shall be accomplished, greater than any of my twelve 
laiwTs! Why, Hercules, dost thou hesitate thus cowardly? 
Is thy valor only levelled against poor inoffensive chil- 
dren and timid mothers? Unless my arms be given up to 
me. I will cut down to the ground every grove on the 
Thracian Pindus, the groves of Bacchus, and every tree 
which throws a shade on lofty CithKroo, and they shall 
bum with myself, one grand conflagration ! I will over- 
throw the entire city of Thebes, every homestead with 
its inmates, masters and families, and the Theban temples 
with the Gods_ contained in them, and I will be buried 
with the ruins "pressing down on my body; and if the 
citj, falling on my shoulders, should prove too lij3;ht a 
weight, and if covered thus, I should not be sufliciently 
crusHed by the seven gates, I will turn down on my head, , 
all the superincumbent weight which resides in that ', 
■ whicn separates the Gods aboie from those m , 


. Kcddo arma. Kerc. Vai e(l digm genitore Herculis. 
pereaiptus fpiculo cecidil puer. 

' ino, telum mimibus emiril luis. 
nc ego utar. amph. Ecce, quam miferum n 
Cor palpiwl, corpufquu rollicilum ferii. 
ll£HC. Aptau arundo ell. amph. Ecce, jam fucies Tcelus 
Volens, fcienrque. pande, quid fieri jubes? 
Nihil Togamus: noster in luto cftl dolor. 
Natum poles fervare lu folus mi hi, 
Eripere uec tu. maximum evafi metun. 
Miferum haud poles lue faccre, relicetn poles. 
Sic (latue, quidquid (latuia, ut caufain tiuun 
FDniani(tue in ardlu flare & anctpiti [das. 
Aul vivis, aut occidis. hanc nnimam levem, 
FelTamque feaio, Dec minus quaHam malis, 
In ore primo lenco, lam tarde patri 
Vilam dal aliquisP uon feram ulterius moram, 
Lelale ferro pefhis imprelTo induam; 
Hie, hie jncebit Herculi? fani fcclus. 
HEEC. Jam parce, geailar, parce; jam revoca manum 
fluccumbe, virtus, perfer imperium palriii. 
Eat ad laborcs hie quoque Hcreulens labor; 
Vivomus. artus alleva alni(flo& Tolo, 
Thefeu, parentis: dcntnt contadlus pio« 
Scelerata refugiL ahfh. Hanc manum ampleiflor libeoi; 
Hbc nixus ibo, pedlori haac ibgro admovens 
Pellam doloreb. liERC. Quern locum profugus petim? 
Ubi me recondamP quave tcllnre obniani: 
Quis Tannis, aul quis Nilus, aut quis Perfica 
Violeutus unda Tigris, aut Rhenus feroi, 
Tagufve Ibera turbidus gaza fluens, 

I surrender thee thy a 

Those words arc worthy of the father of Hercules — 
Behold! this is the one, whose deadly point killed my 

Nay! say radier, this was the oii' 
bands through Juno's jealous wrath. 

shot forth by thy 


Listen to me, my heart palpitates with fear and heaXa 

tumultuously against the walls of my chest! 



I is already anned and ready I 


Listen again, I implore thee; how anxious thy face i 
appears to commit crime, and knowing it to be such, I 
tell me, why art thou so ready to do allthis? I ask for ] 
nothing— My misery is past recall! Thou, alone, hast it I 
in thy power to presen'e me, my son, therefore tear not ] 
thyself away — I have got over my worst fears, it is out of I 
ihy power lo make me more miserable, but thou canst i 
give me some degree of happiness. Therefore determine 
what thy intentions are, for thou must be convinced 
that thy exploits and thy fame will rest on a slender and 
equivocal foundation; Ihou either livest thyself or thou 
slayest me! I merely hold my life, my breath within 
my nostrils, this feeble vitality worn down by old age, 
but not less irksome, through my misfortunes! Does a 
son hesitate, whether his own father shall live or die? 
I wiU bear delay no longer, and I will myself, thrust this 
penetrating sword into my mortal bosom! Here (pointing 
to his chest) shall this deed declare the crime of Hercules 
restored to reason! 

Ohl spare me. father, spare me, withhold at once thy 
ihreatenmg hand— let me be the one to yield with all 
my valor— let me bow to the will of a father! This 
victory mtist indeed be ranked greater than any of my 
former exploits! Let us all live! Theseus, raise my 
father with his afflicted frame, from the ground, and the 
contact of his affectionate embrace will banish all traces 
il designs, when my right hand is joined with his! 


cheerfully lay hold of thy hand, 
ling on confidence, and w'hen 1 dra 

oppressed heart, I shall be able to drive away my si 


What place of exile shall I seek in my retreat? where 
shall 1 hide myself? or in what land shall 1 bury my 
sorrows? What Tanais, or what Nile, or what streams of 
the Persian Tigris or rough Rhine, or muddy Tagus, which 
flows along carrying m suspension its golden sandsV 
which one of those rivers can wash my hands ol T""^ 


lich I 



Ablucre Jeitrarn polcritJ Arftonm lic« 
Micolis in me gelida trausfuodat marc, 
El lota Telhys per meas curral nutnoa, 
HiErebit alluni facioaE. in quos impius 
Terras recedes! Orluin, on Occafuro jictcs? 
Ubique notus perdidi enrilio locum, 
Mc refugit orbis. aftra (ranrverros agunt 
Obliqua curfus: ipfe Titan Ccrberum 
Meliore vaitu vidit. a fidum caput, 
Thefeu, latebram qoicre loagiaquam, abdilam. 
Quoaiamque femper fceleris aJJeni arbiler 
Amas uocentes, graliam meritis refer 
Vicemque noflrii: reddc me inrerais, precor, 
Umbris redu6lum, meqae fubjetflum tuLs 
Keflitue vjndis. iUe me abfcondet locus. 
Sed & ille Dovit. 'iues. Noara te lellus mancl. 
Illic rotutara Ciede Gradivus manum 
Rcftituel Btmis. ilia te, Alcida, vocal, 
I.-.. . j^ qy^ fuperos folel. 

crime? Will it be betlerl that the cold Mfeotis of Arctos, 
should pour its waters over me, for if the entire sea 
were passed over these hands, the deep disgrace would 
still be there, therefore into what lands shall 1, an impious 
exile, vanish at last? ShaU I seek the East or the West? 
Known everj'where, I have no place left to me for my 
exile. This orb avoids me. The stars themselves looking 
at me, askance, and performing their circuits so as to 
avoid me. Titan, himself, now regards Cerberus with a 
more favorable eye! Oh my faithful confidant, Theseus, 
surest some lurkmg-place far, far awayj for my conceal- 
ment 1 And since, like a judge adjudicatins upon the 
crimes of others, thou dealest leniently towards the guilty, 
(alluding to Theseus faithfully assisting Pirithous) award 
rae a good turn, which 1 think that I deserve at thy 
hands! (alluding to his having liberated Theseus from 
the rock to which he was chained.) I pray thee, conduct 
me back to the Infernal Regions, and load me with 
chains, with which thou wert once bound, that place 
will serve to hide me 1 But what am I saying now ? That 
place already only knows me too well! 

My own land remains to thee— Mars shaJl yet restore 
to tnee military glory, when thou hast purged thyself of 
this crime of slaughter— The Earth, Alcides, invokes thee 
to repair to that land (Athens) which expiates and renders 
even the Gods themselves innocent! ('I'his is said satiri- 
cally about the Gods!) 




Chorus Senum MvceNiP.OKVm. 

TantalusThvestisF.i Muiae 
ALU'S TiiYRSTCS ¥. Ipersoiue. 


A R G f M E N T L' M. 

Altehnis anuU regnanJi vices pafti Atreus & Thycftes, Pelopis 
ex Hippodamia lilii, Argis imperabunt Thyclles, adjiivmlc A^rcipe 
hlr[s uxore, quam in adulleriam pellexeral, aurcum arietem, in 
cujus pofTerUoae erat falum rcgni, amavel, & mule coufcius in 
exfilium »bit. Alreiis, eviillTe dolens, miflia Tuis liliis vellc Te in 
graliam redire llmulat, oblata regni parte reditum illi fuadel & 
perfuadet. Tre.i Thyeflis liberos, quos oblides acceperal, ail aras 
immoUtos, partim alTos, pailim clixos patri nefctenti epulandos 
apponit, mixtumque vino cruorem illi prxbeL fub daem nefandi 
couvivii (quod Sol, ne videret, refugit) capita illi & manuii fill- 
orum onendit, quafque dapes abfumferit, norrat, iufullaa^ fralris 
lufhii, dolori, & imprccationibus. 



Adducitnr ab inferis Tanlalus a Furia, cogilurque mifccre 

nefaria. odia imer fuos ex Pelope uepotes 

Atreum &. Thyefluin. 

TANT. Vy^ulB me inferornra fede ab infaufta eitrabit, 

Avido fugacc! ore caplantem cibos? 

Quia male Deoriim Tanlalo vivas donlos 

Oftendil Uenim? pejus inventuni rft fill 

Arenle in undis aliquid, & pejus fame 

Kianle femperP Sifyphi □umquid lapis 

Geftaadus humeris lubricus ooftri? venit? 

Aul membra celeri difFerens curfu rota? 

Aut poena Tityi, qui Tpecu vaflo patens 

Vifccribus atras pafcil effoffis aves; 

Et noA^ reparans, quidquid amifll die, 

Plenum recent) pabulum monftro jacel? 

In quod malum iraarcrilrar! o quisquis nova 

Supplicia faadiis durus umbrarum arbiter 

Difponii, adde, li quid ad pcenas potcs, 

Quod ipfe cuflcia [Aui;ens diri horreal. 

Quod mocdus Acheron pavent, ad cujus meluni 



Chorus of Old Men of 




Tantalus, and another 


Son of Thvestes, sile^ 

'USTHENES, Son, or 

members. M 


Guard, Messenger. 1 



[Atreus and Thyestes, the sons of Pelops by Hippodamia, 
governed (heir kingdom, every other year, having 
agreed to rule by turns, Thyestes, with the assisl- 
lance of his brother's wife, Aerope, whom he enticed 
to commit adulteir. makes away with the golden ram. 
The fate of the Kingdom hanging on the possession 
thereof, and conscious of his giiilt, he goes away into 
exile. Atreus, angry that he should have thus escaped 
his vengeance, pretends that he will restore htm to 
favor, if he will send his sons as hostages; he persuades 

>him to return and offers him his share of the kingdom 
again, and he persists in this persuasion. He has the 
three sons received as hostages sacrificed, and serves 
.them up as a feast, part of them roasted, and part 
boiled, to the unsuspecting parents, and Atreus hands 
Thyestes wine mixed with their blood. Towards the 
end of the feast (from which Phcebus has fled, lest he 
should witness it) Atreus shows him the heads and 
hands of his sons, and tells him that they were the 

I feast of which he had partaken, jeering at his brother's 
y disgust, grief qnd curses. 



Tantalus is brooghl from Hell by the Fury (Megiera). and 
he is compelled to foster ihe wicked enmity between 

his grandso 

, Atre 

5 and Thyestes, and the 



MO has drawn me forth from my miserable abode 

in Tartartis, where my food was snatched away, 

as it neared my hungry mouth: which of the Gods 

spitefully summoned Tantalus to see the a\>i>des vA 

ItHng again} Has any j 

punishmet\t been &s- 




Nos quo<]uc tremainus. quxre: jam noHra TubU 
E ftirpc lurbi, qua; fuum vincat geouK, 
Ac me innocenteni faciat, & innufa audcal. 
Regione quidquid impia celTat loci^ 
Complcbo. nuDquam ftanle Pelopeia domo 
Minoi vacabit. meg. Pei^, deteflabilis 
Umbnt, & penateis impios furiis age. 
Certetur omni fcelerc, & atterna vice 
Stringantur enTes. ne fit itarum modus, 
Pudorve. menles caxus infliget furor. 
Rabies pareatum durel, & longnm nefas 
Eat in nepoles. nee vacet cuiquam vehis 
Odifle crimen, fcmper orialur novum, 
Nee unum in udo: dumque punilur icclus, 
CreCcal. fuperbis fratribus regoa eicidant, 
Repelantque profugos: dubia violcnUe domus 
Fortuna reges inler incertos labeL 
Mifer en potenle fiiLt, ex niirero polens; 
Fluifluque regnum cafus affiduo feral. 
Ob Tcelera pulli. dum dnbit patriam Ueus^ 
Id fcelera redcrnnu liiitque tarn inviri omnibu^i, 
(juaiD Tibi. Dihil Hi, ira quod vetitum pulei. 
Fmlrem expavefcal fraler, & Datum parens, 
Natufque patrem: liberi pcrennl mule; 
Pejus lomen nafcantiir: immineal vim 
Itlfefta conjiw. bella traiu ponlum vchani: 
Eflufus omnes irriget terras cruor; 
.Supraque Diagiios gentium eifultet duces 
Libido viiflrii, impia rtuprum in dome 
LevilTimum Til fratris & fa.% & fides, 

covered more horrible than dying with burning thirst? 
and with water, too, around me. and within my reach, or 
worse even than insatiable himeer with nothing to 
appease its pangs. I wonder whether the slippery stone 
of Sisyphus is intended to be worn on my shoulders, or 
the wheel of I.tion to whirl my limbs round and round 
with its rapid motion ; or does the puitishment of Tityua 
await me, whose lot it was, to provide food. a.s he lay 
exposed in a huge cave, for the horrible birds of prey, 
which pecked away at his entrails, and only to make up 
at night what he lost in the day, and he lies there, only 
waiting to afford a full repast for some fresh arrival, some 
bird of prev! To what fresh torment am I to be handed 
over? Oh! Whatever relendess judge thou art, who 
dispensest the laws of the Manes; why layest thou aside 
the old punishments already undergone to impose fresh 
ones? And if thou canst, add to my punishment what 

Lines 13-47' THYESTES. 87 

the guardian of the most cruel prison would quail to 
think of, at what tristful Acheron would even tremble, at 
the fear of whom all we unfortunate Manes are wont to 
wince again ! Seek for some thing ! Now, forsooth, there 
starts up a tribe springing from my race, which makes 
me to feel like an innocent individual in comparison, 
and a race that has the audacity to do things that I 
could never have conceived (in my most vivid imagina- 
tion). AVhatever place presents itself in the regions of the 
condemned, I will fill up the vacancy. Minos, the judge of ' 
Hell, will never be without employment so long as the , 
race of Pelops lasts. 

MEG. Come on, thou despicable Ghost, and stir up this 
criminal abode, with the very rage of the Furies ; let them 
engage in strife, with every venomous determination, and 
let the sword be perpetually at work with one, or the 
other; let there be no bounas to their animosity, and the 
blindest rage inflame their hearts. Let the mad wrath 
of the parents continue and let it descend for ever to 
their distant offspring, and lest ancient crimes should lose 
their stinging remembrances, and become more endurable, 
let a fresh one crop up, but not one only, but one 
doubled in its severity! And whilst their crimes are 
being punished, let matters get worse, and let the king- 
dom fall from the hands of me proud brothers, only to 
be reclaimed by them, as exiles and rivals ! The doubtful 
chances of a divided and belligerent dynasty will oscillate 
between the bewildered kings, and thus a miserable man, 
may become a man of power, and a man of power reduced 
to misery, and he who holds the kingdom will be con- 
stantly harassed by event following event, as it were in 
a continuous flow — driven away on account of their crimes, 
let them return to a land of crimes, so long as the Gods 
vouchsafe to them a country to live in, and let them be, 
if possible, as hateful to themselves as they are to otliers 
— let there be nothing which their rage may seek^to 
deem themselves forbidden to do. Let brother intimidate 
brother — parent, son — and son, parent — and let their chil- 
dren pensh a miserable death! Let children be born 
under worse conditions, incestuous parentage! (Brothers- 
in-law, sisters-in-law, mother and son, father and daughter !) 
Let an enraged wife be a source of danger to a husband J 
and that she may, through such a cause, lead on to wars 
beyond the seas, (Agamemnon and Menelaus, sent to 
recapture Helen,) and that blood shall be made to irrigate 
every land! Let triumphant lust be made to triumph 
over illustrious chiefs, (Chryseis and Cassandra,") "Wv\o 
jr/e/d to Its power. Let adultery be but a very ItmaX 

Spumanle ahcDO? menibrn per paries cm 
Difceqiia: pnlrios noUiiai fnnguis focos: 
Epula; i&Aruanlur, noii novi fceleris (ibi 
CoQviva venies; libenim dedimus diem, 
TuanMjuc ad idns folviniUB mmfas fnmci 
Jejanifl eiple. mixlus in Bncchum cruor 
Spcctaole te potelur. inveni dapes, 
Quas ipfe fugeres. Siftc. quo pneccns ni: 
TAH'l'. Ad ftagna, 4 aiones, & recedentes 
l«brifijue ab ipfis arboris plena: fliers, 
Abire in alrum carceris liceal mei 
Cubile: liceal, fi panim videor mifer, 
Mulare ripns: alvco medius luo 
rhlegethon rellniiinr, igaen ciniflus frelo. 
Quicunqui: p<Eniis lege Fatocum dalaa 
Pali juberis: quirquis exeCo (aces 
Pavidus Tub antro, jamijuc venluri limes 
Miinlis niinam; quifquis avidonim fen» 
Kklua leonuDi, & dira. Puriarum agmina 
Imjiiicilus liurres: quisquU immina.s races. 
Semhiflus abigis, Tanlali loceni eiicipe 
rrapetaiiLi. ad vqs: crcdile ciperto mihi. 
Amale puiins. qUBJiiln contingel mihi 
Ktfugcre liiptrosf MEG. Anie prrluiba don 

consideration with ihem in their wic 
binding confidence between brolhe 
every ' triisl and__all__lhat_ji^ijjl^ 

,,s-«3l THYESTES. 

rs be embellished, and let the joyous pori 
] made verdant with the laurel. Let there be 
a blaze of illuminations, worthy of celebrating the arrival ! 
I^t the Thracian tragedy, one victim be acted over again 
but on a larger scale! (Three victims.) Why should an 
Uncle claim the privilege of withholding his co-operation? 
Does not Thyesles bewail his sons yet? Why does he 
hane back so lon^? The flames already beneath the 
caldron, are fetchmg up the foam! Let the separated 
limbs break up into pieces! Their blood shall dehle the ^^h 
paternal hearth! The feast will now be prepared, noT^^^I 
wilt thou arrive to witness a scene of crrnie, to whic&^^^l 
thou canst be anv stranger— thou shalt have a day set^^^H 
apart for thv speci'al enjoyment, and thou shalt thoroughly ^^H 
satisfy thy hungry cravings, with the viands prepared at I 

thy meals— fill then thy empty interior, and blood mixed 
with wine, shall be quaffed in thy very presence; I have 
arranged this feast, and pray, why dost thou refuse to ^^1 
Btaartake of it?— Stop, please; whither art thou rushing so^^^tf 
BHtfriedly: ^^^H 

■ TANT. Back to the stagnant pools, the noisome rivers, ^^^ 
the ebbing streams, back to the trees laden with fruit which 
recedes from my lips, as soon as it is approached; it is 
surely permissible for me to return to the sombre resting 

place of mv quondam prison ! Then, if I am only 
rendered a iittfe less miserable thereby, let the river be 
transferred to other banks more trying! Oh Phle^lhonl 

let me be Ilirown into the middle of thy streams, flowing 
with fiery waves! and thou, whatsoever thoii art, who art 
commanded by the inexorable decrees of Fate to undergo 
punishment awarded — whoever crouches panic-stricken 
in a cave rotten with destroying time; dost thou already 
dread the fall of the mountain which threatens to come 
down upon thee with a crash: whoever there is that 
dreads the savage roarings of the lion, and, entangled. 
shrinks before the scourginft whips of the assembled 
Furies,— whoever, half-bum^ flies from the vengeful torches, 
as they are dealt forth in rapid succession: listen to the 
words of Tantalus, who is fast hastening to join thee; 
believe in me, an experienced sufferer, and learn to 
appreciate thy punishments, with a thankful spirit. Ah! 
L wonder when my luck will arrive to escape from these 
^gjons above! 

Before we discuss other matters, put the palace into 
jiough confusion, and bring' the heralds of coTimg v(ai 
t ihee, aad the disasters connected with the SwotA,!; 




Infcrquc tecum priElia. it Sent malum 
RegiliiLs amorem: cancute inrano reram 
PcJtus lumuUu. TANT. Me pati pipnaa decet, 
Nou cite pceosin: mittor, ul dims vapor 
Tellurc lupta, vel gravem puptilis luem 
Sparfura peftis, ducom in hacrendum nefas 
Avus nepales. Magne Divorum parens, 
Nonerque, quamvis pudeW; ingenli licet 
Taxatu pceaa lingua crucielur loquax; 
Nee hoc tncebo: moneo, nc facra mBaus 
Vicilate csedc, neve furiali malo 
Afpergite aras. Habo, & arcebo fcclus. 
Quid om tenes verbere, & IotIos fcrox 
Minaris aaguesi? quid famem inrixani inlimii 
Agitas medullis? flagraot iDCcarum fill 
Cor, & ptiaAis fininma vifceribuii micat. 

Sic, lie ferantur, & fuum infenfi invicem 
Siliaat cruorem: rcnTil inlroilus luos 
Doinus, & nefando tota conloflu homiit. 
Aflum eft nliundc. gradcre ad inremos Tpecus, 
Amneiaque uolurn: jam tuum idieIIz pedem 
Teme g^ravannir. ccrnis, ut fontes liquor 
Inlrorfus aiflus linquat; ut ripic voccnl; 
Vcntufque raras igneus oubes ferat? 
Pallefcil omni* arlmr, ac nudus fleiit 
fugiente porno ramus; & qui flul5til>u^> 
Itlinc prupinquU inbmos atque iJlinc rremil, 
Viciaa gracili dividens lenn vada, 
Longe remotoa lalu.'^ exaudil fonos. 
jam Lema retro cefTit, & Phoronides 
Laluere venx: nee fuas proferl facer 
Alpheos undas, 4 Cittiarronis juga 
Stant parte nulla cana dcpofita nive, 
Timenlque veterem nobiles Argi fitim. 
En ipfe Titan dubila,t, an jubeat Tequi, 
Cogatque habenis ire perilurum diem. 

which kings do so delight, and perplex their truculent 
minds with the wildest and most tumultuous passJonsl 

TANT, It is my especial province to suffer punishment, 
and not promote myself to inflict it upon others. I am sum- 
moned then, that a pestilential vapor should issue fottii 
for the opening of the earth, created by my exit, or as 
a plague to diffuse its deadly contagion amongst mankind! 
And that I, as a grandfather, shall ne the means of urginj 
my grandchildren to perpetrate the most horrible wickea 
nessT Oh! Great parent of the Gods! although, 1 blush 

u™ a,-,.,} THVF.STES. 

to declare my paiernity, is it necessary that rny longue, 1 
already- visited with a great punishment for my past 
loquacity be further doomed to silence? I shall not, 
however, be silent over this matter. I shall conjure m_y 
grandsons not to violate the sacred altars, with their 
bands reeking with slaughter, and not to besprinkle them 
with the blood of their victims, under the evil instigation 
of the wicked furies (addressing Megffira); I shall De in 
attendance and will stop this sanguinary work— why dost 
thou attempt to frighten me with thy scourging whips and 
savagely threaten me with thy wriggling serpents? Why 
dost thou revive the hunger already searcning out the 
veri- marrow of my bones: Why increase tne thirst, 
which now bums up my inside, and the flames that play 
,ibout my scorched entrails?— after all I suppose I shall 
have to comply! 1 comply then! 

UEc. The fury that now possesses thee, spread it over the 
entire palace, for as thou thirstest for water so let others 
t>e brought into a similar craving condition, and so raging 
with thirst, that they shall crave for each other's blood, 
out of very hatred 1 The palace already has been aware 
of thy approach, and completely shudders at thy wicked 
proxiiiiity! Everything is abundantly provided for. go 
now to Uiy infernal cave, and the river thou knowest so 
well, already the sad Earth is oppressed with thy footsteps I 
Dost thou not sec, how the very streams return to their J 
sprini!S, so that the river-banks are forsaken? and now &! 
fiery wind bears onward the dried-up clouds, every tree 9 

grows pale (loses its verdancy) and there stands with its ] 
ranches denuded of the fruit, which falls off, and the 
Isthmus (Corinth) which keeps up a constant roaring 
here and there with the near waves of the two seas, 
which it divides with its narrow strip of land, now only 
listens to the far-off waves, from the waters, that have 
receded from its banks! Now the sources of the Lerna 
are dried up, and the streams of Inachus (Phoronides) 
have quite disappeared. Nor does the sacred A![)heus 
pour forth its waters any more— And the summits of 
Cithairon present no while anywhere, the snow having 
disappeared, and the noble people of Argos fear a return 
of the droiu;ht with which they were afflicted once before; 
and Titan fiimself is in doubt whether he shall command 
the day lo follow in due course, or whether be sh all keep 
back the horses of the sun, tighdy reined, and not to 
enter upon another day which he fancies, he will not be 
able to carry through 1 

Si quis Txyeeti coufpicuas nives. 
Quas, cum Sarmalicaa lemporc frigido 
In fuminis Boreas compofuJI jufp's, 
M^iA velireris folvit Elellis; 
Quern langil Relidp flumine lucidus 
Alpheos, ibdio notus OlfoipicD: 
Ailvertnl placidum numeu, & arceal 
Allcmas rcelemm, ac rcdcaal, vices; 
Neu fucccdat avo deterior nepos; 
Et mitjiir placeat culpa mmoribux. 
TRndem IoITb feros exusl impelus 
Sicci progenies impia TaDtali. 
PeccBtum Iktts efl. fas valuil nihil, 
Auc commune nefiu. proditus occidil 
Deceptor domini Myrtilus, & Tide 
Vcillus, (gun lulerat, nobile reddidit 
Mnlato pelagus nomiae. nolior 
Nulla eft louiis fabnla navibus. 
Excrptut gladio parvulus impio 
Dura curtit pnlrium narua ad ofculum, 
linmalurn focU virftima cuncidil: 
l)ivifuft[Ue lua ed, Tantale, dculera, 
Mcnras m flrueres horpilibua Deis; 
Ilos a:tu'na fames prolequilur ciboi, 
Hos iclema litis: nee dapibus feris 
Decenii poluit poena decentior. 
Sul lufus Vflcuo guiiure Tantalus, 
Impendel capiti [^urima noKio 

Wf any tutelar deity, amongst the gods above, w in 
' chenshes any affectionate regard for Achfean Argoir J 

or if the noble race of Pisa, who celebrate the Olympian 
Games with their emulating chariots; if there be any, 
who look with favor on the Corinthian Isthmus, with its 
double harbours, and the two seas which it separates; if 
any admiring tutelar god, who sees from afar, the magni- 
ficent snows mantling the summits of Taygetus, which the 
Scythian Boreas has furnished during the winter season, 
and which the ensuing summer's sun melts, and renders 
the path easy for navigators with their sailing ships, as 
the Etesian winds spring up. (These periodicarnorth-east 
n-inds were alwavs continuous, like our trade winds.) Is 
there a Deity wnom the bright Alpheus with its cooling 
streams claims as a friendly protector, the place, too, so 
noted for its race-course and Olympian Games I look 
down, oh! that kind deity, and interpose, lest such crimes, 
as have already been committed aforetime, should be 
repeated!— let not a grandson succeed to the throne poss- 
ibly worse than his grandfather, nor that greater cnmes 
may suit the inclinations of the younger successors !^ At 
length, may the impious progeny of thirsting Tantalus, 
wearied out, abandon their ferocious violence; enough 
crime has jjready been committed— the law, hitherto of 
no avail, has been trampled on. and all the ordinary 
offences of mankind have been wickedly surpassed I And 
Myrtilus, the treacherous betrayer of his master, fell 
betrayed like that master, and was carried off with the 
same treacherous intentions, which he had manifested 
towards CEnomaus. and being thrown into the sea liy 
felops, rendered that sea famous, its name being changed 
from its former one. {Pelops having thrown him into the 
sea, instead of carrying out his promise, that he should 
l>e a sharer in the favors of Hippodamia.) No legend is 
better known to the Ionian mariners, than this. Thy 
own litde offspring, Pelops. fell by thy impious sword, 
ohl thou, Tanudusl just as ne was merrily tripping along 
to receive a father's caress, that tender victim died at the 
altar,* and was carved up by thy own hand, that thou 
might (with his flesh) supply the feast, which thou servedst 
up for the Gods, whom thou invitedst as thy guests 1 (To 
test the divinity of the Gods, but they all abstained, 
except Ceres!) Eternal huneer awaited thee, after this 
meal and eternal thirst, as the part price of this repast! 
Nor could a more worthy punishment have been decreed 
in token of such a diabobcal feast! Tantalus continues 
lo be baffled in his vain efforts, to satisfy his empw 
throat! Many a tempting prize hangs over his sicWy heac 
1 store fugiiirc than ihc I'hinx-an vultures! Here 

^V 94 


Phineiii avibus piseda fugacior: 
Hiuc illinc gntvidis frond ibui incubat 
Et ciiiv4Ua fuis ffflibu^, ac TremcDs 
Alludil patulis arbor hUtibus: 
Hicc, quamvis avidus, ncc paticns moriE, 
Deceplus tolEes laogere aegligit, 
Obliqutttque oculos, oraque CDmprimil, 
Inclullfque famem denlibus alligal: 
Sed tunc divilUs omuc aenius fuas 
Demiltit propius, pomaque dcfupcr 
InTultant toliis micia Imguidis, 
AccmduDlque fainem, qax jubel irritas 
Exercere manus: has ubi pratulit, 
Et falli libuit, tolua ia arduum 
AntumDus rapitur, filvaquc mobilis. 
Inftal dcinde filiE non Icvior fstne; 
Qua cum percaluil Taitguis, & igneis 
Exarfit facibus, Hat mifer obvios 
Flu£lus ore vocans, quos profugu-s Inlex 
Avert) I, nerili deficieus vado, 
ConaDtcnique fequi, deferil. liic bilijf 
Altum de rapido gurgite jiulverem. 




Atreus, ulcifceadi fratrem ceiius^ dc v 

debbeml, quern honefta toufulcn 

taaUeni & iufandnra utlionia 

I'robrum tyrauno rebus in fumitiiii reor) 
Inulle, pofl lot CccteiB, pod fralris dolos 
FoTque omne niptuni, quenibus vaois agis 
Iralus Alreuii^ frenierc jam lotua Luis 
Debebal armis orbis, & geminuni mare 
Utcinque claffes agere: jam flammis agroB 
Luccrc & urbes decujt; ac llriiflum uodii]! 
Micare fcmiui. lota rul> noflro fonet 
Argolica lellus equite: Don fitv^ teganl 

there a tree droops downwards, with its heavily laden 
boughs, bending again with the weight of its fruit, and 
swaying to and fro, niays the part of tempter with its 
patulous opienings— Although hungry atid tmpatient of 
delay, he fails to reach them, being disappointed as often 
as he makes the attempt— he averts his eyes, and doses 

, ,S4— »J) THYKSTKS. 95 J 

loath, trying to stifle his hunger, by closing his teelh, 

by shutting it in, as it were! But then every grove lowers 
ils rich and luscious fruit fwealth)^ nearer and nearer, 
and the ripe apples leap about friskily above his head 
surroonded by the leaves languidly yielding to their 
capers, and they excite his hunger more and more and 
this urges him to make futile efforfs to seize them with 
his hands, that when he has held these forth in vain, he 
seems reconciled to such freauent disappointmenls. and 
the entire autumn during wnich this fruitless task .' 

exacted, passes away, and with it, disappears the grace- 
fulness ol the groves; and now comes a thirst, not hghter 
to be bome than the hunger already endured, thirst which 
when (he blood grows hotter, bums him up, as it were 
with an inward fire; he stands then niiseratily invoking 
the streams to approach his parched up mouth, but which 
the receding river diverts, leaving notliing but its empty 
bed. whenever he attempts to get near it, and he swallows 
nierely the sand, which lies at the bottom of the rapid 



Itis consults with his guard, having determined to 
wreak his revenge on his brother, as to the best 
mode of carrying out his vengeance, to whom, 
however, he will not listen, as the guard advises him 
only to do what is right, and at length he decides 
on an impious and horrible plan of executing such I 



k H, sluggish, aimless, pusillanimous soul of mine (and 
" what! suppose to be most contemptible in a king. 
the consummation of every other shortcoming), 
imrevenged, after so much wickedness, after the treach- 
ery of a brother, and every law human and divine 
trampled upon I why dost thou, Atreus, exercise thy angry 
spirit with vain and meaningless complaints? But tne 
whole of Argos ouBbt at this moment to be resoimding 
with the din of thy arms, and every warship muster 
and be afloat in the two seas; by this time, it might be 
expected, too, that the fields and cities were blazing with 
the conflagrations thou hast set up, and the dmwn swoid 
flashing oo all sides; all the A/goJic land shou\d ' " 






HoAem, nee altis mootium ftniftte jugis 

Arces. relidtis bellicum totus caant 

Populis Mycenis. quifquls [nvifum caput 

Tegit ac luerur, clade fuuefta occidat. 

Hebc ipfa pollens inditi Pelopi? domus 

Runt vel in me, duinmodo in fra.lrein ruat. 

Age, anime, foe, quod nulla pofteritas probet; 

Sed nulla taceat. aliquod audcudum ell nefu!; 

Atrox, cruentuHi; tale, quod fraler meus 

!iiiuin efTe mallei, fcelera non ulcifceria, 

Nifi vincia. & quid eiTe tatn fa^vum polell, 

Quod fupercl ilium? numquid nbjmflus jacel? 

Numquid fecundis patitui :□ rebus modum, 

Feflls quietemf novi ego ingenium viri 

Indocile: flefli oon poled, frangi poteft. 

Proin antequam fe linnet, aut vire.s paret, 

Petatur ullroj ne quiercentem petat. 

Ant perdet, aul perihiL iti medio eft fcelus 

Pofilum occupanli. sat. Fama 1e populi nihil 

Adverfa lerret? A'J'R. Maximum hoc regni bouum e 

Quod Fac^a domini cogitur populus fui 

Tam ferre, quam laudare. BAT, Quos cogit melus 

Laudare, eordem rcddit iuimicos metus. 

At qui favoris gloriom veri petit, 

Aaituo megis, quam voce, laudaii volet 

ATlt. Laus vera & humili fxpe cootingit vlro: 

Non niC potenii falfa. quod notunl, velinL 

SAT. Rex velit honefta; nemo non eadem volel. 

ATFt. Ubicunque [anCum hoiieila <lomiaanli licent, 

Precaiio regnatur. sat, Ubi non est pudor, 

Ncc cura juris, fandlilas. pielas, fides; 

Inflabile reguum ell. atr. Sanctitas, pielas fides, 

Privata bona fuot: qua juvsl, reges eanl. 

sat. Nefos Docere vel milo fratri pula. 

sounding again with the stamping hoofs of thy cavalry. 
Let liot the forests afford a retreat for the enemy, or fortifi- 
cations constructed on the lofty summits of mountains 
^leaving MyceniE behind, let all my subjects sound the 
trumpet of war. Whosoever has protected or countenanced 
this hateful brother of mine, the powerful following of 
the illustrious dynasty of Pelops, shall slay with merdful 
slaup;hterl Let every living man rush upon me, even 
provided he serves my brother in a similar mannerl 
Come, soul of minel Do what no posterity would hail 
as proper! but what in sooth, they may never foreet— 
Some atrocious bloody deed must be done, whicK my 
brother would rather be done by himself against me, but 
it is impossible thoroughly to revenge wickedness unleu 
"' 1 surpasses! it in degree! but lo ! what savage deed, in 

m ha. 

■ I wo 
H whei 

■ ztast 
' calm 




fact, can be done which could daunt thai man's atrocity? 
I wonder whether he is a man that will die away ijiiieily, 
whether he is the sort of man to bear prosperity in a 
reawnable frame of mind, or whether he can show 
calmness in adversity? I have always detected in him, a 
certain indomitableness of character; he is a man not 
to be bent! he must be broken I therefore, before he 
has time to gather up his strength or prepare for oppo- 
i^ition. he must be sought out at once, lest indeea he 
should seek to find me in a state of unpreparedness— 
Either he will kill me or he will perish by my hand, 
the crime is so finely balanced between us, that he wilt 
win, who is the foremost in its perpetration I 

CL". Surely no murmurings — no false 
iky subjects is disturbing thy peace of 

The chief charm of a kingdom amounts to this, 
_. ...e subjects of the master are compelled rather to 
1 the bidthng of their ruler than to be called upon, 
Kcessarily to applaud their deeds! 

The fear which compels others to praise thee only 
i such fear more hostile (in its character), but he 
I seeks the glory arising out of genuine applause, 
t be willing to be lauded in spirit, rather than in 
^local demoDstrativeness. 

ATR. Genuine praise often falls to the lot of a humble 
man; false flattery is a tribute paid only to the powerful. 
t£ht law with kings is, the people must be willing to do 
pirbat they do not regard with satisfaction. 

When a king wishes for nothing but what is just, 
> one desires anyining more. 

Apt, Wherever honesty is the only thing looked for in 
^ king, such a king's sceptre is in a veiy precarious state. 

Where there is no moderation, no regard for the 
Klaws' probity, no religion, and no confidence, such a king- 
(doin rests on a most unstable foundation. 

_ ATR. Religion, probit>', good faith are the attributes of 
"leir private possessors—kings say, do and command just 
t ihey think proper. 

— .t is not right to injure anybody, nor right otcti 
D dream of such a thing, where a brother is concerned. 



ATB. Fs! est in illo, quidquid in fnrtre eft nefas. 

Quid cnim rclifjiLii crimine inlaiflum? aut ubi 

Sceleri y^qiercit! cunju^m Itupro abtluHl, 

Kegnumque furto; fpeciiDen antiquuni imperii 

Fraude eft adeptus; frnude turbavit domum. 

Eft Pelopis altis nobile in ftabilus pecus, 

AicanuB aries, duflor opitlenii gregis; 

Cujus per omne coriiui eFTufo coma 

Depepdet auro; cQJus e tergo novi 

AarUa reges fcepira Tantalici gtnuDt; 

PolTelTor huju^ regnat: hunc cuncke domus 

Fortuna fequilur. lulu fepofita facer 

In pane caipit pritla, qiuc claiidil iapia, 

Falale faneo pafcuam muro legens; 

Hnnc, facinus ingeps aufus, olTuinta ia fcelus 

Conforte noftii perfidus Thalami ttvehll: 

flinc OTaae cladia mutua: fluxil malum. 

Per regPB trepidiu exful eiravi mea: 

Pars nulla generis tula ab infidiis vacat. 

Coirupla CDPJux, imperii quafTa ell liileB, 

Domuii xgm, dubjus fanguis: eft certi nihil, 

Nifi fraler hoftis. quid flupes? landem incipe, 

Animoque fume Tantalum, £: Petopem afpice: 

Ad bxc menus exempla pofcuntur meir. 

Profare, dirum qua caput uioAem via- 

SAT. FeiTO peremtus fpiritum inimicum exfpuat. 

ATK. De line pcenx loqueri.i, ego pwnam valo. ■ 

Perimati tymnnus lenis. in regno raeo 

Mors impetralur. sat. Nulla te pietas niovet? i 

ATK. Fxcede, pietas; (fi modo noftia in donio 

Unquam fuifti) dira Furianim cobors, 

Difcorfque Erinnys veniat, & geminos faces 

McgiEra qualieus. ood fatis majjno meum 

Ardel furoie peiflus: impleri juvat 

Majore mopftro. sat. Quid mivi rabidus ftruis? 

ATR. Whatsoever has been unlawful in my brother to- 
wards mc, is only justice on my part to recriminate. What 
has he left to be done, hut what is already stamped with 
the seal of crime? or when has he spared crime? He has 
robbed me of my wife by his adultery, and stolen my 
kingdom (into the bargain), He has fraudulently possess- 
ed himself of the traditional emblem of our oynasty, 
and he has brought about endless disaster upon our 
royal house ! There is in the royal mews of Pelops, a 
noble wool-bearing animal, a mysterious Ram, the bell- 
wether of an illustrious flock, whose dense fleece hanes 
down over its entire body, and profusely loaded wiUi 
gold, and from whose back the wool is taken, which 
adorns the golden sceptre, which every newly-appointed 

^Ml THYKSTES. 99| 

the house of Tantalus dons, when lie ascenddJ 
the throne. The possessor of this valuable heir-loom isl 
the man who rules the kingdom; the destinies of th&l 
house, therefore, are indjssolublf connected with it " 
This sacred animal, therefore, in a spot set apart for that ' 
object, is allowed to browse without molestation in a 
soft meadow, which a stone wall shuts in, protecting with 
its stony defence , the feeding ground of this golden 
ram, which directs the fate of the kingdom. My brother 
has been so daring, in his unparalleled wickedness, that 
he has perfidiously carried it away, my wife being acces- 
sor}- to this deed, as well as being a partner in ms guilt, 
that of fouling my marriage bed! Hence, every misfor- 
tune which has befallen me has been intermingled with 
the results of this terrible blow. Throughout my < 
kingdom, I have tramped as a trembling outcast! . __ 
a single part of thai kingdom, claims exemption from 
the traces of her insidious treatment! With a dishonor- 
ed wife, [he strength of my authority crushed, my 
lineage impaired, my very offspring of doubtful paternity : 
is there— can there be anything of which 1 can now be 
certain, except that it is the hostility of Thyestes? Why, , 
then. Alreus, why shouldst thou hesitate as to what thou ' 
shouldst do? Begin at once, inoculate thy mind with some 
of the temper of Tantalus, and seek out Felons as a 1 1 
fitting model for ihy operations, they are properly requi- r| 
sitioned (in thy case). But say, Atreiis, now wilt thou 
immolate that dreadful monster: 

GU. I suppose, thou meanest, that his death by the 
sword will be the only means of effectually rooting out 
finally and for ever his hostile spirit towards thyself. 

ATR. Thou wishest to sneak of the mode of his punish- 
ment — death. I wish to discuss the punishment itself, 
which I shall carrj' out. It is only a meek sort of king, 
who merely kills in my kingdom, simple death is a luxury 
sought after! 

GU. Does no piety rule thy heart? 

ATR. Get away with thee! Rehgion indeed! If thou 
hast never been in our house, thou shall enter now! The ^ 

dreadful troop of Furies— harsh Erinnys will be there, ' 

and Megsra. shaking in her hand torches, doubled on my 
account My breast does not sufficiently burn with the 
^eal rage within me. it would please me to be tilled 
with greater monstrosities! | 

Bbd. What nen- jdea does thy infuriated minii pxesert ^^H 



ATR. Nil quod cHpial alTueli madum. 

Nullum relimiuam fncinus; & nullum eft fatis, 

iAT. Femim? ATR, Parum eft. sat. Quid ignis? ah 

jianiui ell- 
SAT. Quonnm ago telo tantus uletur dotorf 
ATR. Ipfo Thyefte. SAT. Majus hoc ira eft malum. 
ATR. Fateor. tumullus peiftora. atEonituE quatit, 
Penilufque voUit: rapior, & quo ncfcio; 
Sed rapior. imo mugit e fundo folumj 
Tonat dies rerenus; ac totis domus 
Ut finAa leAis crcpuit; & moti lares 
Veitere vultum: liat hoc, liat nefas. 
Quod, Dii, timetis. sat. Facere quid tandem parns? 
< ATR. Nefcia quid animus roajus, & folilo ampUus, 
Sufiraquc fines moris humani tumet, 
Inllalque pigriK nianibub: haud. quid fit. fdo; 
Sed grande quiddam eft ita fit; hoc, anjme, occupa. 
Dignum eft Thyefte facinus, & dignum. Alreo 
Oterque faciaL vidit infandas domus 
Odiyfia menfas. fateor; immane eft Icelus, 
Sed occnpatum: majus hoc aliijuid dolor 
InvenieL animum Daulis iufpira parens, 
Soroiqae. caufa eft fimilis. affifte, & manum 
Impelle nuftram : liberos avidui pater 
Gaudenrque lacerel, & fuos artus edal. 
Bene eft. ahunde eft. hie placet pieux modus 
Taniifpei'- ubinam eft? tarn iliu cur innoc 
Vcrfator Alreus? Iota jam nntc oculos me< 
Imago oedis eirat; ingefta orbitas 
Id ora palris. anime, quid rurfus limes? 
R( ante rem fubfidis? audendum eft. age: 
Qood eft in ifto Tcelere pnecipuum nefas, 

ATR. Nothing, which takes the shape of ordinary 
hatred, I will leave no crime out of tiiy ciilciilations, anS 
not one appears sufficient for me. 

GU. There's the sword, thou knowest, the fashionaUe 
weapon I 

ATR. That is a miserable contrivance. 

GU. What instrument of destruction, therefore, will ihy 
anger allow thee to employ? 

ATR. Thyestes! Himself! 

(;u. But that crime, would even be greater than any 
mere outburst of fury. 

ATR. I confess thus much : but the most unaccountable 
tumults convulse my soul, and reverse the very spirit 

THVESTr,S. loi 

ithin me— I am carried away, T know not whither, but 

ted on in-esistibly ! The very earth seems to groan 

its lowest depths, and although ihr. day is serene 

lougb, yet thunder is heard in the sk'^Ji'md my very 

lode cracks and creaks, as if its roof were- f)rofcen down. 

id about to tumble upon me, and my \ttj ho-jsehold 

ids in an excited state, turn away their looks _!Voin me; 

It let my determination be carried out— let u, U it-be 

crime, be duly executed! What! Oh ye gods^'i'-VL-! 

ye scared at my resolves? ■ ;■ 

What then art thou ready to do, after all? ■ '; 

ATR. I know not exactly, what impels my mind with l 

ging thoughts so much and so much more than ordinarily, 1 

_^ono the bounds of all human ideas, but here I am, 1 

ilh my hands slow lo move! I know not, how it will | 

icceed, but so far as 1 have dwelt upon it, it appears to 

_ le a magnificent conception. Come, I shall think it over 

studiously, the crime of Th>;estes is really deserving of it, 

and it does credit to the mind of Aireus. Thus each of 

us will perform a parL The palace of the Thracian Kins 

has lieen the scene of seri'ing up, aforetime, a most 

repulsive repast! I acknowledge frankly — it is a most 

ras<rally deed, but it has been done before by others! 

But, nevertheless, my resentment must discover something 

yet more severe. I^et me be inspired with resolution, as 

an emulous imitator of that Daulian prototype Progne 

{of Tereus memory), and may that sister Philomela assist 

me and encourage my project, as our cause Is very 

similar, (.\treus is seeking to imitate and to look up to 

Daulis. as a child would to a parent, and personifies 

"Daulis" as a parent!) A hungry father shall with a 

smiling face cut up into dainty morsels, his own children, 

and partake of them at his repast! This is welll This 

is a Brilliant conception! t'or the present, then, this mode 

of punishing Thyestes, suits me exactly! But where am 

I? But why does Atreus hesitate in his mind without 

promptly carrying out his designs? The entire picture 

of this contemplated carnage already flits across my 

vision! I can see in my mmd's eye, the very children 

of whom he has been deprived, being devoured by their 

own father! O! for this resolution of mine. WTiy do I 

shrink back again from my task, and actually hang fire 

before the matter is taken in hand? Let me take courage 

tlien, the thing must be set almut! .And Thyesies himself 

will carry out, what will be the most abominable pari of 

this criminal drama (eating his own offspring), What a 

.parade of wholesale childlessness to exhibit before the 

-' - bereaved parent! 


^^WgUTT 111 mileriai mutet, alque Argos regat 
En parte tlominuii, (\ aimis durus preces 
Spernel Thyeftcs; libcios ejus rudes, 
Malifque reiTus giavibm, & focilcx capi, 
Pnecominovebuiit. hinc velus legui furor. 
lUinc egedas Iriftis, hinc dorus labor, 
QuamvLs rigentem tot malis fubigenl virun 
SAT. Jam tempus illi fecit Dsnimnos leves. 
ATK. Errais: mslorum fcnfus accicfcil die. 
Leve eft miferias ferre, perrerre efl grave. 
SAT. Alios miniftros confilii triftis lege; 
Pejora juvenes facile prxcepta audiunl: 
Id patre FaclcDt. quidquid in palruo duces. 
Sxpe in magiflrum feelers redieruDl fun. 
ATR. Ul nemo <1oceat fraudis & fceleris via^l 
Regnum docebit ne msli (iDBQt, tiniest I 

Nafcuncur iflud, quod vocos fivum, afperum. 
Agique diie credis, & niiniuiii impie, 
FortiUTe & illic agitur. sat. tianc fraudem fc 
Nali pamti ? A ra. Taella lam mdilius fides 
Noa ell In aiini^. delegeol forfan dolus, 
Tacere multis ilifciliir vit;i- nuilis. 

v.v. But by what devices is he ■ 
How will he be brought to wend his i 
toils? He will view everj'thing with dis 

ATR. 'Tis true, he cannot be allured. ' 
lo be allured to serve his own purpo 
knowest, he hones to gaJ" 'r,^, t-i».,fl 



ATR. Wicked hope is generally credulous: however, we 
will send a message, by my sons, which they shall conie^ 
to their uncle, to inquire whether he would not change his 
present condition of an outcast, wandering from his own 
kingdom, and from the miseries of his deserted home, 
and reign as ruler in part over Argos. If Thyestes him- 
self obdurately spurns their enfreaties, these representa- 
tions will encourage his clownish sons, worn out by their 
grievous sufferings, and they wili be more easy lo be 
cajoled I Whereupon, his insane desire lo rule again will 
prevail over everythmg, for there must be, where he is, 
sad privation and hence great distress, although these 
latter alone would suffice lo tame down an ordinary 
mind unhardened by so much wickedness! 

ATR ITiou art mistaken, he feels his sufferings increas- 
ing daily; it is easy, I admit, to bear misery, but to have 
to look forw-ard to nothing else, is much worse 1 

Gu. Do select other instruments for this woeful project, 
than thy own sons: young people give too ready an ear 
to worse counsels probably: they may act as regards thee, 
their father, just in the same way as thou art instructing 
them to act towards an uncle, so often is it that one s 
evil deeds recoil upon the authors thereofl 

ATR, When any one is unable to understand the 'ins' 
and 'outs' of frauds and crimes, he that rules can very 
soon enlighten him. Dost thou feel alarmed lest men 
should be made wicked? Nonsense! It is bom in them ! I 
know what thou thinkesi of me— that I am cruel, harsh, 
and desirous that everything should savor of severity, 
and this done, sometimes, with too little reverence for the 
gods; but the chances are that at this very moment Thyestes 
IS getting up some plot against me I 

uu. Will not thy sons soon detect that thy plan is 
nothing but a fraud; besides thou canst not expect, at their 
tender age, that any secret will be undivulged ; perhaps 
they might pretend that they were not being deceived. To 
leam the full value of silence is only learned, sometimes, 
after fighting with evils and misfortunes arising out of the 
too free use of the tongue ! and canst thou really suppose 
that thou canst hoodwink those whom thou siniply 
einployest to deceive others? Whether they do not often 

E:jiiitc opposite to thy views, as regards being wilful 
mplices in thy cj-inies. and thy guilt! 



SAT. Ipfofne, [ler quos faltcre BlJum cogitas, 
Fallei,- ul ipfi crimine & culpa vocnit? 
Al'K.' Qaid eaim eft necetTe liberos fceleri mei 
Iar<rere? per no« (xlis Te noAra Mplicenl. 
Male upa,, reikis, unime: fi purcis tuis. 
I'orces & illi: canfilt AgamemDon mei 
Sciens miuiOer flat, & patrl fciens 
Menelaus adfit. pralis incerix fides 
Ex hoc petntur fcelere. bella nlmuunl, 
Et gerere nolunl odiaj Si patnium vucant; 
Poler eft. eatur. multa fed Irepidos folel 
Del^^ere vuUus; magna aolenteni quoquo 
Conlilia produnl: nefcianl, (|un 

■liftri. I 

jflra ti 


C H O U U S. 

A difficiiis fralnim, qui ad lempus miiias coin|«inunt, fumpta 

occafiane, Chnnia regum ambUlonem lalnl, quis vera 

rex fit doceC, vUam deuique laleulem cuUaudat. 

A. ANtiEu legia nobilis, 
Anliqui genus Innchi, 
Fratrura corapofuil minas. 
I^is VDS cxagital furor, 
ALterais dare faiiguiDem, 
El fceptnim fcelere aggredit 
Nelcilis cupidi arcium, 
Regoum quo jaceil loco. 
Regem non faciunt opes, 
Non veftin Tyrae color, 
Nou frontis nota legiie, 
Non auTo nitidx fores. 
Rex efl, qui pofuil metus, 
Et diri nulla peiftom; 
Quem DOD ambitio impolens, 
El nunquam (labili!< favor 
Vulgi prsecipitis movel. 
Non quidquid fodit Occidens; 
Aut unda Tagus nurea 

ATR. Why is it even necessary to n . , 
with this wickedness? Cannot my hatred work out its ends 
through my own agency? Thou art playing me false, 
soul of mine, thou art flmching— if thou sparest thy child- 
\ Ten, thou art sparing thyselff And Againemnon shall 
Jmow of, and be an instrumenl \tv, m\ scWmc , and Mcoc- 

Lines 320— 354 j THYESTES. IO5 

laus too, shall be at his father's commands and be made 
acquainted with my project I Out of all this proposed 
combination of wickedness too, any notion of mine re- 
sp)ecting the uncertainty of their birth (as to legitimacy) 
will be cleared up: if they refuse to advocate war, and 
are ^Tiling to endorse ana carry out my hatred ; if they 
speak of me as ** Uncle"; then Thyestes is their father I 
Let us go on, but a troubled countenance is apt to be- 
tray the secrets of the mind, and will lay bare any un- 
willingness, they may entertain to join in the execution 
of projects of such importance! Let them therefore be 
in ignorance of the nature of the enterprise, in which they 
mil be co-oi)erators, and let me conceal my real inten- 

GU. This advice is superfluous to me, as thou must be 
aware. Thou knowest that thou possessest my fidelity 
and my only apprehensions are entirely as regards thy 
interests! But my fidelity, above all, will suffice to bury 
thy secrets in my innermost bosom I 


An opportunity is taken advantage of, and is drawn from 
the feud, oetween the brothers, who keep down their 
anger for a time; when the Chorus reproves the 
ambition of rulers, and points out what a true king 
should be, and lastly sings in praise of the amenities 
of a retired life. 

AT length the noble house of Inachus, that ancient 
lineage, has seen the rancorous feud of the brothers 
calmed down; what fury agitates thy breasts, that 
thou shouldst have carried on such mutual carnage, 
merely to gain a sceptre, wading to it in crime I Thou 
art ignorant Thou who art greedy of attaining power, 
of what does a kingdom really consist ? Riches do not con- 
stitute a king, nor gaudy vestments dyed with Tyrian 
hues, nor the blazing crown on a royal head, nor gor- 
geous ceilings (of a palace) shining with their rich gildmg. 
That man, though, is a king, who assuages all those fears 
(and Aspicions) so common with rulers, and drives forth 
from IBs mind all his own evil passions, whom weak 
ambition fails to inflate, and whom Uie unreliable applause 
of the unthinking herd does not affect— he who covets 
not what is due out of the mines of the Hesperian West, 
or what the golden waters of the Tagus yield ttom \\s» 

Infra fe vTdwTmDf?- 
«io. aec querilur tnori 

l^Ul'tS Bola OuirHM.... 

i.i«, jsi-,^1 THVKSTES. 

auriferous sands, and who coveis not all the abundant " 
grain of the Libyan harvests, threshed out on the heated 
6oors (made warm by the continued trampling of the 
oien used for that purposel. That man, whom a passing 
flash of lightning, seen at a distance, would not drive out 
of his wits, nor the sea disturbed by easterly gales, nor 
the swelling waves which suddenly break forth in the 
dangerous straits of the stormy Adriatic. Whom the 
lance of the furious soldier, nor the drawn sword has 
not held in pusillanimous subjection; who, placed on a 
secure throne, watches everything beneath him with seren- 
ity and willingly bows to his lot, nor needs not to desire 
death! (as a relief to his earthly troubles.) Let kings 
join themselves in vain against such a man ! Those who 
lead ihe wandering Daci, those who hold in subjection, 
the borders of the Red Sea, and the sea in many places 
looking red, as it were with bright gems; nor those upon 
the Caspian mountain ridges, at the approach of the 
brave Sarmatians, and may they contend against him, 
who with intrepid steps advance upon the glassy Danube 
(frozen) and wherever the Seres are found, renowned for 
their particular thread (silk) thev bring from that far-off 
country— A king, with a proper mind and disposition holds 
his kingdom securely— I ne re is no need of armed horse- 
men—no need of the sword, and the darts, which the 
Parthian shoots forth ai a distance, whilst he is pretend- 
ing flight. No need! of battering rams to lay cities in 
rums, nor for machines being employed in rolling on- 
wards enormous rocks 1 He is a kmg, who fears nothing 
— he is a king who desires nothing unjustly; and this is 
the sort of royalty, which he bestows upon himself! Any 
man, who likes, can reign, powerful often, with a totter- 
ing roof to his palace ! May sweet tranquillity satisfy us, 
and pitched in some obscure nook let us enjoy thoroughly 
our luxurious ease! Let our lives glide along silently, 
oiu- very existence not known to the Quirites (Citizens), 
so that when our days have passed away, undisturbed by 
ihe carking cares of life, we shall die. like any other old 
indiriduals, ignored and uncared for! lies heavily 
_on. the .m^, who dies unknown by himself, but too much 
kno?wi by merest of mankind! 




TANTALL'S junior & I ., . r 

Tliyeili fratre Alreo ]ier liliua Atrei revocato, redeiinliijue id 

Ijntrinm, iiou fine ilifHdealia nc menlc malum [irxfu- 

gienle, teverlendi fiducinni ndduni filii fui, 


1 patriic ledla, & Argolicas oi»s, 
Mire[if<|iie fummam lu: maximum exfulibus bouuiti, 40; 

'I'ncflum foil natalis, & [lalrios I>eub 
(Si funi tnmcn Dii) eernci; Cjrdopum fijcras 
Turrea, labore majus humnno decus, 
Celebrota juveni fliidia, per quie nobilis 

Pttlmnm ppterno nun Temcl curni tuli 410 

Occurret Argoa, populus occuiret frequens; 
Sed iiempe & Atrcus. repFte filveftres fugiut, 
Snllufque dcnfos potiu«, & mixlam feris 
Simiiemque vitam, clams hic regoi oitor 
Fulgore uon efl quad ocular fuiro aufErat. 4I5 

Cum quod datur fpeiftabis, & dantem afpiee. 

Modo inter i\\±, qux pulanC cuni^i arpcnl. 

Funis fui, Inlufque: uuac contra in melus. 

RevoWor: animus hieret, ac retro cupit 

Corpus referre: moveo noleotem gradum. ^aa 

rLlST. PigTO (quid hoc ell^) geaitor JDcelTu flupel, 

VulCumctue verfat, feque iu iucerto leuet. 

THY. Quid, aoimE, pcndes? quidve confilium diu 

Tain facile torques? rebu& incertinimis, 

Fratri alque regno ctedis? nc metuia mala 43) 

Jam viiflo, jam monfuela! & xrumnas fugis 

Bene collocatas? efle jam miferum juvnt. 

RefleAe grelTum, dum licet, teque eripe. 

I'UST. Qme caufa cogit, genilor, a palria gradum 

Referre vira.' cur bonis tantis Huum 4)0 

Subducisf ira fmler abjefla redil; 

Partemque regni reddit: & lacene domus 

Coin[iomt artus, Ie(|ue rediluil libi. 


T H Y E S T E S - P L I S T H E N E S. 
TANTALUS, (the younger), and the ( MuU 

third brother. \ PerstmagCi. 

Thyestes being recaJled hy his brother Atreus, ihroueh 

his sons, returns to his country, iioi^ however, wiUi- 

out distrust, and a mind foreshadowing disaster— tii& 

sons are tendered as hostages, that he will so return^ 




i! welcome habilalions of my native land, and oh! 

wealthy Argos! at last. I see you a^ain, and what 
ilest and most deeply felt boon to a 
1 feel the contact of my natal soil, and 

■ greatest and most deeply felt boon 
site, 1 fed the contact of my natal soil, 
the Gods of ray Fathers, .'if any are gotls at the present 

time) the sacred towers of the Cyclopes— glorious struc- 
tures, which never could have Seen built by ordinary 
human agency. The race-course so celebrated when I 
was young, on which I have more than once honorably 
earned the palm of victor)- in the paternal chariot ! All 
Arjios will lie out to meet me, and Ine crowding populace 
will rush to see me, but Atreus will be with them! Ah! 
let me seek the woods again, which serve at least as a 
retreat, or the dense forests of the wild beasts! It is 
not this dazzling splendour of a kingdom, that can entirely 
blink my vision as to the falseness of its brightness, 
when I look around, at what is given to me, and when 
I behold the donor! I have usually had a courageous 
heart, and I have felt joyful to a great degree, even when 
mixed up with many things, that every one else would 
regard as roufth in the extreme. Now, quite the contrary, 
my mind is In a whirl of dread, and my very soul re- 
coils, and I wish to take myself back again ! I even 
move along with an unwilling step! 

PLis. What is this, father mine, thou art faltering with 
thy gait feeble, withal! Thou shiflest thy face about 
pe'rpiesedly, and seemest quite distrustful of thyself! 

TRY. Oh! My soul! Why am I wavering? Why should 
t torture myself so long, about a matter which is simple? 
Hut yet, can I place any confidence in matters teeming 
with uncertainties, my brother and the kingdom ? Do I 
still fear evils, which are alread)- overcome, am I already 
tamed down? And shall I fly from troubles, which have 
been removed. Does it not suit my inclination to be 
miserable flow? Let me turn back my steps, whilst I 
can snatch myself away ! 

PUS. \V'hal reason, father mine, compels thee to turn 
back from thy country only just visited again? Why 
dost thou withdraw thy heart aside? thou art returning 
as a brother, and receiving a part of the kingdom and 
to set in order the distracting elements of the dynasty. 
ajid thy brother givefs thee to 'ihyself again, so to speoJL^ 







THV. Caufam liraoris, i[)fe ([uam ignoro, eKigi.>.. 

Nihil limendum video; fed limeo lamen. 

Placet ire: pigns mecnbrtt fed geoubus Iftbant, 

Alioque, quam quo iiitor, abduclus feror. 

Sic concilatam reinige & vclo ralein 

ftus, refiftens remigi & velo, referl. 

FUST. Evince, quidquid obftat, & menlem impedtt; 

Reducemque quanta pnrmia exfpeifleni, vide. 

Pater, poles regnare. thy. Cnm pofilm mori ? 

FLisi'. .Summa elt poleftai. fuv. Nulla, fl cupias nihil. 

fLlST. Nalis relinques. TKV. Non capit regnum duos. 

FUST. Mifer effe mavnll, elTe qui felU poteftf 

THV. Mihi crede, falfis magna aoinintbuB ptacent. 

I''ruftra Itmentur dura, dum etcelfua lleli, 

Nunquam pnvere dellili, atque ipfum niei 

Femim timere Uteris, o, quantum bonura eft, 

Obflare nullil capere fecuroji dapes 

Humi iacentem! feelers noii iolranl cnfat, 

Tutufque menfa capit ur angufta cibus. 

VeneDUiD in aura bibitur. experaLi loquor, 

Malam buna: pnefeire fortunam licet 

Non vcrtice alti montis impofiiam domum, 

Nee fulget altis fplendidum leftis ebur; 
Sotmiof<]ue noa defendit excubitor meos: 
Non claffibus piruimer, & retro more 
Jadla fugamu* mole; non venlrcm iniprobuni 
AliiDUs tributo geiiLium; oullus mJhi 
Ultra Getas metatur & Pailhos ager : 
Non ihure colimur; nee meic, ciclufo love, 
OrDBDtUi' mx: nulla culminibus meis 
Impollta Dutat filva; nee fumanC manu 
Succeufa mulla llagna: nGc fomno dies, 
Bacchoque aox juiigcn<1a pervigili datur. 
Sed non fimemur. Cuta fine telo ell domui; 
Rebufquc patvis altu pneftatur quies. 
ImautQc regnum eft, polTe fine regno ]>ati. 


THV, Thou askest me the cause of my dread, which I 
myself cannot explain. 1 see nothing to fear, but yet I have 
my apprehensions, at all events, I should like to go — My 
whole body seems to give way with ray tottering knees, 
and I am literally being dragged away, to another place, 
from that, which I am striving to reach, just in fact, as the 
adverse tide drives back the craft urf;ec! on by the rower 
and the sails, and resists the combined efforts of both. Overcome whatever troubles thy mind or hinders 
thy resolution, thou readily scest, what ample reward will 
crown thy expectations, now that thou hast come back. 
Oh! Fatherl thou canst well afford to reign. 

Lines 434— 470| THYESTES. TTl 

THV. Yes! When I am on the death-roll! 

PLis. Thy power, as a king, will be omnipotent. 

THY. None at all to one, to whom it is a matter of in- 

PLis. Thou canst transmit it to thy sons. 

THY. A throne only requires one occupant. 

PLIS. He who thinks he cannot be happy, would prefer 
to be wretched then, dost thou mean? 

THY. Rely on me, grand things only tickle the imagination 
under the assumed proportions of imposingness ; poverty, 
after all, is not so distressing as it is represented ; when I 
sat on the throne, I was in a perpetual state of dread, and 
feared that a sword was continually about to enter my side. 
Oh ! what a desirable thing it is, to be able to take things 
as they come— for a man to enjoy his food in security, even 
when lying on the ground ! Great crimes do not usually 
abound in the humble cot, and one's food is appreciatea, 
and although served on a small table, there is security with 
it Poison IS drunk out of the golden goblet! I speak from 
experience, it is a more acceptable choice, to prefer an 
inaifferent lot— before a favorable one uncertain in its 
duration. The humble low-lying hamlet, exists in much 
greater serenity than the denizens of a mansion, with all 
Its majes^ erected on the summit of some lofty mountain! 
Neither does the chaste ivory shine on the lofty ceilings 
for me, nor does a watchful sentry mount guard, to protect 
me during my slumber! I do not uSe entire fleets, for 
the purpose of catching fish, nor do I endeavour to keep 
the sea back, by constructing piers, or driving enormous 
piles. I do not fill my voracious stomach at the expense 
of the people. No land is at my disposal beyond what 
the Getae and Parthians make use of. I am not wor- 
shipped with incense, nor are my altars adorned, and 
Jupiter disregarded! No forest trees are planted on my 
elevated terraces, waving to and fro; nor many dried 
up lakes, set on fire with great labotQ)y the hand of man ! 
I do not give up my entire day to sleep, nor are my 
nights spent in protracted Bacchanalian carousals! But 
I am, nevertheless, free from inquietude, my house is 
safe without defensive weapons, and auiet of the most 
desirable kind extends to all the smaller details of my 
life! To be able to bear hfe contentedly without a Vm^" 
dom, represents to my mind a kingdom vast mdeed\ 






PI.IST. Nee abuuenduni ell, fi lial iraperiuni Deus. 

THV. Nee appelendum. pljst. Fraler, ut regnea, ruga). 

THY. K-ogBl? timenduiD ell. erral hie aliquis dolus. 

PLIST. Redice pietiu, unde Tubinoo e[t, folet: 

Reparatque vires juftus amilTa^ amor 

THY. Amat ThyeileQ frater? iKthereas prias 

PerfiiDdel Ariflos pontus; & Siculi mpax 

Conriftet xllus undn, & tonio feges 

Uatura pelago furgel:^ & lucem dabit 

Nox alra itnis ; ajile cum flammi-i aqux, 

Cum oiorle vita, eum man ventus Mem 

Fiedurque juugeut plist. Quam tameo fraudum times? 

THV. Omnem. limori quem men (taluam modum? 

Tantum potel\, quantum odit. plist. In te ([uid poteft? 

THV. Pro me nihil jam metuo: vos facitia mihi 

Atrea limendum. pust. Decipi captus limes? 

Serum ell cavendi tempus in mediis malis. 

TtlY. Eatur: unum genitor hoc teflor tamen, 

Ego vos fequor, non duco. pl[st. RefpJciet Deus 

Deae cogitata. perge Don dubio gradu. 


T A N T A L U S F. & 1 ,, ^ „, 
TERTIUS frater } Mul« perfon.-e. 

Jundlam parent! cerno. jam tuto h 
Verfantur odia: venit in uollras raanus 
Tandem Thyeftes; venil, & totos ijuiden 

; 10 accept it, if a deit>- 

THV. Nor does it become us, to hanker after it. 

I'Lis. 'ITiy brother invites thee to reign. 

Tiiv. But why does he so ask? that is the veryreaaon 
I fear, some snare is niixed up with this I 

PLis. Fraternal love often returns when it has only 
disappeared for a time, and an afTection of this natiu^ 
character soon makes up for former defection. 

Lines 471—495] THYESTES. 113 

THV. Will Atreus ever love Thyestes again ? I think it 
is more likely that the Polar stars will swoop down from 
the heavens and hide themselves in the broad ocean- 
depths, or that the invpetuous waters of the Sicilian straits 
should calm down suddenly, or the growing com to ripen, 
submerged in the Ionian seas. One would rather expect 
to see sombre Nox, lighting up the Earth, instead of 
Phcebus, or to see water mixing kindly with fire. Life 
itself fraternizing, amicably, cheek by jowl, with bitter 
Mors, or for the winds to enter into some anomalous 
arrangement, and treaty of peace, with the ocean waves 1 

PUS. What fraud, then, dost thou fear? 

THY. Every fear, in fact; what bounds can I set on my 
fear? As great as is his power, so is his hatred of me! 

PLis. What can he do to thee? 

THY. For myself I entertain no fears; thou art the 
object of my fears as regards Atreus! 

PLIS. Dost thou fear being taken prisoner? It is some- 
what slow work, to begin to fear mischief only when 
danger is far advanced. 

THY. Let things take their coiirse, let us go 1 At least, 
my son, I pledge my confidence in this idea, by saying, I 
follow thee, but I am not leading thee to this business! 

PLIS. May the Gods bless thee for having decided so 
considerately. Come on, father mine, and advance with 
the step of confidence. 



and the 


Mute personages. 


LIKE some wild beast, Thyestes is at last in my power, 
entangled by the toils that have been laid for his 
capture ; and as I behold him, side by side, with 
his hateful offspring, I detect the look of the parent clearly 
reproduced in the physiognomies of the sons. Now my 
revenge must* be p]annea in a safe manner-^ al \asX, 
Thyestes has fallen into my hands, and not only doesVv^ 



Vix tempero aoimo^ vix dolor freiios capU. 
Sic, cum feras vcAigal, & lougo fagax 
Loro tcnelur Umbrt, ac pretTo vias 
Scrutator ore^ duni procul lento fuem 
Odotc fenlit, parel, & tntito locum 
Rollro pererral: prxda cum propior full, 
Cervice tola pugoat, & gemiCu vocat 
Domiuum morantem, feque cetinenli ffipil. 
Cum rpiraC ifa fanguinem, nefcit tegi. 
Tamen legatur. afpice, ut multo gravis 
■Squallorc vulCus obruat mitflos coma: 
QluuD fKda jBceat bartu. pnellalur Rdes. 
Fratrem juvat videre; complexus mihi 
Reddc expetkoK. quidquid intnim fuil, 
Tranllerit. ex boc fanguis aC picloa die 
Cotnntur; animis odia damnatit excidaol. 
THV. Diluere potTem cunifta, nifi talis fores. 
Sed fateor, Alreu, faleor, adroifi omnia 
Qttx credidilli. peflimam caufnm meam 
Hodierna pielas feciL eft prorfu^ uocens, 
Quicuaque vifus tarn bouo fraCri ed noceus. 
Lftcrimis agendum eft: fupplicem primus vides. 
ilx le precantut pedibus iolailee manns. 
Pouaiuc omub im, & ex anJmo tumor 
Erafuh abeat: obfidea fidei accipe 
Hos inuocenles. atr. Frater, a genubus mauus 
Aufer, meofque potius amplexus pete. 
Vo9 quoque, fenum preellilia, tot juveocs, meo 
Pendete coUo, fquallidam veftem exue., 
Oculifque DOftri! paice, & oinalus cape 
Pares meis; Ixtufqiie frateroi imperii 
CapelTe partem, major hax laus eft mea, 

; Fralri palemum reddere incolumi decus. 

/ Habere regnnm, cafus eft: virtus, dare. 
THY. Dii paria, fraler, pretit pro tanlis libi 
Meritis rcpcodimt. regiam capitis nolam 

appear, but bis sons too, a regular family party! I can 
scarcely preserve mv erjuanimity, and it is with great 
difficulty, that I can keep tny anger tn aubjugation ! Just 
as when the blood-bound is on the track, and is tnen 
being held in by a leather strap, at the same time that 
he is following up that track, with his nose pressing the 
ground, and is obedienl, whilst be is detecting the boar's 
whereabout with a feeble scent at a distance only, and 

wanders here, wanders there silently; but when his quarry 
draws nearer, he strains away at the collar, and sets tip 
a loud bark, as if he would remind his master of his 

being kept back, and forthwith breaks 
hand that held him! So when an angry 

^ h 

,«-,}.! THYESTES. ,iS ] 

s mind to spill the blood of an enemy, he knows 
not how to dissemble his intentions, but, however, in my 
partioilar case, they must be effectually, concealed! 
(Aside.) Behold Thyestes! how his locks covered with 
dirt, hide up that woefiil countenance of his— how hideous 
too. bis beard appears 1 (Approaching. I Let our mutual 
oaths. Thyestes, be respected. It dehghts me to see thee, 
brother mine. Come, give rae the long desired embrace; 
whatsoever ill-feeling has existed between us, henceforth 
let bye-gones be bye-eones! From this day forth, let the 
love of kindred and bonds of fraternal friendship be for 
ever cultivated by both of us. Let any lingering ill-will 
be dismissed from our minds, as too ooious to be coun- 

THY. I could explain away everj'thing satisfactorily, even 
if thou didst not meet me in the kind spirit thou art now 
showing. But I do confess, Atreus, I must confess the 
truth oT everything thou hast given nie credit for. This 
day's noble conduct on thy part, has only aggravated my 
offences in my own eyes— Tnat man would be hopelessly 
bad, who could feel anything but amicably, towards a 
brother who has evinced towards me so much consider- 
ation—I really cannot refrain from shedding tears I First 
thou must regard me as thy suppliant, and with these 
hands I now embrace thee on bended knees, knees that 
have never genuflexed to mortal man before— Let all 
traces of animosity be rooted out- let all uprisings of 
anger be kindled for ever; here, Atreus, receive these 
sons of mine as hostages of my good faith and sincerity I 

ATR. Brothi^r mine, remove thy hands from my knees, 
seek rather the brotherly embrace; and you. so many 
youths (addressing the sons) as the natural guardians of 
our advancing years, hang down with your arms roimd my 
neck! Remove thy squalid apparel, Thyestes, and spare 
me the pain of beholding them any more, and put on 
these, they are identical with those I am wearing myself, 
and take likewise as a joyful pleasure to me, half of the 
kingdom with them! The preponderance of glory in this 
matter is certainly in my favor, the honor, indeed, of 
restoring a kingdom to a brother who has returned to 
me in safeh-, from cruel exile. To hold a kingdom is a 
mailer of chance, but to give one, an act of virtue! 

THV. Oh may the Gods reward thee with similar bene- 
tits, oh 1 my brother 1 to those which thou art now so lavishly 
showering down opon me, but do let my present s{\ua\at 
d^xlrne to exchange itself for that diadetn, with wfe\c'^ 





Squallor recural iioner, & fceplruni manus 

lafaufta refugit, liceat in media mihi 

Latere turba. ATti. Recipil hoc rEguum duos. 

TRY. Mcum efle credo, quiitquid ed, fraler, tuum. 

AIR. Quis inlluenlis dona forlunEe abiiuit? 

THY. Expeilus ell quicuaque, quam facile effluant. 

ANK. Fratiem potiri gloiia ingenli velos? 

THV. Tua jam perafla gloria ell, reflat mcfl. 

Refjjuere certum eft regua ■"'' " ' 

ATR. Meam relinquQ 

THY. Accipio. regni 

Sed jura & arma fe 

ATS. Inipofiia capiti 

Ego dEftiaalas viiflii 

Infcrvieu9 adlui prxcedenti Chorus Atrei collaudat pietatem, 
qui rimultates S: dirfidia. fratrum compofuil, : - 
Tccaa ac fcrenitas tempellati 



T hoc quifquam? ferns ille & a 
Nee poleos mentis, tniculcntus Atreu'i, 
Fratris afpeau Itupefaiftus hxlit. 
Nulla vis major pietate vera eft. 
Jnrgia entemis inimica dutant, 
Quos amor verus lenuit, leoebit, 
Ira cum magnis agilaU caufls 
Groliam rupit, cecinitque helium; 
Cum Ie»eB frenis fonuere turmic, 
Fullit hinc illiQC agitalus CDfis; 
Quern movet crebro [urihundu<i i6tu 
Sanguinem Mayors cupicos recenteni; 
Opprimil ferrum, mauibufque jundlipi 
Ducit ad pacem ])ielas negsntes. 



Quis Dcus fecil? modo per Myceuns 

ihou art now proposing to dignify my head, and permit 
these unlucky hands of mine to be excused the task of 
carrying the sceptre! i^t me rather go and hide myself 
away, amongst the busy crowd of mankind I 

ATR. The kingdom is large enough for two. 

THV. What brother! am I to be made to believe that 
lo be mine which I know so well to be thine? 

ATR. Why dosi_ thou refuse the gifts of Fortune as 

Lines 53a--56j] THYESTES. H7 

THY. Whoever has had any experiences in such matters, 
must know how easily they may be lost to one! 

ATR. Dost thou stand in my way then, brother mine, 
of gaining for myself great glory? 

THV. Thy glory has already been acquired, it is mine 
that is waiting to be arrived at; but my own resolution 
is made up— namely, to refuse the crown I 

ATR. I will give mine up altogether, unless thou wilt 
accept a share. 

THY. I agree, I will bear the title of king, which thou 
hast granted me, but thou shalt have authority over my 
subjects, my armies and myself. 

ATR. Place on thy venerable head the diadem which 
awaits to be placed there— I will offer to the Gods the 
victims, which I have promised them! 


The Chorus is entering into the spirit of the preceding 
act, praises the fraternal affection of Atreus, which 
has put aside the hatred and differences between the 
brothers, in much such a way as the calm which 
follows the storm, serves to illustrate. 

WHO would credit it? Here is Atreus, that fierce, 
cruel, relentless man, actually loses his presence 
of mind, and appears perfectly dazed at the sight 
of his brother! Nothing, after all, is stronger than the "S 
affection arising out of blood-relationship— whilst feuds ) 
carried on by those who are aliens in blood, only grow J 
more inveterate by time ! When anger brought about by / 
grievous events, caused the rupture between these brothersy/ 
the cry of war was heard! When the skirmishing light 
horsemen were on the move, amidst much champing of 
bits ; here, there, everywhere, the naked sword flashed as 
it was flourished about, by ardent warriors, whom fierce 
Mars urges on, as with repeated onslaught, the rival com- 
batants seek out for fresh slaughter. At length fraternal • 
affection puts aside the sword of revenge, and draws 
them together with their hands clasped in friendship, once 
hostile!— Now reconciled! What propitious Deity has 
brought about such tranquillity out of so much disquiet ? 
Only quite lately the sound of arms was rife l\vT0W9jc\- 
out Myceaas, in the heat of civil war— Pale, d\?XT3ieX^dc 

__ Fe clfllTicoruni ; 
jnm tacFl ftrjdar litui ftrepenlis; 
Altn pax urbi recovota Ixtx e{\. 
Sic ul)i ex alio tumuere fluflus, 
Bnilium Coro fcrirnte pontum, 
Scylla pulfatis refoiial cavemii, 
Ac mare in ponu limoere nautz, 
Quod rapax naufttun rcvomil Charybdis; 
Ee fcrui. Cyclops nietuil parenlem 
Rape feiveutis refideiiG in /Ktnx, 
Ne fuperfufis violelur undis 

Et putat tnergi fua polTe pauper 
Rcgne Latrtes, llhoca trcmcnlc. 
Si TiuE ventis ceciderc vires, 
M[tius ftigDo pclagus recumbit; 
Alia cjucc Davis limuil fecare 
Hinc S hiDC fufis Tpaliora velis, 
Strata ludeoti patuere cymbae ; 
El vacal merfos nuiDcnire pifces; 
Hie ubi ingenti modo Tub procrlla 
Cyclades ponlum (imuere motx. 
Nulla fors longa eft : dolor ac toluptaa 
[nvicem cedunt. brevior voluplas. 
Ima pcmiulat levis horn rummis. 
Jlle, qui doaat diadema IVoDli, 
Quern genu Dime Iremuere eenles, 
Cujus ad nulum pofucre bella ' 
Medus. & Phicbi propioris Indu;, 
Et Vox Paithb equileni minati; 

■which before being taken up) had become rusty from 
long disuse in the preceding limes of peace! Now, the 
whilom warrior, on one side, seeks to repair the ruined 
cily ; now the warrior of the opposite faction is busy in 
reliabiUtating the shattered towers, and who quite lately, 
endeavoured to fortify his portals with iron bars, and 
in a state of trepidation, behind the niched battlements, 
as the sentinel watched during the anxJous hours of night! 
Thus the fear of war is sometimes more terrifying than 
the actual batde. Now the terrors of the sword have passed 
away, and the sound of the shrill war trumpet is silenced, 
and profound peace is restored to the rejoicing city ol 
Mycenie ! So where the North- West wind blows violently 
over the sea of Apulia, the waves swell up from the 
lowest depths, and Scylfa emits a roaring response, as 
they beat in upon the caverns, and the seafarers dread 
the seas in their verj- ports, which the angry Charybdis 
receives and ejects again with terrible force— and the 
fierce Cyclops who mhabits the mountains of ^tna, 
dreads his parent's approach (Neptune) lest his forges, 
' the fire with its noisy wrath, in those everlasting flatnes 
should be extinguished by the seas pouring down upon 
them; and Laertes, of mean resources, every moment 
thinks that his little kingdom, will be swallowed by the 
watery element; whilst Itnaca trembles, too, lest the vio- 
lence of the sea should overcome its powers of resistance, 
whilst the waters surrounding it rest as quiet as a mill- 
pond at ordinary times; in the main seas, whose waves 
the vessel fears to cut through, with its sails set, the 
smaller boaB sail about playfully, when the sea has 
calmed down, and it is possible lo count the very fish 
swimming about here, where not long ago, the Cyclades 
tremblingly feared the sea, when a terrific storm, a storm 
of unusual violence, raged around them I No condition 
of matter rests long in the same state; even pain and 
pleasure visit us by turns, inconstant. Fortune changes 
the venue from the most lofly situation and substitutes 
one very much lower. He that graces his head with the 
diadem, and before whom, the peoples tremble on bended 
knees, at whose nod the Mede lays down his arms, and 
the Indian, a nearerneighbour of Phcebus, (more easterly) 
and the Daci terrified at the Parthian horsemen, with 
anxious fear that the king holds the sceptre, and he fore- 
shadows all things, and leams to dread the shifting and 
capricious tides of precarious Fortune and the uncertainty 
with which they arrive. Thou, therefore, to whom the 
ruler of the sea and earth has given the power of decid- 
ing life or death, hide away thy proud and inflated air; 
whatever an inferior fears at thy hands, thy superior, 



Panite inflnto^ lumiilofque vullus: 
Qaidquid a vobis mmor exlimefcit. 
M>ior hoc vobis daminus niinRlur. 
Onine fub regno grnviorc rcgnum eft. 
Qaem dies vidil veuieiu fuperbuin, 
Huiic dies vidil fugiens jacenlem. 
Nemu conlidBt Dimium fpcundis; 
Nemo tlefperet melioia lapfis. 
Mifcet hxc illis, prohibetque Clolha 
Blare fortunam. rotat omne fatuin. 
Nemo Umen Divos hnbuit Caventeis, 
Croflinum ut pofTit Tibi polliceri. 
Res Deus nonms celcri ciUIos 
Turbine vctfal. 



Cnidele Alrei fnciiius & epulas nefnodas, in qiiibus apponebanl 

Thyefla; Aii liberi, digniL, rguce ex oculis rpeclaloium fulilata 

inCus gerereiitur, narrnt nuntii facumlla pr3;fens. 

m-V. Vj/uis me per a 

urbo pra;cipitem vehel. 
Atraque nube itivolvet, ul tantum uefas 
Eripint oculis? o domus, Pelopi quoque 
Et Tautalo pudenda: cmor. Quid poitaa novi? 
NlTHT. Quxuam il\i regio e(l, Argoa & Spane piu.-, 
tJDTtila fratres? Si mari^ gemini preincii^ 
Fauces Carinlhos } an Tens Ifler fugani 
Pncbens Alanis? an fub xlerna nive 
Hyrcana tellasi an vagi panim Scylhccr 
Quill hie nefandi efl con/ciuH moaflri locust 
CHOR. EITare: & iflud pande, quudcunque c(l malum, 
NUNT. Si fteleril animus li mrlu coqias rigcns 
Remiltel arUis. h^tret in vullu liucis 
Imago farfii. ferte mc iiifaiix procu! 
Illo procellLe; Telle, quo fenur dieii 

acting as thy master, threatens thee. Every kir 

yield lo one of greater power, and ihe man ihou seest ] 

Kroud and tyrannical at the early part of (he day, may 
e seen at night subdued and laid low. Let no moD | 
crow too much in his prosperity, let no one give way too 
much in his adversity, let iiim take things as they occur, 

Lines 6oQ— 637] THYESTES. 121 


thankfully. Clotho forbids by virtue of her calling 
anything to stand still; she is constantly rotating the fate 
of everj- mortal. No one has ever yet found the Gods 
so propitious that he can with certainty promise himself 
an>'thing as for to-morrow. The God that rules all things, 
from his rapidly rotating wheel, rolls forth our destinies 
exactly as they are pre-orderedl 



A Messenger who was present, reports the cruel deed 
of Atreus, and how his own children were served 
up to Thyestes at the wicked feast, and eloquentiy 
describes those matters, which were very properly 
concealed from the eyes of spectators within the house. 


WHAT whirlwind will transport me headlong into 
the air and envelop me in some sombre cloud, 
that my vision mav be spared to witness such 
revolting crimes? Oh! Tne Dynasty! at which Pelops 
and Tantalus even would be abashed! 

CHOR. What news dost thou bring? 

MESS. In what region of the Earth am I ? Is it Argos, or 
is it Sparta, the country of these two affectionate brothers? 
Or is It Corinth, whose straits are between two seas? Or 
is it on the borders of the Danube, which favors the 
savage Alani? Or the land of Hyrcania, with its eternal 
snows? Or am I amongst the wandering Scythians? Or 
what place can it be, that is the scene of wickedness too 
horrible to be mentioned? 

CHOR. Speak out, man, and tell us what the wickedness 
is, whatever it may be. 

ME.SS. I will, when I can collect my mental faculties, my 
mind is in a sort of standstill, and when my stiffened limbs 
congealed with horror, begin to thaw 1 The sight of the 
dreadful deed is still before my eyes! Oh I Wild hurri- 
canes transport me far, far from such a scene of horror ! 
Let me be conveyed somewhere, un visited by the \\0vt. 
of day! 

SENECA'S TRAGEDIES. ii,m« m-mi. 

lliiic raptUb. clluK. AoiniQS gravius incenoii [c 
Quid Tit, quod horres, nle, &. auifLarem iudica 
Nod qiixru, quls lit, fed uter. tSfare ocius. 
Ni'mT. In arce rummn Pclopese pars eft domus 
C(iiiv(*rf> ad Auftros; cujus cxtremuni latus 
jfUquiile moDii crefcit, alque urbeni premil, 
Et Gontumacem regibus papulum Tnis 
Habet fub 'liia: fulget hie turbx capax. 
Immuie teifinm, cuius auratas Irahes 
Vnriis columuK nobilcs maculis rerunl. 
Pod ifta vulgo uota, quee populi colunl. 
Id multa dives fpatia difcedit domus. 
Arcana Ed imo rcgio feceltu paid, 
All* vetuftum voile compefccns nemus. 
FcDBirale regai. nulla qua. Ixtos folet 
Pnebcre ramos arbor, aul ferro coli; 
Sed taxus, & caprefTaE, & oigra ilice 
Olifcura nulat filva; quani fupra eminens 
Dcfpciftal altc quercus, & viucit nEmus. 
Mine aufpicari regna Tanlalidic fotcnl, 
Hinc pelerc lapils rebus & dubiis opem, 
AfRxii inheercDt do do. vocales tubx, 
FraAique curru.<i, fpolla Myrloi maris, 
Vidlxque falfis axibus pendent robe, 
El omne gcDtis facinus: hoc Phrygius loco 
Fiius tiaras Peiopis; hie pricda hoftiuin, 
Et d« Criumpho piifta barbarico chlamys. 
Fons flat fub umbra triftis, & nigra piger 
Hxrel palude. talis ell dira: Ktygis 
Defonnis undo, quie facit crelo fidem. 
Hie no^e caxi gemere Terales Deos, 
Kama ell: cateuis lucus eicuClis Tonal, 
L'lulantque Manes. Quidquid audire eft nietus, 
Illic videtur. errat anliquis vetua 
EmirTa buftb turbo, & infultant loco 
Majora nolis monllra. Quin tola folct 
Micare flauima Tilva, & excelfx tralies 
Ardent Goe igne. fxpe tatralu nemus 
Tiino lemuitii : f!e|ie limulaciis domus 
Attonita magnis. nee dies Tcdal melum. 
KoK propria luco efl, & fuperftitio inferGm 
In luce media regnal. Hinc oranlibuR 
Refponra danlur cerla, cuni ingenLi fono 

CHOR. 'tTiou art keeping oiir minds, in ronsiderablc 
uncertainty which is very trying. What can it be? at what 
art thou in such a stale of fright? Speak out, and tell us 
the cause— tell us the author of the crime! We do not 
ask thee simply, who did it, hut which of the two l^rothers 
was it. Speak, man, speak quickly! 

» 6jt_Mo, THYESTKS. 

■Thes. There is on the highest fortress of the palai;e __ 
Felops a frontage, having a southern aspect, whose extreme 
side rises to a mountainous height, almost, and overlooks 
the city, and from its menacing appearance, not only holds 
the recalcitrant rabble in awe of their kings, but enables 
them also to deal more effectual blows upon revolters 
below 1 In this palace is a huge saloon capable of 
holding large crowds of people (who flock ihither for 
various purposes), where noble porphyry columns support 
the ^Ided roof; behind these, and quite open to the 
public who may assemble there, the sumptuous palace is 
dii-ided off into numerous departments, but there is 
another hall, the Sanctuary of the Palace which is visible 
only at the farthest end, a mysterious retreat, a time- 
honored grove in a deep valley, concealing it from the 
vulgar gaze, this is the royal sanctum, where no trees 
afford their cheerful umbrage, and where the pruning- 
knife finds no employment !— but the yew, the cypress, 
and the obscure foliage, rendered more so by the sombre 
ilex, wave listlessly at the undtilations of the circumam- 
bient air, upon all of which a lofty oak looks down from 
on high, and rales the grove with its majestic imposing- 
ness. Here the descendants of Tantalus repair to consult 
at>out their respective destinies— here to invoke aid, when 
their affairs are in doubt or danger— Numerous spoils 
hang about, sonorous trumpets, broken chariots, ^oils 
and amongst them (an especial curio) the relics of^that 
one fished out from the sea of Myrtilus, and the disabled ] 
wheels are suspended from their treacherous axles— in 
fact, traces of ever>' phase of human wickedness. In one 
place, is seen the Pnrygian Tiara of Pelops himself; in 
another, the accumulated rapine taken from sundry 
concjuered enemies^an embroidered cloak represented 
some triumph or other over some barbarian foel A 
lugubrious fountain is observed under the shadow of this 
wood, and the water remains steeped in a black marsh, 
just such a marsh in appearance, as the terror-striking 
Styx, which renders inviolable the oaths sworn to by the 
Gods. It is reported here, that the funereal deities set 
up their groans in the dead of the obscure night, and 
the entire grove becomes convulsed with the clanking 
of chains, and when the Manes commence their howlingsl 
Whatever it is it is terrifying to hear, but when it is 
brought into actual view, a crowd of aged spectres 
emerging from their ancient tombs begin to wander 
about, and monsters of greater magnitude than any 
conception could picture, leap about with mocking laugh- 
ter! But suddenly, the entire wood seems to hurst into 
Haise^ and r/ie lofty trees \oo\i as if ignited, bul no^e 

Laxaiiliir ndyto fala, & immugit fpecus 
Vocem Deo folvenle. Quo poftquam fnrens 
Intravit AtreuG, libero!^ fratri!; traheus, 
Ofnttiitur arete, qui qucat dignc eloqui f 
PoA terga iiLvenum nobiles revgcnt manus, 
Et mxfln vitta capita purpurea, ligst: 
Nod ihura defunl, non facer Hacchi liquor. 
Tangeulve folra vidimam culler moln. 
.Servnlur omnis onlo, ne Inntuin Deros 

.. Quis manum ferro admovet? 
NUNT. Ipfe eft facerdos. ipfe funefla prece 
Letale carmen ore violelllQ c 
Slal ipfe ad aras. ipfe devo 
Conlriftat, ft cnmponit, & ferro admovel. 
Attendit ipfe. nulla pars facri peril. 
I.UCU3 tremifciL lota ruccufTo folo 
Nulavit anlo, dubia, quo ponduB darel, 
Ac ftufluBnli limilis. e Ikvo rethere 
Atrum cucurril limilem fidus trahens. 
Libats in igiies vina mulato fluunl 
Cnienta Baccho. reciuni capiti decus 
Bis terque lapfum ell, flevit in tcmplis ebur. 
Movere cunifkos luanllra: fed folus llbi 
Immolus Atreus coadat, atque ultro Deos 
Teiret minaules. iamque diminii mom 
Amiuit aris, lorvum & obliquum intuens. 
Jejuna filvis qualis id Caugelicis 
Inter juvencos: ligris erravitduos. 
Utrinfquc pro-dse cupidn, qu\primos feral 
Incerta morfus, fleiflit hue riici ' " 
nio releiflir, & famem dublam 
Sic dinis Atreus capita devola i' 
Speculalur ine. qnera prius maiflel 
Dubilat: fecunda deinde q 
Nee inlereft: fed dubitat. & rxvum fcc^ 

that phenomenon— Oftentimes, tlic gro>B resounds 
lotid barking, as if coming from three tlVoats simultane- 
ously (Cerberus-like), and very often the pWace is haunted 
with enormous and terrifying ghosts! \Nor does the 
light of day, when it arrives, allay one's riteht— for night 
is the peculiar feature of this grove, aniT superstitious 
alarms take a firm hold of the imagination. Even in bmad 
daylightl Here responses are given to earnest supplicants 
tipnn which they can depend, for from a wide entrance, 
with a loud sound the decrees are pronotmced, and the 
cavern groans again, whilst the judicial Deity is delivering 
his sentence! Into this place we see fu'.ious Atreus 
enter, dragginn; wiili him the children of ".'hyestes, and 


Li„.> «r,-,,ii THYESTKS. 

ihe altar is duly spread out with the sacrificial paraphed"! 
nalia. Oh! how can what 1 saw be adequately descrioed? 
He then proceeds to bind the noble hands of the youn^ 
princes behind their backs, and he winds round their 
unfonunate heads a purple bandage (blindfolding them). 
And frankincense is not wanting, nor the sacred Hquof J 
of Bacchus (wine). Nor is the sacrificial meal forgotten^" 
as the knife is applied to the victims — every formality ii 
rigidly observed, lest the enormity of the crime st 
be robbed of any of its ceremonial importance. 

CMOR. Who applied the fatal sword, what hand? 

HESS. The presiding priest, Atreus himself was there; he ' 
chants forth some funereal hymn from his horrible larynx, 
at the same time that he accompanies it with impious 
prayers. He himself stands in front of the altar, he alone 
manipulates upon those that are doomed for sacrifice, 
arranges their position and applies the sword 1 He is in 
full presence and no minutias of the wicked ceremony 
are omitted; the grove trembles, the palace totters with 
Uie shock that disturbs the earth, and appears as if it 
were uncertain where it should deposit itselt, if condemned 
10 fall. On the left side of the heavens, a star is seen 
shooting forth, tracing its passage with a black streak— 
and the wine which is used so freely in the sacrifice, 
inixes with the blood of the victims ! and thus Bacchus 
is made to a.ssume a new characterl The regal bauble 
on the head of Atreus (the diadem) fell off two or three 
times, the very ivory in the temples shed tears. This . 
monstrous deed moved the entire world convulsively, but 
Atreus, collected in his mind, is alone true to himself, 
and what is more, actually terrifies the angry gods (with his 
audacity) and then, without any delay, he leaps upon the 
altar, looking savage, with his eye.s rolling from side to 
side, and us the famished tiger of the jungle on the 
l>oraers of the Ganges, hesitates upon which of the two 
bulls he shall fasten, whilst he longs only to seize them 
both at once, but pauses, as to which he shall insert his 
de^ly fangs, Wther he bends his greedy jaws— thither he 
draws them back, and actually holds aloof his voracit)' 
in this doubting moodl So dreadful Atreus. speculates 
_as to the victims which he has sacrificed to his impious 
nilh— He cannot make up his mind, within himself, as 
I which he shall immolate the first, then he wonders, 
Iher he shall sacrifice the one intended for slaughter 
_mber one" and substitute in its place that which he 
I marked as "number two"— not that It was a tnallCT 
"i concerned b'lm mMh. but only that he had doubXei, 




Juvat ordinare. chob. (Juem larr 

NU(JT. Primus locus (ne dcelTe pictaleni puies) 

Avo dicBlur^ Tanlalus prima hoftia e(l. 

CHOR, Quo juvenU ammo, quo tulit vultu necem? 

NUNT. Stelit fui fecurus, & non ell preces 

Perire fninrD palTus: all illi ferus 

In vulnFce ealVm abfcoudit, & peaitus premcns 

Jugulo manuni commifit. educto iletit 

FetTO cadaver; cumque dubilnfiev diu 

Hac parte, an ilia cuderel, in patniuni cadit. 

Tunc ille nd aros PliUheuem fxvus tralii), 

Adicitque fralri : calln percutTa ampulal. 

Cerviee Ctcfa Iruacus in pronum ruit; 

Quenilum cucurrit murmure incerto caput. 

CHOR. Quid deinde gemina cx6c perfunfli.'i facil? 

Puerone parcit; aa fcelus fceleri iugerit? 

NUHT. Silra jubatUB qualis Armenia leo 

Id ciede mulla viftor armento incubat, 

Cniote rirftus tnadidus, & pulfa fume 

Non ponit iras; Iiiiic & hinc laariK premem. 

Vitulis minatur, deWe jam lalTo piger: 

Non aiitei Atreus fxvit, atque ira rumel, 

Fenumque gcmina racde perfufum tenens, 

Olditus in quern ruerct, infeda mauu 

Exegil ultra corpus, at pueri flalim 

Pedlore rcceptus enfia, in tergo eillilll. 

Cadit ille, & aras fajiguine extinguens fuo, 

Per ulrumqne vuIdus mcirilur. CHOR. O fxvum fcelus! 

NUNT. Eihomiiftis? haiftenui fifUt nefas, 

Pius cH. CHOR. Ad ultra majus aut alrocius 

Natura recipit! NU.ST. Scelem huDC fiaem putas? 

Gradus eil, CHOR. Quid ultra poluil? abjecit feris 

I.aiiiiu)dR forfan corpora, atquc igne arcuit. 

and he fett a sort of pleasure in doing such an alarming 
deed with some regard to arrangement! 

MESS. The first place was dedicated to the Grandfather, 
Tantalus. (Thou dost not suppose that he was entirely 
wanting in family reverence.) Tantalus was his first victim 
(because his name was Tantaltis). 

CHOR. What was the demeanour of the youth ? with 
what courage did he meet his death? 

MESS. He stood with great firmness, and confidence in 
himself, as if he were not willing that any entreaties he 

ight make should pass unheeded, but Atreus, remorseless 

' I pent-tip rage. seizi;d with his hand the neck of his 



victim, and holding it tightly he stabbed him with the sword. 
which he thrust into Uie wound as far as the hilt, ana 
when the weapon was withdrawn, the body stood upright 
for several seconds, as it were, doubling for a long lime, 
whether il should fall here or there ; it then fell upon the 
L'ncle. Then with unabated wrath he drags Plislhenes 
towards the altar and places him by the side of his 
brother, he severs his head from his body with a well- 
directed blow— his headless trunk falls to the earth, and 
the head gives forth something like a mumbling, undefln- 
able whispering! 

ciroR. What did he do after he had finished with this ] 
double sbughter? did he not spare one of the boys? OhI f 
What crivie upon crime, he has heaped up! 

MESS. As the maned lion of the Armenian forest con- 
templates with satisfaction his triumphs over the herds and 
ttocks. after much slaughter, his jaws still dripping with 
their blood, although his hunger is fully appeased, does not 
lay aside his savage nature ! From all sides he terrifies the 
bulls, whilst he^ is chasing the calves, although his teeth 
are tired out, with their recent dental labors I Not unlike 
this, Atreus maintains his rage at its maximum, and fairly 
swells with his wrath, and stillholding his sword, sprinkled 
with the blood of his nephews, not knowing whither he 
was rushing— He evidently was thirsting with his cruel 
hand, for another victim, and darting upon the third son, 
he forthwith stabbed him in the chest, and the sword, 
passing through his body, emerged at the back— He falls, 
and his blood extinguished the fire at the altar— he thus 
'ies from his double wound 1 (wotmd at point of entry 

id that made by its exit.) 

CHOR. OhI What horrible wickedness! 

MKS.'i. Why art thou so horrified? if the crime rested i 
at this point) the ptety of Atreus would have been as ] 
established fact? 

CHOR. Can human nature, dost thou tell us. devise 
an>-thing more cruel or more atrocious (than what t!: 
hast told us)? 

MESS. Now, dost thou suppose, that what I have related 
is the finale of my story? it is only a link in the chain. 

<:hor. What more could he do, we ask, perhaps it is, that 
he has banded over the bodies to be devoured by the wild 
beasts, and has deprived them of the ceremonial flames 
(if the faneraJ pile (that /s dishonoring their remains), 



NUNT. Utiaam orculflet, ae legal fuQi!liM I 
Ne Tulvnt irniol avilitu f|>uIui'1im licel 
Ferifque irJAc iiabulun tovu* irnhkl ; 
Voium e(1 All) hoc, quod clTe fuppllciui 
Pater iufepultos fpctflet. u iiullo fcelui 
Credibll« in rvd, quodque poftcrltas txcgM 
Krejitt vivi» e»t» peflonlius tremuiii, * 
-Spirnnlque veiiie, corqoe adhuc jinvidim 
Al illc tihrui irntflol. nc (aU mfpkU; 
El odhuc ulentet vircerum venox uui.-ir 
Poftquam honi* placuere, f«iir<w vnt.ii 
Jam frilrls epulis, ipfe divifum fecnt 
In membra corpus; BmpuUI Irunuu Jnn 
Humcros pntenies, & lacerlorum mor.i.; 
Denuitm anus dirus, atque oUa amjugi.ii 
Tautum ora fervat, & datns lidei iiinriu- 
Hoc vcrubui harcut vifcera, 5; lealis d 
.Slillaot caminis: ilia ilamtDatii& lalei, 
Querente aheuo, jaflat: impofitss ilapes ' 
Tranflluit igni>, iaque trepidant^ focoi 
Bia ler rcocftus, & poli juflus moram, 
Invltus arucl. Ilridet in verubua jecur. 
Ncc facile dicam, corpora an HammK n 
(lemuete, piceua ignis in fumos abit: 
El ipIV fumus Irillia, ac oebula grBvii, 
Non re^ut exit, feque in eicelfuai li 
IpfuB peiiBto nube deformi oblldel. 
<) Pharbc pwieDs, (uteris retro litel, 
Mediuque ruplum merfcris cieIo dieii 
Sero otcidifti. laiicinal nato5 pater, 
Artufque mnndil ore rundla fuoa. 

UV.SS. oil! I wish that he had itn 
and had ordered thai the earth shuir 
and that fire should not deslrov t 
have been possible that they would 
by the biros of prey, or have aitiai 
to Ihe tristful repasti But the iiuini 
at in all this, was that what was iiU\: 
punishment, should now be ullowrd 
pleasure to Atreus) that the fatlitr 
unburied remains of his sons I < ' 
accredited, of any time, past L>r pi. 
that posterity will never IwIicm it 
The entrails quiver, they are loni nij 
just dead, and the muscular coal 
still acts (with the blood ooiing) ; 
only having been quivering (as ti 
impression of fcnr) now cive a sudi 
carefully turns the fntriiils about, a 


m mi^IIIlitu corpus; ampulHt IruncQ lenu 
Humeros potentes, & lacertornm moras; 
Denudat arlus dinis. Btque olTa amputat 
Tamum ora ffrval, iS: daias fidei manus 
IIiEC verubus hteient vifccra, & lentis di 
Stillaul CKininU: ilia Hammatus latex, 
Querente ahcao, jaiflaC: impolltns dapcs 
Tranfdait ignis, iaquc Irppidanlea focos 
Sis ter regedus, & pali julTiis manmi, 
tnvilas ordeL (Iridel in venibus jecur. 
Nee Facile dicam, corpora an flaimnK m 
Gemuere. piceus ignix in fumo& al>il: 
El ipfe fumus iriflis, ac nebula gravis, 
Non reflus exit, feque in excelAim levan 
Ipfus penales nube dcformi abfidet. 
O Phcebc paticns, fug«ris retro licel 
Medioquc nipturo merferis cielo die 
Scro octidifti. laocinat natos pater, 
AnuCttue maDdil ore runel\o (aos. 

MKss. Oh! I wish that he had ih 
and had ordered that the earth shou 
and that fire should not destroy 
have been possible that they would 
by the birds of prey, or have attra< 
to the tristful repast! But the poin 
at in all this, was that what was alw: 
punishment, should now be allowed 
pleasure to Atreus) that the father 

L.n« j«-ml THYESTES. 139 

the Fates, he examines critically for some clue, as to what 
their divination might reveal; he observes, that those 
viscera are still retaining some amount of anitnal heat, 
and soon after, he satisfies his judgment, that the sacrifices 
offered up were pleasing to the Deities, and persuaded 
himself, that the augury boded success, and that the 
brother's feast was now only anxiously, waiting for the 
human remains to perform their part of the Tiusiness! 
He then cut up the body into pieces, amputated the 
prominent parts from the shoulder, and the fleshy portions 
from the arms, from the ligamentous attachments, which 
conneaed them with the body, with unshaken nerves! 
He strips off the flesh from tlie various limbs, and chops 
up the different bones, — he keeps back the heads, however, 
and those very hands, which had once signalized their 
confidence in him (the handshake)! The viscera with 
some other portions hang on the spit, and what escapes 
during the roasting drips slowly down from the stove— 
the remainder, received into the hissing caldron, (which 
seemed to utter tones of remonstrance at the monstrosity 
of the deed) is soon tossed about by the impetuosity of 
the boiling water— the fire, in jerking flames leaped in 
disgust about the terrible feast, which was placed above 
it, and threw itself two or three times upon the trembling 
attars (but was kept down, by the weight of the caldron) 
and being thus constrained temporarily Dy some inscrutable 
impulse, to submit to such an interruption, begins to 
bum again, but tn a very surly raoodl (The Poet here 
personifies the Element " Fire" [Prosopopoeia] and suggests 
lis unwillingness, as an universal purifier, to lend its 
assistance, to such an overt act of contamination.) The !iver, 
however, of the victims transfixed on the spit, crackled 
with a sound ominous and weirdish! and to speak the 
real truth, I cannot tell thee, the sound which groaned 
the more, the bodies or the Barnes! The fire, becoming 
as black as pitch, passes off in dense fumes, and the 
mournful smolte, as a heavy cloud, does not ascend, but 
hovers around the altar, and oppresses the Penates them- 
selves, with its abnormal blackness and density, O! 
patient Phoebus, it would have been merciful, if thou hadst 
expunged this day out of the calendar of time, and 
immured it, unseen in the middle of the Heavens I Thou 
hast disappeared below the Horizon, only too late! The 
father, TTiyestes, carves up his own sons, served up on 
the platter and chews with a relish, in his unfortunate 
mouth, his own offspring. His appearance is smart, with 
his locks extravagantly anointed with perfumed grease, 
but he feels rather oppressed (oualmisfi) with the wine, 
with which he has washed down bis own flesh and bVoodi 

V^rtiO temnim ruperAmque parens, 
Cujus ad ortus noiflis opacx 
Decus aiaoe fugil, quo verlis iter. 
Medioque diem perdis Olympo? 
Cur, Phcebe, tuos rapk afpeilus? 
NoDdum Scrx nuDtius hone 
NoAunut vocal lumina vefper; 
Nondum Hefperix flexura rotie 

{abet emeritos folvcre cumis: 
I'oiulum ID nodlem vergenle die 
Tertia mifil buccina fi^nm: 
Stupet ad fubilie lempora cieac 
Nondum lefds babus anitor: 
Quid le xtherio pepulit cuifu? 
Quie caufa tuos limite certo 
Dejecil equos? numquid aperto 
Caicere Diiis vifli leotaDl 
Bella gigantes? numquid Tityot 
Pedlore TelTo renovat veteres 
Saucius ir»si nam reje<5lo 
Lotus explicuii monie Typhotusf 
Numquid (Iniitur via Phlegneos 
Alts per holiest & Theirnlicum 
ThrelTo prcmilur pclion OlTaJ 
Solila: mundi periere vices: 
, Nihil Occafus, nihil Ortus eriL 

i.,..«;8^s.5l THYESTES. 131 

reniaintng consolalion will soon disappear. It was possible, 
that Phcebus himself could have reversed his chariot, and 
changed his course to an opposite direction, and thus have 
buried ihis cruel crime in darkness, such has never been 
known, before— the darkness of a night, issuing from the 
Palace of the glorious Orient, at an opposite hour, would 
be awful; however, we shall all see, all these crimes will 
one day be known 10 thee. 


le Chorus observing the goinj; down of the Sun, beconH 
alarmed, fearing lest the whole fabric of the universe, 
dissolved into fragments, should lapse into eternal 

OH, where, oh thou parent of the Earth and chief of 
the Gods above, at whose rising, all the luminous 
accessories of opaque nipht disappear, where dost 
thou direct thy way. Why hidest thou a day in the 
middle of Olympus: Why, oh PhtebusI dost thou avert 
thy face ^ Not as yet does Vesperus, the herald of approach- 
ing night summon the stars to thy dark celestial vaults 1 
Not as yet surely does thy declining course on the Hes- 
perian track (the far West) induce thee to unyoke the 
steeds of thy chariot, which have finished their diurnal 
duties efficiently I Not as yet has the third trumpet 
sounded the signal of day verging onwards towards night 
(third part of the day). The ploughman with his oxen 
not yet tired out. is wonder-struck at his supper-time 
arrivmg with such unlooked-for suddenness! What has 
driven thee away, from thy sethereal path? What has 
diverted the horses of ITiosbus from their regular rounds? 
We wonder whether the giants, their prisons in the realms 
of Pluto being burst open, are warring against the Gods 
again? Or if Tityus with his inside worn out by the 
rapacious vultures is impotenfly renewing any of his 
ancient animosities? Whether Typhoius has released 
himself from the mountain which has been pressing him 
down? Or is there a road being built up high for Phie- 
gnean Giants to renew their attempts on the Gods? Or 
IS it Thracian Ossa being pressed down on Thessalian 
;lion : The harmonious system of the universe seems 
side downl There never will be again the! regular 
ing and setting of Phtebus. Aurora, the harbinger of 
■ room, is at her wits' end with this disturbed system 
.. _lutnination of her kingdom, accustomed as she is lo 
hand over the horses of the Sun to Phosbus himseVt, fol 

al ' 


PcrculTa melu, ne falali 
Cunift& mlDa qunlTata labenl: 
IterumquG Ueos hominefqu? premat 
Deforme chaos: itenim teiras. 
El mare & Jgnes, Sl vaga pi^i 
Sidera munili Nalura (egaU 
Noil xternEE facii exorlu 
Dux anmniin fecula ducens 
r>ab[( 3:(latis brumxque uutas. 
Kon Phtebeis obvia Haninii.s 
Demet Nofli Luoa limores, 
Viacelque fui fralris habeuas, 
Curvo brevlua limile currens. 
Ibil in UDum congella rinum 
Turba Deorum. 
Kic, qui facrii pervlua adris 
Secat obliquo tramile Eonas, 
Fleiflcns loogos Signifer anooi, 
Lipfa videbil Tideca labeiis. 
Hie, qui nondum vere beniguo 
Reddit Zcpliyro vela lepenti, 
Aries prsEceps ibil io undas. 
Per qnas [^vidam veierat IltUen. 
Hie, ijui nitida Taurus cornu 
Prxfert Hyodas, fecum Geoiinm 
Trshel, & curvi brachia Cancri. 
Leo flammiferis seftibus ardeiis 
Iterum e c<t:Io cadet Herculeus. 
Cadel in terras Virgo relii5las; 

I JnOseque cadent poadem Libr^; 

i Secumque Iralienl ScDn'i-- ^^r-m 



te knon's not how to dip the already weary steeds, 
nor how to immerge their manes foaming with sweat, in 
the refreshing sea. Sol himself about to set, unexpectedly 
finds Aurora installed in an unaccustomed quarter (his) 
and he commands the darkness to appear; Nox, not as 
yet, prepared to obey, no stars show themselves, nor 
does the sky afford a glimpse of anything approximating 
light, nor does Phoebe dissipate any of this awful glooml 
\vWtever can all this mean? Would that real night 
might show itselfl— They tremble, and their minds are 
struck down with intense fear, lest every conceivable 
thing should be involved, and lapse shattered in one fatal 
ruin and that again, inexplicable chaos should overwhelm 
both the Gods, and mankind, and again render undis- 
tinguishable, the Earth, the Seas, and the fiery element, 
and nature hide the wandering planets, and the stars of 
the painted heavens.— Nor will the ruler of the stars, 
Sol,' when he rises, directing the seasons with his eternal 
torches ever afford us again any clearly defined Summer 
and Winter! Nor will Phcebe, who reflects the light of 
Phiebus, ever remove the fears inspired by night (dark- 
ness) and following a shorter course from her curi'ed 
tracks, will disregara the government of her brother, as 
she is traversing the oblique paths of the Zodiac, (that 
is, her re^'olution being shorter, she cannot keep a regular 
pace with the Sun, and the accumulated crowds of Gods 
[constellations] will merge into one gulf). This Zodiac, 
formed of constellations, which courses amongst the sacred 
stars divides the Zones in its oblique transit, varying the 
length of the years, detaching itself from the celestial 
KToup will witness the fate of the rest of the fallen stars. 
This Aries, who at the return of Spring, not as yet gives 
navigators the blessings of the genial Zephyrs to employ 
their sails— will fall precipitately into the waters, that 
ocean over which aforetime he transported the timid 
Hellel This Taurus, who supports the Hyades on his 
golden horns, will drag down with him the Gemini and 
Cancer with his cur^'ec^ claws. The Nemtean Leo, burnt 
up with the flammigerous heat will fall again from his 
celestial habitat, virgo will fall upon the lands, she 
formerly left behind, disgusted with the wickedness of 
mankind— and the Librae (the balance), those punctilious 
arrangers of day and night, will drag down with them 
the venomous Scorpion, and aged Chiron, who drives the 
winged arrows from his Thessalian bow, shall see that 
bow broken and his arrows dispersed. Cold Capricorn 
(who frightened the ver^ Giants with his ugliness) shall 
tumble, bringing back bis tedious winter, and whoevi 
ihouart, Agaa/-ius,J)eucaIioD, Cecrops, HyJas or Gaiiymt * 

hall ^^M 




Mcrget condeus omnia Gurges. 
El qui meiJiBS dividil Urfos, 
Fluminiii inftai, lubricus Aaguipi: 
Magnoque minor juadin Draconi 
Frigida duro Cynofura Ee'u: 
Cultofquc- fui Urdus pluuftri 
Jam HOD ftabitis met Atift(i|ihylax. 
Nos c (anco vifi populo 
DigDL, premeiet quox everfo 
Card ice mundus. 
In DOS xlas ultima veniL 
O DO! dura Tortc erenios, 
Seu perdidtmus folem mifcn^ 
Sive expulimasi Abeant queftus. 
Difcede, limor. Vilre eft avidus, 
Quifqilis DQD vult, mUDdo fecum 
Pereunte, inori. 


EnruIUns impiiis Akeiis DtraFiam de fratre vindictam libi 

gratulatui, dirilquc appurilis dapibus de natonim 

faoguine pnebendo deliberal. 


iQUAUs anris gnidior, & cunflos Tuper 
Attum fuperbo Venice attingeDS polum. 
Nunc decora regni teneo, nunc folium potris. 
Dimitlo fuperos: fumma votoram nttigi. 
Bene ell; jam fat eft etima mibi. 
Sed cur fatis fit? pcrgam, & implebo patrem 
Funerc fuarum: ue quod obftarel pudor, 
Dies recefTil. perge, dum cirlum vacal. 
Utinam quidem lenere fugientes Deos 
FolTem, & coaAos trahere, ut uttriccm dupem 
Omnes videreml quod fit ett, videat paler 
Eliam die nolenle dircuLinm tibi 
Tenebras, miferix fub quibus latilnnt tux. 
Nimis diu conviva fecuro jacet 
Hilarique VBltu. jsm fatis mealis datum eft, 
Salifque Baccho. fobrio tanti ad mala 

^ will 

K the 1 

^H whici 

^H swall 

^K thing 

will break thy um with thee, and the Pisces disappear, 
the last constellation of the Zodiac! and those monslei^, 
which have never been in contact with the sea, shall be 
swallowed up by the Great Gulf, the sea which hides all 
things, and the Serpent slippery and as large as a river, 

un« SM-^! THYESTES. ijg " 

which divides the two Bears, and the Cynosure, bitterly 
cold with its severe frost, and small comparatively, is 
joined with the great dragon, and Arctophylax (Bootes), 
ihe slow driver of his waggon, already not very firm in 
his position shall fall also from the heavens. And we, 
miserable mortals out of all the numerous peoples of the 
world, are thousht to be deservm" of such a fate, that 
fate will overwhelm us all— the very hinges of the universe 
l>eing broken (the seasons being scattered). We have 
arrived at our last stage of time, oh, miserable! that we 
should have ever been created for such a hard lot, whether 
we have lost the Sun without our own faults, or whether 
we have driven away that Sun by our own crimes! 
But away with useless wailings. away with fruitless fears, 
—we are fond of life, but who would not wish to die. 
if the world would only perish with him ! 


Wicked Atreus crowingly congratulates himself on his 

cruel revenge towards his brother, and deliberates 

_ on the dreadful feast, which had been prepared, and 

^_ the serving up of the blood of the sons of Thyestes. 

HL WALK abroad now, on an equality with the deified stars, 
B'l and am attaining with my proud head, the highest 
.1 pitinacles, a place in the lofty heavens, as it were, 
looking down upon all the mortal world below me at 
my feet! I am in possession ot the regalia of power, 
and the throne of my father —I must now dismiss from 
my mind the Gods above. I have reached the summit 
of my desires, thus so far is good and appears even 
ample, already it looks enough for me, but what shall I 
say it will be later on? I shall persevere with my re- 
venue, and I will cause the father to partake to repletion 
of Bis own offspring, and lest by any means misgivings 
should prevail, fortunately the day-time has passed away 
—push on, I .say, whilst the heavens are void of light! 
I wish, indeed, that I could prevent the Gods from re- 
tiring, and keep them, here, even against their will, that 
they might all witness this revengeful entertainment! 
What would be enough now, however, for the present, 
is denied me. That I must see the father face to face, 
even if day-light be denied me, at all events, I wiU baT\\s\x 
rJ>ir menta] darkness from him and under w\\tc\\ \\w 




SENECA'S TRAGEDIES. (u„« 9=— 9!i 



Opus eft Thyeftc. lurba famulnris fotes 
Templi relaxa; fella pateliat domus 
LIbet videre, capita natotum intucus 
Quo£ dct colores, verba quce primus dolor 
Kffundal, aut ul fpiritu cipoKo ftupeos 
Corpus rigcfcat. frudlus hie opeiis mei eft. 
Mireium videro nolo, fed dum lit mifei. 
Aperta mulla teifla coUucenl face. 
Rufupinus ipfe purpura alfjue auro incubat, 
Vino giavatum fulcieos ]xva caput. 
Eruiftnt. o me calitum excel fifli mum, 
Regumquc regeml vola Iranfccudi mea. 

Ne patce potu, leftat etiamtiuin cnior 
Tot hoftianim. veleris hunc Baccbi color 
Abfcondff, hoc luce menra claudatur fcypho. 
MiitUDi fuorum fanguinem genitor bibat; 
Meum bibilTet, ecce jam canlus ciet, 
FelUfquc voces, nee fatis menti imperal. 


X. EC7T0RA longis hebetata mails, 

fim follicitos ponitc cures. 
ugiat mceror, fugiatquc pavor. 
Fugiat treptdi comeii exfilli 
Triflis egellas, icbufque giavis 
Pndor antiAis. mogis unde cndas, 
Quam quo, lefen. m^num, ex alto 
Culniine lapfum, ftabilem in piano 
Figerc greffiim; magnuni, ingenti 
SUage roalomm prefTum, fncti 
Pondera regni non inllexa 

miseries are now concealed from himself. Thyestes, thou 
art posing for much too long a lime, as a guest with a 
contented and merry countenance, thou hast taken by 
this tinie enough of the solid viands and drunk quite 
enough wine; it is necessary tliat Thyestes should be in 
his sober senses to feel his misery properly! Come, all 
ye servants, open every door of the palace, I wish the 
place to put on a festive look, 1 wonder what sort of a 
visage he will have, whether it will be pale or red with 
stirprise! What words will convey his first cries of grief, 

oi— 9J3] 



' or whether his breath will be taken away wiih astonish- 
ment, or his body become rigid with the shock, when 
he beholds the heads of his three sons! This is the 
reward of ray labor. I do not enjoy so much seeing him 
miserable, but the pleasure to me is to watch him whilst 
il is being brought about The open porches are lighted 
up with a profusion of lamps, and 'iTiyestes lies down 
effeminately on the iiurple couches ornamented with 

Sold, and supporting his head now growing heavy (with 
le repast) with his left hand, and amidst frequent hJc- 
cupin^ and eructations, he exclaims! "I think, oh I I think 
myself nobler than any of the folks in heaven, I feel a 
ver)' king of kings. I have transcended my wildest, 
desires! " He has made a heavy repast, and he drinks 
his wine out of a silver goblet ! Don't be sparing with 
the wine, as yet there remains plenty of the blood yielded 
by the three victims, the color of the old wine will soon 
disguise it. This repast will be suitably wound up with the 
contents of this jug— the father shall drink the blood of 
his children mixed with it. He would have drunk mine 
(with gusto). Listen, he is now indulging in little snatches 
_of songs, and utters merry remarks, nor does he seem ■ 
~ 3 toe to have fiill command over his senses! J 


ig of Thyestes at the feast, where he gives 
himself up to merriment, although his inner mind 
foresees some mischief looming in the future, which 
is not quite in keeping with such jollity. 
Vh! soul of minel recently soured by chronic misfor- 
1 tunes, now lay aside anxious care, let erief vanish, 
and fear leave me for ever, let sad privation, 
i,Bi_e twin sister of trembling exile, and disgrace heavy 
with troubles forsake me; it concerns a man more 
from what height he may fall, than the place he may 
reach, as the result of such a fall, but it is a great 
point when a man of importance falls from a lofty 
eminence to be able at the very least, to plate his feet 
firmly on the ground; it is a great thing, too, for a man 
to bear up witn a head not bowed down, and the weight 
and cares of a kingdom, broken up and divided and 
himself overwhelmed with the direst disasters, quite as 
much as it is, for a man faint-hearted and subdued by 
misfortunes, to bear with some amount of equanimity, 
the fresh reverses which have befallen him. But let me 
banish the dark shadow of my former cruel fate, and 
^^ismiss the memory of the miserable portion ot m^ \ilc, 
WKp^ '*■' Mjorful couatensace reflect itself on my piesenl 

Vincire comam? jiroliibet, prohibcl. 
Vermv cupili fJuxere rofx; 
Pingui madidus crinii acnomo 
Inter fubilos fletil horrores; 
Imber vultu nolente cadil. 
Venil in medias voces gemitU!^; 
Mipcur Incrinuis amal affudas, 
Flendi mireris dim cupido efi. 
Libel infaufttn miltere quedus 
Libel & Tyrio faturas oftro 
Rumperc vclles. ulularc libel. 
Mlltit tuAus figna (iiluri 
Mens, ante fui pnefoga msli. 
Inflnl naulU feni tempeftm. 
Cum fine vCDto lrBii<]uil1a tameDL 
Quos libi ludlus, quufve tumullus 

Vcl line caufs, vel fero limea. 
Nolo infelix; fed vagus intra 
Terror oberrat; fubitos fuadunl 
Oculi fletus, ncc caufa fubell. 

s en> 

1 habel lacrimal 

lem fimulans, fmircm a 
Ubcros, quo plenius g 
& pnlmos, & quid oiflum fit 
ira, convicia, exfecnUl 

Faiood, although it would distress me to ignore the suffer 
in^ of the afflicted. Dame Fortune, why dost thou 
recall me, or why shouldst thou object to my celebrating 
this auspicious day? Wlw shouldst thou bid me lo weep 
when grief springs out of nothing within my knowledge? 
What should prevent me from encircling my locks with 
flowers of recent date ? There is a reason why! This much 
is against it, the roses of spring once fell from my crown, 
(alluding to his coronation roses). My hair, although 
besmeared with perfumed grease (an unguent scented 
with the amomiim], is still prone to stand on end amidst 
sudden terrors, and the tears trickle down mv unwilling 
face, (not wiiling to betrav the weakness which gives rise 
to them,) irrepressible si^gfis interrupt my utterance, grief 
delights in tears to which it is no stranger (as a relief 
to pent-up sorrow). Over the miserable the desire to 
weep assumes an imperious sway— surely, I am at liberty 
to indulge in my tristful lamentations— surely, again, I can 
liberate tnyself firom ray present gorgeous apparel. Thrice 
dyed with the Tyrian purple—surely, if I think fit, I may 
be allowed to fill the air with iny groans! My mind 
inspires me with a warning of coming grief, foretelhng 
some calamity, some sad presentiment! A violent storm 
often overhangs the mariner, even whilst the deadest of 
calms prevail over the surface of the ocean, with no 
appearance of wind! Ah I but what grief am I insanely 
picturing to my mind, or what racking thoughts are taking 
possession of me ? Shall I let my trustful heart go forth to 
my brother? But whatever is it? Either only the fabric of 
ray own imagination, or that it appears, late in the day. lo 
begin to cultivate fear! I am, however, unwilling to make 
myself miserable, but still, a vague alarm hovers within my 
breast, my eyes pour forth tears on a sudden, nor does the 
cause of such tears show itself in any definite form! Is it 

I then merely sorrow, or is it my fear? Which is it? But 

LJb not excessive joy sometimes accompanied with tears? 


tAtreus feij^ning hilarity, invites his brother to partake of 
the wine, and in order that he might rejoice more 
fully of seeing his children; on asking for them, 
Atreus shows him their heads and hands, and tells 
him all that had been done, hence arises an outburst 
of grief, anger, reproaches, and curses I 


H ray brother, let us with mutual cordiality, celebrate 
this auspicious day I This is the day, that shall 


^~^ strengthen ihe security of my sceptre, and esta\>\\s'ft ! 

goM guarantee between us of inviolaule peace\ i 



■™v. Satis dapis me, nee minus Bacchi IcneL 

noece cumulus hie voluplalem peteft, 

Si cum Meis gaudere felici daluc. 

ATR. Heic efTe oalos credc in nmplexu palris. 

ticic funt, erunlquc; nulla pars prolis ture 

Tibi fubftrahelur: ora, quce enoplas, dabo, 

Tonimque (urba jam fua implebn patrem. 

Saliabetis, ne metue: nunc rnUti raeis, 

Jacunda; menfic racra juvenilis coluot, 

Sed accientur. poculum infufo cape 

Gentile Baccho. thy. Capio fratemx dapis 

Donum. patemis »ma libentur Deis, 

Tunc hauriantur. Sed quid hoc? non vult minus 

Parere; crefcit pondus, Sc deKtram Eravnl. 

Admotus ipfia Bacchus a labris fugit, 

Circaque riflus ore decepto efJluil. 

Kn, ipfa Irepido menfa fubrduit folo. 

Vix lucet ignis, ipfe quin ielhcr grnv'ts 

. Inter diem no<flemqu« defeitus (lupet. 
Quid hoc? magis magifque concuffi labonl 
ConrcKa cteli: fpilTior denfis coil 

• Caligo tenebris, noxque (e in noAem abdidit. 
Fugit onme fidus. quidquid efl, fralri, precor, 
Nalifqttc parcat; omnes in vile hoc caput 
Abeat pn>cella. redde ^am nalos mihi. 
ATR. Reddam, & tibi illos nullus «riptet dies. 
THY. Quii hie tumultas vifcera exagitat mea! 
Quid tremoil intus? fenlio impatiens onus, 
Meumque gcmilH uon meo pedlus geroil. 
Adcfle, nali, genitor infelii vocal: 
Adellc; vifis fugiet hie vobis dolor. 
Unde Qbloqimntur? atr. Expcdi amplrius, paler. 
Venfre. natos ecqnid agnorcis [nus? 
THY. Agnorco fratrem. fuflines tanlum nefas 
Gellarc, tcllus? nan ad infcmam Slyga 
"" jfque inergis? nipla & ingenli via 

THV. Thou hast feiisted ire lo satiet>'. nor hast thou 

been niggardly with the wine. This overflowing hospitaUiy 

will aftord me still greater pleasure, if it be permitted 

J me, already happy, to share that felicity with my children. 

ATR. Hearken to me, believe me for a certainty that 
P thy sons are practically at this moment in the arms of 
■ '*""'" 'atlier— there they are and will remain I No portion 
"^nrins; shall be withheld from theel I will duly 
thee the faces of thy children 1 1 shall fully 
every one of them, to a father so solicitous 
"^ progeny! Thou shall be satisfied, do not 
I'iimiie, in the presence ol vn^ o-hyv dtAiiMi, 

r^incs 973— looSj THYESTES. 141 

they are contributing to the delightful ceremonies of the 
juvenile feast! But they shall be sent for; in the mean 
time, take up this goblet, the goblet of our ancestors! 
drink copiously of the wine it contains ! 

THY. I accept the bestowal of this fraternal feast, but let 

the wine be first offered to our paternal gods, then I will 

drink what is left (lifting it to his mouth). But what is 

this? My hand refuses to obey my will, the weight of 

it seems to increase, and completely tires out ray right 

hand, and the wine strives to recede from my lips and 

flows away from my disappointed mouth andf disperses 

itself around my jaws! Benold! the table too, is losing 

its steadiness on the trembling floor! The lamps are 

scarcely yielding any light 1 And more than that, the 

oppressea sky itself is growing dazed, deserted as it is, 

by the sun, moon and stars, during the interregnum 

between day and night. — But what is this? The heavens 

shaken more and more, appear to totter, the darkness 

unites with darkness still blacker, and the night hides 

itself away in a night more intense in its blackness! 

Every star has vanished! Whatever is it, I pray, spare 

my brother and my children. O ye Gods ! let the whole 

brunt of the tempest fall upon my head only! Now, 

Atreus, restore to me my sons! 

ATR. I will restore them to thee, and no great length 
of time shall elapse before I do so. 

THY. What is this disturbance, which is agitating my 
inside ? How I do tremble internally ! I feel a Toad, whicn 
I cannot bear — ray chest is raoaning, with a moaning that 
surely cannot be my own. Come to me, my sons, thy 
unhappy father calls thee — Oh ! Come ! this uneasy feeling 
will vanish, when I behold thee! Whence come their 
voices ? 

ATR Get ready to embrace them, (Here Atreus returns 
and shows Thyestes the children's heads) father thou ! They 
have come, thou seest! Whether or not, dost thou not, 
at this moment, recognize, that they are thy sons, whose 
moaning thou art now hearing! 

THY. I recognize thee! ray brother, as always impious 
and cruel! Oh! Earth! how canst thou permit thyself to 
bear such abominable wickedness? Why dost thou not 
plunge thyself and us into the infernal Styx ? Why ! that 
great gulf being opened, dost thou not snatch away ftvt 
kingdom and the king along with it, and consign us to \\v^ 


Vertts Myceaasf flare circa T&aulum, 

Avofque noftros, II quis intra Tartara efl, 

Ulerque jam debuimlis, hinc compagibus 

Et hbc revulfia hue luam immani fiou 

Dcmitte vattem, nufque defolTcs tege 

Achercnle loto: noxin: fujira caput 

Aninue vagentur noftnim, & atdcnli freto 

Phlegethcn arenas igneus lords agens, 

Ex'ilia fupra nonra violentus tluat. 

ImmoUt tellus pondus ignavum jacesP 

Fugere Superi. atr. Ai iccipe hos polius libens 

Diu «petilo>, Dulla per fralrem ell mora, 

Fruere: ofculare: divide amplcxus Cribus. 

THY. Hoc ftedus? hax cd gratia? hax fritri* fides? 

Sic odia ponis? bod peto, incolumea pater 

Natos ut tutbeam: fcelere quod falvo dari 

Odioque pofTit, frater hoc fratrem rago, 

.SepeUre liceat. redde, quod cemas tlalim 

Uri. nihil te geoilor habiturus rogo, 

Sed perditurua. ATk, Quiitquid e oalis luis 

Supeiefl, habebis: quodque noa fupereft, babes. 

THV. Utrumne txvis pabulum alitibus jacent? 

An belluis rervaDlor? an pafcuot feras! 

ATR. Epulatu^ ipfe es impia natos dape. 

THV. Hoc ell Deos quod puduiti hoc egit diem 

Adverrom in ortusi quas mifer voces dibo, 

Queftufque quos? quic verba rufficieDt niihl? 

AbrcilTa cemo capita, & avalfas manus, 

Et rapta frai!lis cruribus vefligia. 

Hoc e(l, quod avidus capere non potuit pntcr. 

VoWuntUr intos vifcera, & claufum nefas 

Sine exitu ludlatur, & quxrit viiim. 


gloom of empty Chaos? Why dost thou not turn the 
entire city Mycenie upside down, tearing up every living 
abode, from its lowest foundations. We, tne pair of us, 
ought to be domiciled in the very presence of Tantalus 
and our worthy erandsires, and if there be a place below 
ihe domains of Tartarus (where our grandfather is in his 
captivity), precipitate us hence into this valiey of thine, 
with its immense gulf, the very points of contact at every 

Eart being rent asunder and in this place immure us. 
idden away in the dungeons subjacent to the entire bed 
of the Acheron. Let the guito shades (Manes) wander over 
our heads, and the fiery Phleeethon. driving the sands 
about in every direction with its burning headlong streuns, 



flow violently above us! in this place of our eternal exile. 
Oh ! motionless Earth ! Why dost thou rest as an idle 
mass? After all this, the Gods even have fled! (Phoebus 
I l>hu;be and the Stars.) 

ATR. But it is better that thou shouldst accejpt, thank- 
fully, thy long-desired sons; thou shall have the full enjoy- 
ment of them, no obstacle lies in thy way on the part of ihy 
brother, kiss them, divide thy caresses between the three I 

THV. Oh 1 this horrible wickedness I Is this thy reconcili- 
ation? Is this a brother's sincerity? Is this the way thou 
tnarkest thy hatred (revenge)? I do not ask, that as a 
father, I should naturally expect to receive my children 
safe and sound, or that it is now possible for them to be 
given up to me, free from this complicated villainy (crime 
and revenge), but as a brother, asking another brother, 
that he may be perrnitted the privilege of burying his 
own children, or what remains of them! Give tnen the 
remains to me, and thou shalt be an eye-witness that 
they are burnt, and as their father I crave, inou perceivest, 
not that t should have them to preserve, but, that I 
should have them to desfroy (bum). 

ATR Whatsoever is left of thy children, thou shalt have, 
;lput whatever does not remain, thou possessest already. 

THV. Whether are they lying as food for the terrible 
birds of prey? Are they preserved for the benefit of the 
fishes? Or lo serve as a repast for the wild beasts? 

ATR. Thou, thyself, hast feasted on them, at thy impious 

THV. Reallyl this must put the very Gods to the blush! 
This is the crime then that has made the light remain 
in the east and kept back the dayl (Phtebus refused to 
yoke his steeds.) Ohl what cries shall I vent in my misery? 
What wailing shall I display? What words are sufficient 
to record my feelings? I perceive, now, that their heads 
have been cut off, and their hands wrenched from their 
sockets, and the remains torn away trom their broken 
legs. This is what a father, however hunpry, could never 
sacrifice to his voracity— My very entrails are working 
round and round wilhm me, and without any means of 
exit, my misery is struggbng in mv inside, and is seeking 
some way out of its imprisonmentl Give me thy sword, ' 
brother, it has plenty of my blood on it already, I shall 
^effect a way out for my children \ Shall the sword ^le 


Negnlur enfis? peiflora Ulifo foneul 
Conlura planflu. fuHme, iDfelii, manum; 
Piucamus umbrii. tale quU vidil nefns! 
Qd» inhofpilalis CaucaTi rupcm afperam 
Heaiocbos hnbitaJis? quirve Cecropiis metas 
Terris Procruftes? genilor en natoa premo, 
Premurque natis, fceleris eft ittiquis modus? 
ATK. Sceleri modiiB debetur, ubi facias fceluG, 
Non ubi repoaos. hoc quoquc exignum elt mibi. 
Et vuloere ipfo raaguinem caljdum m tua 
DilFundere ora debui, ut vivenlium 

I. verba fUDt irae data; 
Dum ptopero, Terra vulnere impreiTo dedi. 
Cecidi ad aras, csede votiva focos 
Placavi: & artus, corpore exanimo amputnns, 
In porvB corpfi fniflo: & hicc fervcQlibus 
DeiDerU ahenis. ilia lentis ignibus 
SliUore jufTi. membra, nervofque abfcidi 
Vivcnlibus: gracUique Irajeiftas vera 
Mugire libras vidi, & nggeffi maDU 
Mea ipfe llammas, omnia hccc melius pater 
FecilTe potuil. cecidit incalTum dolor. 
Scidil ore oalos impio, fed nefciens, 
Scd nefcienles. TKV. Clufa litoribus vagis 
Audile moria. vos quoque audite hoc fcelus, 

Et atm Dube, vocibus notlris v 

Tibi (um relidlus. Tola lu miferum vides, 

Tu quoque fine aflrjs. vota iion fadam improba, 

Pro me nihil precahor. ecquid jam poled 

Pro me effe? vobis vota profpicient mea. 

Tu, fumme cceli redlor, xtberiic polens 

DomiDolur oulx, aubibus toturo horridis 

Convelve munduiQ, bcUa veolorum undique 

Committe; & omni parte violculutn Inloua: 

Manuque, rod qua te^a & immeritas domos 

TbIo petis minore, fed qua montiura 

Tergemina moles cecidil, & qui mootibus 

Slabant pares gigantes, hxc anna eicped], 

Ignesque torque, vindica amifTum diem. 

denied to me? My breast shall then resound, with self- 
inflicted blows I (If the midst of the blows) Ohl miserable 
man, that I am, slay my hand, let me spare the Manes 
of my sonsl Whoever saw such abominable wickedness? 
What any of the Heniochi dwelling in the rough wilder- 
s of the inhospitable Caucasus? What Procrustes, the 
terror of that Cecropian country (Attica)? Here, I, a father 
am squeezing my own children in my interiorl And 

ATR. A limit is certainly due to crime, when thou art 
merely committing crime as a crime, but not when thou art 
associating that crime with vengeance— and this vengeance 
appears small to my mind. 1 ought to pour out from their 
wounds before thy very eyes that thou mighiest drink 
their reeking blood, whilst Ufc still remained within theml 
I xm simply trilling with my anger, whilst I hurry matters 
on with idle words— I inflicted the wounds with the thrusts 
of my sword— I slew them before the altar— I pacified 
the I-ares, with the slaughter, which I vowed, should l>e 
offered, and cutting up the Hmbs of their dead bodies, I 
divided them myself, into small portions, and plunged 
some of them into the hissing caldron, other portions I 
decided should be roasted, the fluidities therefrom drip- 
ping down before a slow lire: I cut the hmbs away from 
the bodies, before Hfe was quite eKtinct; I watched the 
entrails as they crackled, whilst transhxed on a delicate 
spit (skewer), and 1 kept the fire up with my own hands, 
their own father could not have managed the business 
with greater culinary skill 1 My anger, after all, fell short 
of the mark, for in ignorance, the father munched his 
sons' flesh in his impious mouth, but the pity is, that they 
jgeie incognizant of what that father was doing with them! 

Tm'. Hear, O ye seas, shut in by winding shores ! hear, 

' — -e Gods, whithersoever ye have fled, of this dreadful 

listen, Ol ye regions below, listen, all cor- 

_.__ _.jrthl O! thou night, oppressed with black 

Tartarus-like clouds, give ear to my voice! I am destined 


Btf ot crimes- listen, Ol ye regions below, listen, all 
ners of the earth I O! thou night, oppressed with I 
Tartarus-like clouds, give ear to my voice! I am desi 
" for thee, thou longest to see me miserable, although thou 
art not deprived of the stars I will not offer up any 
unbecoming prayers for myself, nor in fact will 1 solicit 
anything for myself, or ask whether anything is possible 
to be done for me, let my prayers be regarded as for 
thee I Oh! thou ruler of lofty heaven, thou sovereign of 
the ethereal palaces, surround the entire universe with 
frightful tempests, on all sides let there be war amongst 
the winds themselves and let the whole world in every 
part, resound with thy terrific thunder, and with the force, 
not such as thou selectest to destroy simple houses and 
undeserving homesteads, the milder form of thy thunders. 
but that sort, which broke up the threefold mass of 
mountains, Pelion, Ossa, and Olymfius, and dispersed the 
.jjUnls which equalled those mountains in heightl Hasten 

■nth thy armamenls.' Let me behold the lightnings. 

^■^jcb aoa auisi hurl, and make up for the missmg da-j^ 

{aculire flammas; lumen ereptum polo 
ulminibus eiple. cnufa, ne dubites diu, 

, Utriufque mala (it: Ti minus, mala fit mea. 
Me pele. Irifulco flamiiieam (elo fBcem 

. Per pe^us hoc tranrmitte. fi aalos paler 
Humore, & igni iradere extremo vdId, 
Ego fum cremoiKlus. nihil fuperos movel, 
Nullunujue telis impios numcn petit; 

' ^lemo DUX pennaneal, & tenebris tegat 
Immeara longis fcelerx. nil Titnu queror, 
Si perteverBs. ATB. Nunc mens laado manus, 
Nunc parla vera ell palmo. pcrdideram Tcelus, 
Nifi Tic doleres. liberos nafci mihi 
Nunc credo, catlis nunc lidem reddi toris, 
THV. Quid liberi meruerc? atr. Quod fuerant tui. 
THY. Nalos parenti i atr. Faleor, &, quod me juval, 
Certos. THV. Pionim pnefides leftor Deos. 
ATB..' Quid cODJugales? thy. Scelere quis penfnl fcelus 
ATR, Scio, quid quemri?. fcelere pncrepio doles; 
Nee, quod nefandas hiureris, nmgil, dapes: 
Quod nan pantris fuerat hie animus libi 
Inftruere licniles infcio frain cibos, 
Et adjuvanle liberos malrc oggredi, 
Similique leto ftemere. hoc unum oliftitit, 
Tuos putalli. Tin-. Vindices arierunl Dei : 
His punieodum vola !e trailuul mea, 
ATR. Te puiiiendum libcris trado tuis. 

Shoot forth th^ flames, and superadd to thy lishtnings, 

all the light which can be drawn awav from the heavens, 

so as to intensify ihem! The culpabihty of each of us 

is great, do not hesitate for long, if there be any difference 

in our guilt, let it be mine, which shall be adjudged the 

greater! Select me, send through ray breast, the naming 

fires of thy three-forked lightnmg if as a father I onlv 

wish to bury my sons and deliver ihem over to "fire" 

[at last? 1 myself must be burnt, if nothing moves the 

I Gods, and no deity is willing to search out the wicked 

Mfor punishment vnlh his lightnings, let eternal night 

Hremam to us, and hide these tremendous crimes with its 

[I prolonged darkness ! O ! Titan ! I shall complain of 

[ nothing then, if thou wilt only persevere in lying hidden 

I away. 

L ATR. Now I congratulate myself upon my operations, 
now a real victory is achieved, I should have been deprived 
Kfthechief advantages of my crime, unless thou grievestas 
Biou bast been doing— I believe, that those children were 
Kjesdned to be bom for me (for tny designs) and thus it 
K ditt I have dealt out iusbce \o ^\ic^ c*na£.\.e nuptials! 

Lines 1086— II 12] THYESTES. 147 

THY. \Vhat had the children done, to have deserved 
all this? 

ATR. Simply that they were thine! 

THY. That children should suffer, for their parent's 

ATR. I acknowledge this, and what gives me equal 
pleasure, the unmistakability of their origm ! 

THY. I call to witness the Gods, who preside over the 
innocent, the Conjugal Gods! 

ATR. Dost thou mean Hymenaeus? 

THY. What dost thou argue, that crime should be- 
punished by crime of greater intensity? 

ATR. I know what thou wouldst have endeavoured to 
carry out— thou art regretting that thou wert forestalled in 
thy wickedness. Nor does it so much affect thee, that 
thou hast actually partaken of the feast, dreadful as it is 
(confessedly), but that it was not thy hand that was con- 
cerned in its preparation— it was in thy mind to get up 
a similar entertainment for thy unsuspecting brother! 
and, aided by the mother, to have made an onslaught on 
my children, and lay them low with a fate of like 
character^ but there was only one thing that deterred 
thee— Thou thoughtest, they might be thy own! 

THY. Ah ! the revengeful gods will appear on the scene, 
my desire is to deliver thee over to be punished by them I 

ATR. I consign thee to be punished, through the fate 
of thy children ! 

P H CE N I S S iE 



^^B CEoiPtTS. 

^H Antigone. 


^F rEiiiPUS, fibi 



<ie nrguraenlum 

proteiflus, aoio- 

( ])erla;fo ducem 

Lultis predbus 

rElllPUS, fibi Dcnils, ubi fcdus ruum (de qat 
O^dipi) agoovilTel, enilis, in exfilium fpoiilam 
litui a. fc liliam Anligonen. (jus palri vitoles s 
(e vix oRert, utque mortis cupidiaem depoi 
orat, laudem enorat. Cujus inlerea filios Eteaclem & Polyi 
viulato rcgnandi per vices fcedcre, impia movenles armi, incaf- 
fum laborat mater Jocafia in gratiani reducere. Defunt mutilff 
huic Tr^cediae ceteriL 




i regimen., ac ferii unicum 
Pntris levaroen, nala, quam tanti eft mihi 
GcnuifTc vel lie, dcfere infaufium pEtrem. 
In reifla quid defleAis eirantem gradumJ 
Permilte Isbi. melius invcniatn viam 
Quam qmcro fotus, quic me ab hac vita extraiiat, 
E( hoc Defandi capitis afpeiflu levet 
Coclum alqae lerras. quanlulum hac egi manu? 
Non video nona; confcium nodra: diem; 
Sed videor. bine jam Tolve inhirenleni manum, 
El patcre cxcum, qua volet, ferri p«dem. 
tbo, ibo, qua praerupta prolendit juga 
Meus Cithkron; qua pemgrato celer 
Per faia mome jacuii A£&on, Tuis 
Nova prxda caoibus; qua per obfciinim nemns, 
Silvamque opacx vallis inftiniflas Deo 
Egit fororcs mater, & gaudcns malo, 
VibraDle (ixum pra;lulit ihyrfo caputs 
Vel qua cucuirit corpus ioviAim traben^ 
Zellii juvencus, qua per horrenles ruI>os 
Tauri ferocis fanguis odeiitBt fugas; 
Vel qua alU maiia vertice immenfo premil 
iDoa rupes, qua fcelus rugiena fuuni, 





■■■When CEdipus had discovered his crime, he caused his 
own eyes lo be put out; concerning which see the 
Argument to CEdipus; he separates himself from his 
daughter Antigone, who offers hersell as guide lo her 
father, who is tired of his life, and that he might more 
readily abandon his desire for death, she begs of hiin 
with strong entreaties, at last succeeding in her per- 
suasions; m the meantime his sons Eteocles and 
Polynices engage in impious strife, the treaty binding 
them to reign alternately being violated. Jocasta, the 
mother, labors in vain to bring about a reconciliation 
between them. (The rest of this imperfect tragedy is 





Antigone, the daughter, becomes guide to her blind father, 
and prevails on (Edipus to relinquish his determin- 
ation to die. 

vh! daughter, guide of ihy blind parent, and the only 

) prop of a worn-out father, what great happiness is 

there in Ihe thought (the birth) of having brought thee 

._ 3 the world, even under the sad circumstances in which 

_J am now piaced (needing a guide)— leave thy unlucky 

, parent I me wander at will, I shall better find the 

way I am seeking, alone,— that way which will remove 

me from the world, and thus relieve both heaven and 

earth of the unpleasantness of beholding my criminal face. 

How little have I done with this hand of mine lo remedy 

mmy condition) I cannot (betn^ blind) though conscious 

Urn my offence look on the day, Liui yet the flay sees\af. 


Novumque faciens, mater inriluil freto 
Meriura natum, fcque feliees, <]uibu5 
ForlUDB melioT tam booas matres dedil! 
Eft alius iftis nofler in lilvis tocus. 
Qui me repofcil; hunc petam curfu incilo : 
Non hEefilabit ereffus, hue omDi duce 
Spoliatus ibo quid maior ledes meas? 
Mortem, Cittucroo, redde, & hofpilium mihi 
Illud meum refliCue, a1 eifpiTcm fenex, 
L'bi debui iufans recipe fupplieiuni vclus 
Semper cruenle, (xve, crudelis, ferox, 
Cum occidis, & cum parcis. olim jam tuum 
Ed hoc cadaver, perage mandalum palris, 
Jam & matris. antmua geflit antiqua exTrquJ 
Supplicia. quid me, nata, (wfllferu tenes 
Amore viuclum? quid leoes? genilor vocat. 
Sequor, Tequor. jam parce. fanguinem gerens 
Infigue regiii Lafus rapti furit. 
Et ecce inanes manibus iTifcnis petit 
Fodilque vultus. nata, genitortm vides? 
Ego video, tandem fpiriium inimicum exTpue, 
Defertor animi, foitUi m partem tui : 
Omitte pcEuss langnidas longx moiie, 
Mortemque lotam lecijie. quid fegnis traho? 
Quid vivoi nullum facere jam pofTum fcelus. 
PolTum loifcr. prsedieo, difcede a patre; 
Difcede, virgo. limeo potl matrem omnia. 
AHT. Vis nulla, genitor, a tuo noftram manum 
Corpore refolvet, nemo me comitem tibi 
Eripict unquam. Litbdaci clarom domum, 
Opulenta ferro regna germani petant; 

withdraw thy hand which thou art thus holding in mine, 
and suffer my steps with their uncertain fool-fiold to be 
borne where they will! I must go— I must go, for my 
refuge, where Cilhieron stretches out into the rugged 
height^ — across those rocks, where fleet ActKon fell, aJter 
being chased far and wide on this mountain, as an un- 
expected prey to his own dogs! Or where the mother 
(Agave) conducted her sisters, urged on by Bacchus, into 
the obscure grove and the woods of the shaded valley, 
and rejoicing at her ferocious crime carried the head of 
her son Pentheus fixed lo the point of her trembling 
thyrsus I Or where the ferocious bull of Zethus ran vrUa, 
dragging at its tail the hateful body of Dirce, and where 
her blood showed the track of the savage animal through 
the terrible bramt)les.— Or shall I go where the rock of 
Ino looks down on the deep sea from its wide summit — 
(where she, flying from the crime of Athamas (who had 


ig a fresh ^^M 

slain one of his sons Learchus] and committing 
one hereelf, that mother who bent on drowning herself. 
with her other son Melicerla, leaped into the sea.) Happy 
are they for whom a more auspicious fortune provided 
with such accommodating moihersl There is yet another 
place in those woods, which would suit my case, and_ 
which slill has a right to claim me. I will seek it with" 
hurried steps, nor shall my pace be slackened; there I 
will repair and cast aside all leadership; why should I 
dally, thus, about a final resting-place? Cithaeron, lei me 
select ihy loftiest summit, and afford me that asylum 
which belongs to me, that I may die as an old man, 
where by "_good rights" I ought to have died, during my 
infancy! Cithreron, resume thy time-honored punishment, 
always savage, blood-thirsty, cruel, unmerciful, both when 
thou sacrificest and when thou showest clemency! For- 
merly, this carcass of mine was thine — it is thine now— 
carry out the injunction of my father and mother, my 
inchnation will now rejoice that I should receive the 
punishment, as of old I Why. daughter, dost ihou hold 
me fast, with such objectionable care? Why dost thou 
retain me thus? My lather is calling me; 1 am coming. 
I am coming, oh I spare me ! and weanng the blood-stained 
symbol of rovalty stolen from him by me! see Laius! he 
is raging with anger! he is seeking me and plunging his 
cruel fingers into my orbits, and tries to tear out my eyes! 
Daughter! dost ihou not see my father? I see him although 
I am blind! Oh, my craven soul, let me rid myself of my 
troublesome existence and not rest contented with being 
courageous towards only a portion of my miserable self 
(meanmg putting out his own eyes). Let me put an end 
to the slow punishment of protracted delay, and die 
thoroughly, at once! Why do I lingeringty drag on a 
life like this? Why should I live? There are no more 
crimes for me to commh! Ah! miserable! Yes there 
are, I acknowledge! Depart from thy father. Oh my 
daughter! depart whilst thou art still a virgin; after my 
incestuous affair with thy mother, I fear everj-lhing and 
distrust myself! 

ANT. No power, father, shall ever detach my hand 
from thy personal protection, no one shall ever snatch 
me away from thee, me thy only companion— My brothers 
may contend with the sword for the opulent kingdom 
and the brilliant palace of Labdacus, but the most im- 
portant part out of the kingdom of my noble father (to 
my eyes) is mine, the father himself, No brother shall 
take thee from me. nor any one else, who wields the 
Theban sceptre and leading the battalions of Argos; not 



Par5 fumma maeni patrii; e regno raea ell 

I'nler ipfe, noD bunc Rurerrt fcftter nilhi, 

Thebana rapto fccplni qni regno lenet ; 

Non hone catervus niter Argolicas ageus. 

Ndq II revulfo Juppiler munilo lonel, 

Mediuinque aollras fulmen in nexus cadat, 

MaDum banc remittBm. proMbeaSj genitoi licet; 

Regam abQUeotem, dirigam iovili graduro. 

In plana tendis' vado. pT^nipta expetis? 

Non obrto, fed prrecedo, quo vis utere, 

Puce me : liuobns omnia eligilnr via. 

Perire fine me uon potes; mecutn poles. 

Heic nlta rupes orduo furgit jugo, 

Speiflatque longc fpatia Tiibjefti maris. 

Vis banc petamus? tiudui hetc pendel (ilex; 

Heic fcilTu [ellus faucibus niplii hiat. 

Vis hanc petamus? heic rapax lorreos cadil, 

Partefque lapfi raontis exelas rolat. 

Id bunc ruamu3. dum prior, quo vis, eo; 

Nob deprecor, non hortor. eillingui cupis, 

Volumque, geoitor, maximum mors ell libi! 

Si moreris, anteccdo: f) vivis, fequor. 

Sed ([e&e meatem; pe<£tuG antiquum advoca; 

Viifiafque tnngao robore Krumnas doma. 

Refine, tantis in raalis vine! mori etl. 

lEDlP. Unde in nefanda fpecimen egregium domi 

Unde ifla generi virgo diffimilis fuo? 

Fortuna, credis? aliquis eft ex me piusf 

Non elTet unquam (fala bene novi mea) 

Nin ul Qocerel. Ipfa fe in leges novas 

Nntura vertet; rrgeret in fonlcm citas 

RevoJulU5 undas amnis; & noflem affcret 

FbiEbea lampss: Hefpenis fnciet diem. 

U( ad miferias aliquid accedat meas; 

I'ii quoque erimus. unica Gi^dipada: eH falus, 

if Jupiter himself should send forth his lightning till the 
world was literally ploughed up for them, then his lightning 
would have to pitch on the very part, where our hands 
are joined! Thou mayst try and hinder me, Father, but 
I will never relax this hand of mine. I will guide thee 
although, against thy will; I will direct the steps of my 
unwilling father I wnether we approach the plain, or 
whether thou climbest the rocks, I go with thee, 1 do not 
prevent thee, I go in front of thee, whichever thou wishes! 
to do with me as thy guide. Every way that is chosen 
by thee, will be acceptable with me. Thou canst not 

rising out of the ridge oi a sVct\i nioun^am, a 


■ root, 



fommands the view for a long distance of the sea at its 
foot, hast thou a mind, that wc should so thither? Here 
a naked rock hangs down I There, the Earth diiided 
by a nigned entranLX gapes wide with its gulf below 1 
An thou desirous that we shall go there? Here is a 
rapid waterfall, which rolls in its path the disintegrated 
masses of a mountain, which it undermines! Shall we 
throw ourselves into it? Whilst I go in front, we will 
ro, wherever thou wilt; Mind I I am not blaming thee, 
I am not advising thee; Oh! Father! is death thv chief 
desire, is it the greaiesi consideration to thee? if thou 
art to die, 1 go before ihee, if thou art to li*e I shall 

live too! But, pray change the current of thy mind, 
■ of ihy ancient courage, and subdue thy 

call up ; 

troubled thoughts, which are to be brought under control 

by great efforts. Act otherwise, for it is simply a worse 

niisKirtune to die overcome by such misfortunes, however 


<IDIP. How is it, that there springs such an admirable 
example of human virtue from such a wicked stock? 
How is it that this spotless virgin so belies the race of 
Qxlipus: Oh! The Fatesl Can I believe it? That any 
thing good could emanate from me? That there should 
eiist any thing (and I have watched my own career, 
closely) that was not calculated to operate against me— 
Nature surely, has changed her system and has invented 
fresh laws for her own guidance! The river rolling along 
with its rapid streams, will recede into a simple fountain I 
Phcebus with his fiery brightness will produce darkness 
instead I Hesperus wil! perform the duties of the Sun! 
That something, however, should tend by good rights to 
augment ray misery! For lo! we now observe Virtue in 
our family! but the one redeeming consolation for 
(Edipus is that he will not attain any benefit arising out 
of it. Why do I, in this listless manner, refrain from 
exacting that punishment with my right hand, which 1 
deserve, is it not right, that I should revenge, my, as yet 
unavenged Father? Whatever thou hast already done has 
been to avenge the motherl (Pulling out his eyes.) Let 
go the hand of thy father, courageous virgin! thou art 
only prolonging my death, and art conducting the funeral 
rites of a living father! Prepare at last, to cover my 
odious body with earth! Thou sinnest with an honest 
intention. "ITiou callest it affection, lo drag about an im- 
buried parent, it amounts to the same thing, he who 
compels an unwilling man lo die, and he that hinders 
htm from dying, when be is hastening to arrive at W VQ 
Wfyrbid a wan to die, who wishes for death, is ptacticaXi'j 



Non elTe fulvum. liccat nlcifci patrem 

Adhoc inultum. dcxtra quid ceCfai iiiers 

Exigere ptEDOs! quidquiit exadlum ell odhuc; 

Mntrl dedifli. mitte genitoris numiim, 

AnimorB virgo. funus cxteadis meum, 

Longafque vivi ducis cufeqains patris. 

Aliqunndo terra, corpus iovifum lege. 

Feccaa honena menle. pietalem vocos, 

Palrem iufepultam trahere. qui cogit mori 

Nolcnictn, in aequo eft, quique properaatem impedit. 

Occidere eH, vetare cupieDtem mon. 

Nee tamed in squo efl. olteiutn gravius reor. 

Mato imperaii, qitam eripi mortem milii. 

Defifte ccepio, virgo. jus vilx ac necis 

Mea: penes me eCl. regna defetui libens, 

Regnum mei rclineo. H fida es comes, 

Enfem parent! trade- red DOtum oece 

Enfem patema. Iradia? an nali tenenl 

Cum regno & ilium? faciei, ubicanque ell, opus, 

Ibi Tit. relinquo. nalus buuc babeat meus, 

Sed ulerque. fiammas potius S: vatluni aggerem 

Compone. in altos ipfe me immittam rogos. 

Ereilam ad igne* funebrem efcendam ftruem, 

PeAufqae folvam durum, & in cineres dabo 

Hoc quidquid in me vivit. ubi fsvum ell mare! 

Dae, ubi lit attis pronitum fails jugum, 

Ubi lorta rapidus ducat Ifmenos vada : 

Due, ubi ferx fiot, ubi frelum, ubi prxceps locus, 

Si dux es. illuc ire morituro placet, 

Ubi fedil alta rupe femifero dolus 

Sphini ore Dediens. dirige hue greffus pedum, 

Ileic lllle patrem. dira ne fedes vacet, 

Monllrum repoue majus. hoc faxum iDfidens 

Otffcura uoftne verba fortuoie loquar, 

Qua: nemo folvaL quifquis AITyrio loca 

PolTelfa regi fcindis, & Cadmi nemus 

Serpcnle oolum, facra quo Dirce latetj 

Supplei adoras, quifquis Eurotam bibis, 

Spattenque fratre nabilem gemino coiis, 

Quique Elin & Parnafnn, & Bicaltos — 

Colonuft agros uberis tondea foli; 

Advertc miMilem: deva Tliebarum lues 

killing himl Nor, however, is there quite an et^uality in 
the two altetTiatives btit I think that one cruelty is greater 
than the other to forbid a man to die, who wishes for 
death 1 1 would rather that a sentence of death should 
be passed on me, than that I should receive a reprieve 
(that death should be taken from me). Abandon then, thy 
undertaking, daughter, the choice of life or death as regante 

PHfENlSS^. 157 

myself, b within my own discretion ! I have, of my own 
free will, left my kiD^dom, but I still retain the kingdom 
of m^ individuaJ selCif thou art a faithful companion to 
me, give thy parent a sword, but it must be the very sword, 
thai IS branded with a father's slaughter, wilt thou give it 
to me? Or have the sons taken possession of it, as well 
as the kingdom? But wherever it is, crime is its appointed 
mission, let it remain where it is, as 1 abandon sole claim to 
it, one son may have it, but both may use it I (used be- 
tween them, against each other). Prepare rather a huge 
glc, and apply the blazing torches, and I will cast myself 
ithwilh, into the burning mass (pile) or I will with intrepid 
step ascend the funeral mound, till I reach the flames in 
their full activity, and thus do away with my cheerless 
thoughts, and hand over, whatever is living, and dwells 
within, to be converted into ashes 1 Where is the relent- 
less ocean r Conduct me where the mountain is broken 
up into lofty rocks. Where the swiftly flowing Ismeniis 
threads its course, in winding streams— If thou art my 
^ide lead me, where wild beasts abound, where the seu 
IS treacherous— where there are precipitous rocks; to one 
of such places, it pleases me to go and die I Or where 
the Sphinx sits on an elevated rock (that insidious seat 
of the enigmatical) and invents the deceitful enigmas, 
which issue from its semiferous mouth (half human; half 
lal) hither direct the course of my steps; here stop 
father, and let not thai insidious seat l^e disengaged 
.... be) let me take up the post, and replace the vacancy 
with a monster more tiorrible than the Sphinxl Where 
I, sitting on that slone, could recite in obscure conundrums 
my own miserable career, which no one would ever be 
able to interpret! Whoever thou art that ploughest the 
lands of the Assyrian king, or whatever suppliant tbou 
art, that offeresl up thy adorations at the grove rendered 
famous by the serpent-of Cadmus, by whose shade ihe 
fountain, sacred to Dirce is hidden from the vulgar gaze ; 
Whoever thou art, who imbibest the water of the Eurola, 
or that who dwellest in Sparta rendered famous by the 
twin brother^, (Castor and Pollux)— Whoever thou art, who 
livest in Elis or Parnassus— or thou inhabitant who reapest 
thy harvests from the Bceotian fields. Thou denizen of a 
fruitful soil, give me thy earnest attention: the savage 
monster (Sphinx) of Thebes, in delivering his disaster- 
foreboding utterances in obscure language, what could he 
have propounded tike this, or what so incapable of being 
unravelled- The son-in-law of a grandfather, the rival 
of his own father, the brother of nis own children, and 
the parent of his brothers, a. grandmother, who tTOVV^JW. 
■^-'- children to a m:m, and grandchildren to \\\m, W- 

thy fa 
lif'it t 



Lu(!lifica ciEcis verba commiltens modis, 

<^id fimile pofult? quid tun inexCricabilc? 

Avi gcDcr, paErifque rivalls fui, 

Fraler fuoniro Uberflm, & fratrum parens; 13S 

L'no avia parlu liberoB pepcrit viro, 

Ac fibi nepoICB, moalba qurs [aDlo. explicet? 

Ego ipfe, viiflx fpolia qui Spbiogis tuli, 

Hirebo, fnti lardus inleipres mei, 

Qaid perdis ultra verba? quid pedlus feium 140 

Mollire tenlas precibus? hoc aaimo fedet, 

E (fund ere hanc cum moite luiAaDlein diu 

An imam, & tenebras pelere. nam fceleii hxc meo 

Paruni altu nox eH. Tartaio condi juvat, 

El fi quid ultra I'artarum eft. landem libet, 145 

Quod olinj oporlet, morle piohiberi hand queo. 

Ferrum Degabis! naxias lapfo vias 

Clndesr & arflis coUa laqueis inferi 

Pmhibebis? herbas, quw feninl letum, auferesJ 

Quid ifta tandem cura perficiet tua! 150 

Ubique oiois ed. optime hoc car it Deus. 

Eripere vitam nemo non hoiuiai potell; 

At nemo mortem: mille ad hanc adilus patent. 

Nil quceio. dextra noHeT & nuda folet 

Bene animus uli. dextra nunc tuto impelu, 155 

Tolo dolore, viribus lotis veni. 

Non denUio unam vulneri noflrn locum. 

TotuE uocens fum. qua voles, mortem exige. 

EfTringe corpus; corque lot fcclerum capax 

Evelle ; lotos Tircerum nuda finua. 160 

Pradlum inciUlis iAibus guttur fonet; 

Laceneve fixis unguibu« venie fluant. 

Aut dirige iras, quo folcs. ha^ vulncm 

RefcilTa miilto ranguini! ac tabe irriga. 

Hac extrahe animam, duram, inexpugaabilem. l6j 

El tu, parens, ubicuDi[ue pcenamm arbiter 

Adfta"* raearura (non ego hoc tantum fcelus 

Ulla cxplari credidi ptcna Talis 

Uoquam, nee isln morte conlenlus fui, 

Nee me redemi pane: membratim libi 170 

Volui perire) debitnm tandem exige: 

Nunc folvo pnrnos; tunc tibi inferios dedi: 

Adcs, atquc inertem dexleram introHus preme, 

Magirque merge, timida turn parvo caput 

Libavil haudu., vixque cupienles fequi 17S 

one and ihe same parturition! Wlio could unravel such 
monstrous facts? Whj' I myself should pose as the one 
who bore off the palm from the vanquished Sphinx 1 the 
tardy interpreter of my own destiny 1 Why do I indulge 
in empty words? Why do I endeavour to assuage my 
troubled soul with vain prayers^ K Tewto.'iaYv \aJtc^ ^C6 


PHCEMBS^. 159 

iion of my mind, to do away wilh that life, which has 
_ . _n so long struggling with death, and to search lor 
eternal darkness (aeath) for this ordinary darkness of 
ni^ht (his blindness) is as naught compared with my 
wickedness— It would please me to be hidden away in 
Tarlanis, and if there oe any place beyond Tartarus, so 
let that be my destination ! I am not willing to be prevented 
from seeking death, the fate which was my due long ago! 
Tliou persistest In denying me the sword! Thou shuttest 
out my path, from the' dangerous precipices; into which 
I iniglit otherwise fall, thou preveniest me from placing 
round my neck the tightened cord (strangulation). Thou 
placest out of my reach the poisonous herbs, which bring 
about death so easily and with such certainty 1 What is 
lo be arrived at finally from ali these precautions of 
thine? (addressing Antigone). Death is everywhere! a 
beneficent God has taken care of mortals thus for! There 
b no one living that cannot rob thee of life, but no one 
can rid thee of death 1 A diousand ways are at our dis- 
posal. I do not ask for any special one; My own resolute 
will, aforetime, enabled me with this right nand of mine, 
and without the adventitious use of surgical or other 
weapons to employ it to some purpose! {Oidipus means 
.pjnting out his eyes, which he did with his own fingers.) 
Come now then. Oh! right hand of mine, with ail ihy 
,'tacrsy. all thy rage, and thy concentrated physical strength, 
t do not select any particular spot for infliclin^ my wounds, 
for every part, about me is ertually deserving of them, 
but let death be brought about, in any way thou mayst 
choose. Break up my whole body, tear out my heart, 
that has been capable of so many crimes, lay bare the 
entire coverings of my entrails, let my bare chest resound 
again, lieaten, forcibly with a rapid succession of blows 1 
let my veins, torn by my nails dug into them, flow freely 
wilh ray blood! Or let me direct my anger, where I 
showed it aforetime fthe eyes) and inundate, the ancient 
wounds being opened up, with the gushing blood and 
corruption ! .\nd lei me remove with it (What the 
hand brings about) my own obdurate indomitable soul! 
And thou, oh! Parent, wherever thou art, come forward 
as the arbitrator of my punishment; I have always been 
of opinion, that my crimes could never be sufficiently 
expiated — by any punishment! Neither have 1 been con- 
tented with'my present kind of death (Blindness) nor that 
I should be redeemed by any part of me that was left 
behind, I have desired to die, giving to thee (his father 
Laius) even/ part of myself, piece by piece, pray demand 
thy full rights at last! I now wish to receive the exueitve 
punishiaenr. and then I shall have given thee the sact'v 


Ediuit Dculos. hxreX etiam nunc mibi 

lUe aDimiUL, hxtet; cum recufanlem manum 

PrelTere vultus. andies venim, U^dipe: 

Minus eniidi lumina AudadUr tua, 

Quaro iiiaflilifti. nunc manum ccrrbro indue. iSc 

llac parte mortem perage, qux coepit mori. 

ANT. Pauca, o parens magnnnime, raiferaodie precor 

Ut verba natcc mente placala audias. 

Nod te Dt reducam veteris ad fpecimeu domus, 

Habifumque regui Bore poUenlem indito, * l8j 

Felo; all ul iras, tempore aul ipfa mora 

Fraiflas, remifTo poflore ac placido feras. 

Et hoc decebat roboris tanii virum, 

Non elTe Tub dotoie, aec viflnm malis 

Dure terga. nan eft, ul putas, virtus, pater, I9G 

Timere vitam, fed malis ingcniibus 

Obllare, oec fe vertere, ac retro dare. 

Qui fnla proculcavil, ac vitre bona 

Projecit, alque abfcidil, & carua fuos 

Uueravit ipfe, cui Deo nullo c(l opus, I9S 

Quare ilte morteni cupiat, aul quarc pelat? 

L'irumque timidi el\. nemo conlemfit mori, 

Qui coQcupivil. cujus baud ultra mala 

Elite poffiiDl, in loco tulo ell: fitus. 

Quis jam Deorum (velle fac] quidquam poteft 300 

Mali* tuis adjicere? jam nee tu potes, 

Nifi boG, ut e(te te pules dignum oece. 

Non es; nee ulla peiflua tioc culpa altigil. 

Et hoc mogis le, genilor, iDfaQtem voca, 

Quod ionoceos ea, Diis quoque inviris, quid ell 30} 

Quod te etTeroiil; quod novos fufGieril 

Stimulot dolori? quid le ad infenias agit 

Sedes? luid ex his pellit? ul caieas die! 

Cares, ut aliis nobilem muris domum, 

Patriamque fugias? patria libi vivo periiL SIO' 

Nntos fugis, nialremque? ab afpedlu omnium 

Fonuott le fubmovil; & quidquid poled 

Auferre cuiquam mots, libi hoc vita abllutil. 

Regni tumullus, lurba fortunx prior 

Abfcenit a le juHa. quern, genitor, fugis? Xlg 

(ices due to the Infernal Deities (who preside over those 
ceremonies amongst the Manes) Come, and force thy 
hesitating right hand inwards, and bury it the more deeply, 
the last time ihou timidly sacrificedit the head, witn a 
small wound, and with difficulty drewest forth thy eyes 
which were only desiring to second thy efforts! Even 
now, ihy courage hesitates, hesitates, even when thy face 
presses down towards thy unwilling, vacillating hand I 
Thou must hear the truth Gidipus, thou didst pull out 
thy eyes with less courage, than ihou didst find them 

display in bein^ removed! Now try thy hand upon ihy 
brain, thou canst easily brin.e about death to that part. 
where death has already set in ! (a mind dead to everj-thing), 

ANT. Oh! magnanimous Parent! I pray thee, that thou 
wilt listen, in a calm spirit, to a few words from thy 
wTCtrhed daughter. I do not ask that I should bring 
thee back, as a noble ornament of thy ancient dynasty 
with all thy regal power, and clad in all the pomp of 
thy kingdom, amidst abundant floral displays ! but that 
thou shouldst bear up against thy angry passions, whilst 
(hey are being toned down by time and resignation, and 
that being so, with thy mind restored to a slate of com- 
posure; and is it not becoming to a man of thy strong 
natural powers, that he should not be under the tyrarmy 
of grief, nor turn his back upon misfortunes and acknow- 
ledge himself mastered— It is not valor, father, as thou 
imaginest. to hold life in contempt, but to oppose preat 
troubles with fortitude, and not avoid them by flying from 
ihem or idly turning thy back on them. The man, who 
treads under foot his destiny, and disregards and casts 
aside the good things of this life, only makes his mis- 
fortunes more difficult to bear— that man requires no 
useless assistance from the Godsl Why should any man 
wish for death, or go In search of it: both of these things 
ate the si^i of a dastardly spirit; no one has ever looked 
upon death with contempt, who has longed for it — That 
man is placed in a safe position, whose misfortunes cannot 
extend beyond thai point, which they have already attain- 
ed! Which one of the Gods, even if he wished it, could 
add anything to thy calamities? Now do not think of 
an>-thing but this, thou shouldst be able to consider that 
thyself IS undeserving of death! Thou art not deserving 
of death. Nor has any crime ever entered thy heart, 
and, father! more than this, consider thyself innocent. 
because thou art really innocent, in spite of the Gods! 
What is it that has affrighted thee, what has furnished fresh 
stings to thy trouble? What leads thee on towards the 
infernal abodes? What drives thee away from these earthly 
ones? That thou mayst escape the light of day! Thou art 
not troubled with that difficulty now— that thou mayst fly 
from a noble mansion, with lofty walls, and thy very country 
itself;— thy country has gone from thee, whilst thou lives! ! 
Dost thou fly from they sons or thy mother? Fortune has 
removed Ihee from the sight of all of them, and whatever 
death can take from any ore, that life has taken away from 
thee! The troubles of a kingdom, and thy former subjects 
in the times of ihv prospenti' has ceased to be niVed V)^ 
theel From vhom, then, father, dost thou flee. 





IF'. Me fugio; fugio confciuin fcelrnim o 
PeAus, inBDUmque haoc fugio, & hoc ccelum, & Deos: 
Et diia fugiu fcelera, qux feci iDDOcens. 
Ego hoc folum, frugifcra quo furgit Ceres, 
Prcmo? haf, ego auras ore pelliferD Irahof 
Ego lalicis haultu fatiur? aut ullo fruor 
Almie parentis munere! ego caftam maaur 
Nefandus, inceftificus, cxfccrabilis 
Atlredlo > ego ullo5 aure concipio Toaos, 
Per quos parentis nomen, aut nati audiam 
Utitiam quidem refcindere has quirem vias 
Manilmfque ndaflis oiiine, qua voces meat 
Aditufque veibis iramitc anguRo patet, 
Eruere polTem, uata ; jam fenfuiu tui, 
Qux pars meonlm es criminum, infelix paler 
Fugiflem. iohxict ac lecrudefcit nefas 
Subitidc; & aurcs ingeruot, quidquid niihi 
Donaflis oculi. cur caput lenebris grave 
Non niitto ad umbras Dilis Klemas? quid htic 
Maoes meoa detineo? quid terrain gravo? 
Mixtufque fuperis eiro? quid rcflat mali? 
Regnum, parcnles, iiberi, virtus quoque, 
Et ingcnii follertia cximium decus 
Periere. cunfta fots mihi infefla abftulil. 
Lacrimie fupereranL has quoque eripuit mihi. 
Abfine. Dullas anitnus admittit preces, 
Novamque pcenam fceleribus quisrit parem. 
El effc par quic poterit? infnnli quoque 
Decreta mors elt. fata quis tam trillta 
Soitilus unquam? videram nondum dtcm, 
Uterique nondum folveram clufi moras; 
Et jam timebar. piotinus quofdam editos 
NoK occupavii, & novx luci abflulit. 
Mors mc outecelTil. ali<|ui<; intra vifcera 
Malema letum pnccoquis fali tutil: 
Sed nnniquid & peccavilf abftrufum, abditum, 
Dubiumque an eAem, feeler is infandi reum 
Deus egiL illo tefle damoavit parens, 
Calidaque teneros iranfuit ferro pedes, 
Et in alia nemora pabulum mifit feris, 
Avibufque fxvis, quas Cithxron noxius 

(JTDIP. I fly from myself- 1 fly from a mmrl conscious 
of every crime. I fly from this parricidal hand, frora this 
sky around us, and the Gods— and I fly, as a crimiaal 
from the terrible wickedness which I have coramitiedl 
Why am I now treading this very groimd, from wbidi 
Ceres causes the fruits of the earth lo spring up ? Why 
80 I exhale the very air I breathe, from my poisonous 
mouth? 1 am cloyed with the very water which 1 imbibe; 
or why am 1 allowed to enjoy any benefit arising from 


163 I 

Mother Earth? Why do I touch this pure hand of thine, 
I that am wicked, incestuous, accursed? Why do I catch 
any sounds with my ears, by which I should recognize 
the name of Parent or Son ? I wish that 1 was able to 
break down those passages to the ears, and those out of 
which the voice issues, and m); efforts brought to bear, 
that I could pluck out everything, the very orifice for 
the transmission of the words I am now uttering, and 
which lies open with such a narrow approach I On! my 
daughter! I. thy miserable father, would a long time 
ago have avoided anything that reminded me of thee, 
wno art a pari of my crimes 1 (The incest "with thy 
mother) Every now and then, that crime hangs about me, 
and seems to be re-enacted, and my ears appear to re- 
hearse, whatever ye. oh I my eyes! have freed me from 
realizing! Why do I not hand over this head of mine 
already afflicted with darkness (loss of sight) to the etemaJ 
shades of Pluto? Why am I still here? a Ghost of 
Humanity! Why do I pester this Earth? Why do I 
wander about with those above the earth (the living) 
what other calamity^ awaits me ? My kingdom, my parents, 
my children, my virtue also, and ine crowning distinction 
o( a clever intellect, as shown in solving the enigma of 
the Sphinx, have all disappeared! My unhappy lot had 
deprived me of everything, but my tears remained and 
these have now been taken from me (with the loss of the 
eyes, the lachrymal glands). Desist, daughter, my inclination 
does not respond "to thy entreaties— it seeks some fresh, 
but adetiuate punishment for my crimes, but where or 
what is the penalty which shall be a condign one ? 
Death also was predestined for me, when an infant, what 
man has ever been dealt with in this way by such a 
cruel destiny? I had not as yei seen the light of day 
nor concluded my retention in a mother's womb, (period 
of gestalionl and before my entry into this world I be- 
came an object of terror! Death oflen claims children 
direcdy they are bom and robs them of their new form 
of life! Death preceded me! Death has reached some by 
a premature fate, death in their mother's womb ! But is 
there anything in that? Had they even sinned as yet? 
The God Apollo condemned me, as one marked out— 
for some abominable crime, and whilst I held a difficult 
place for him, to determine such a matter, hidden away, 
as 1 was, in my mother's womb, and whilst every doubt 
existed {whether 1 should be bom dead or alive, of what 
sex I should be, or whether I should be turned out as 
an unviable abortion (one that cannot live) or as a fcetus 
fully developed 1 With such testimony as this, my parent 
prejudged me; he pierced my tender feet with red-hot 


Cruore faepe regio tiniflas nlit. 
Sed quern Deus dacnnavit, abjecit paler, 
Mors quoquc refugit. prtcftiti Delphis fidem. 
Genitorem adortus impia (Iravi nece. 
Hoc alia pielos redimd. occidi patrem, 
Scd matrcm amavi. prolocju! hymGnDeun) pudel, 
TiEdafijue □oUrBS. has quoque mvUum pali 
To cage pttnos. facinus ignolum, efTeruni, 
Tnufitatum eifarc, quod populi horreant, 
Quod efTe fac!luni nulla nou iclas negct. 
Quod potrictdam pudeat. in patrios ' 
Tuli palerao ranguine afperfas mai 
Scelerirque'pretium majus accepi fcelus 
Leve cfl pateiaum focinus. in ihalunos m 
Dedudta. mater, ne parum fcelerum foret, 
t'cBCunda. nullum crimen hoc majus potefl 
Natura ferrc, fi quod eliamnum efl tamen; 
Qui facerc poffeot, dedimus. abjeci necia 
Pretium patcma: fcepttum, & hoc il 
Annavit alias, oplimc regni mei 
Katum ipre novi: nemo fine facro feret 
nlud cruore. magna praefagit mala 
Patemus animus, jadla jam fuel femioa 
Cladis futune. fpeniitur paifli (ides. 
Hie dccupato cedere imperia negat: 
Jus ille, & iifti foederis Icftes Deos 
InvocaL & Argos exfui Btque 
Grajas to anna, dod levis fefl 
Rulna 'lliebis. tela, flammx, v 
InllaDi, & iflis Si quod eft majuii malum; 
Ut effe gcnitos nemo oon ex me fciat, 
ANT. Si nulla, genllor, caufa vivendi tibi ed, 
Hccc una obunde cH, ut paler nalos regas 
Graviter fureules. lu impii belli minas 
Averlcre unus, tuque vecotdcs poles 
Inhibcre juvcoes, civibus jiaccm dare, 
Patrio: quielem, fiederi Ixfo fidem. 
Vitam tibi ipfc d negas, multis negas. 
CEDIP. Itlis parenlis alius aut Eequi ell a 
Avidis cruoris, im]i " ' '* 

skewers, and sent me into the thick forest, as food for 
the wild beasts, and the fierce birds of prey which des- 
tructive Cithreron has often nourished when drenched 
with the blood of Kings! Bui the father cast off, whom 
the God condemned and death has even turned its back 
upon me I 1 have fulfilled the Delphian Orade I have 
risen against and laid low my father with a cruel death; 
the deep reverence to the oracle may somewhat extenuate 
the crime! I slew the father, but I loved the motherl 1 


am ashamed to talk of the marriage and the hymeneal 
ceremonies. Let me insist, however unwilling, that I 
shall undergo ader^uate punishment, for all this— It covers 
me with shame, to speak of such unusual, cruel, un- 
precedented crimes, which make the people to shudder 
at, and that a crime which no age would acknowledge 
could be perpetrated, and one which would call for 
universal e.vec ration— the Stigma of Parricide! I actually 
installed myself in my own father's marriage bed, with 
my hands imbued with a father's own blood 1 And I 
entered upon a second crime greater, as a set-off for the 
first! The pregnant mother was decoyed into a marriage 
with me. lest there should not have been the requisite 
amount of crime! Nature herself, could not tolerate an 
offence of greater turpitude. If there is anything still, 
however, to be done, those that can do it, I have provided 
in the shape of sons ! I have abdicated the throne, as 
the price of parricide, and this, again has enabled others 
to arm themselves for crime (The sons at war with each 
other) 1 know very well the destiny of my kingdom— No 
one can hold that sceptre, without detestable slaughter, 
my paternal mind predicts great calamities; already the 
seeds of coming slaughter are sown broad-cast, the obser- 
vance of all treaties is set at naught,— one refuses allegiance 
to him, who occupies the throne; the other quotes his 
claim and invokes the Gods as witnesses to the broken 
treaty, and being banished from power, stirs up Argos 
and the Grecian cities to lake up arms- The ruin is not 
a light one, which is now overtaking Thebesl The Sword, 
Fire, and Slaughter are imminent, and if there is a greater 
misfortune than all this, it is that nobody suspects that 
they are my sonsl 

ANT. If no other reason for living is presented to thy 
mind, father, this is over and above ample to prove it to 
thee, that thou, as their parent shouldst bring these raging 
sons into subjection; thou art the only one, to avert the 
dangers arising out of this important strife, and thou canst 
restrain these mad boysl give peace to the people, tran- 
quillity to thy own country, and insist on the observance 
~f the violated treaty— if tnou art so persistent in denying 
'e to thyself, surely thou wilt be robbing many others if it! 

L tEOlP. Is there any sense of justice or love for a parent, 

Tl these sons, thirsting for blood, power, war, and treachery, 

" 1 as I can sum up briefly in a word, they must be cruel 

_1 criminal to be worthy of such a father as myself'.— 

ley vie with each other for crimes of every sort, aT\4 

- uie no thoUf;hs. where their rage may drwc l\\e;m 





Diris, rceleftU; breviler ut dicun, meisf 
CeiUDt in onme facEous, & pcoli nihil 
Ducunl. ubi illos ira pnectpites agiU: 
Ncfafque nullum, per nefas anli putant. 
Nqd patHs illos tun git affliifti pudor, 
Non putria. regno peiflus attonilum furit. 
Scio, quo ferantur, quanta moliri pareDl: 
Iiteoque leti quiFro maturi viom, 
Morique propcro, dam in domo nemo e{l mea 
NocenlioT nie. nata, quid genubus meia 
Fles advolala? quid precc indomitura domas! 
Unum hoc habet foTluna, quo poffim capi, 
Inviftus aliis. fota m alTcAus poles 
Mollire duros, fola pietatem in domo 
Ducere noOm. nil grave nut miferuai e(l mihi, 
Quod te fciiuD voluilTe. lu taalum impera. 
Hie Qvdipus i^gfea tranabit frela, 
Juboole le; I1ammar<)ue, quits Siculo vomit 
De monle lellus ignCos volveas globos, 
Excipiet ore, feque ferpenti olTeret, 
QuK fxva furlD nemoris Herctileo furil; 
JubcDie le pnebebil alitibus jecur; 
Jubcnlc le vcl vjvet 



Nuntius, a Thebanis minus, Gildipum obrecrat, dI redig 

companat filios. abnuit GCdipus, & in filvai fe 

recipient filiis diias imprecstur. 

NUNT. J iXEMPLCM in ingens regia ftirpc edile, 

Thebie pavenlcs anna fralerna iovocant, 
Rogantque teAis arceas patriis faces. 
Non funt mina;. jam propius accefTit malum. 
Nam regna repetem fniler, & padlas vices, 
la bella cunflos Gnecifc populos agit; 


precipitately, and being born in crime, they deem nothing 
they can do, a crime at all! It is not any disgrace re- 
flecting on their afflicted father, nor any love of iheir 
counli7 which affects those sons in the slightest degree 
but their unaccountable minds that urge them on to suffer 
and thirst, simply for power. I know exactly, to wtal 
their thoughts are leading them, and what they will dare 
to accomplish with their desires, and thus ii is, that I am 
more eager to select the road for my own final destriic- 


hat I may do ^^^ 

tion, that I am in such a hurry to die, so that I , 
so, whilst I can regard no scion in the house of CEdipus, 
more criminal than the head of it— myselfl Oh! Daugh- 
ter, why dost thou weep thus, winding ihyseif round my 
knees? Why dost thou strive to subdue one thai is in- 
accessible to all thy entreaties? My condition still presents 
one feature by which I could be softened, although my 
adamantine resolution, resists all others. Thou alone canst 
calm down my afflicted soul. The only one in our wicked 
house, who can boast of any virtue! Nothing is dreadful 

supportable to me now, whatever I may leam, that 

wilt be willing for me to carry out— 1 Thou hast 

but to command me! First may (Mipus swim along the 

waves of the --Egfean Sea, or at thy command, shall he 
inhale the 'flames, which the Earth ejects from the Sicilian 
Mount (.Etna) and the balls of fire, which are rolled forth 
from it; or shall ^dipus offer himself to that serpent, 
which still in its anger rages at the theft of the golden 
apples by Hercules? or wilfit please thee better, that like 
'I ityus I should hand over my liver and entrails to the 
vultures? Or wilt thou order me to do the most terrible 
thing of all— that I should live! (And this would be I he 
greatest punishment of all.) 


A messenger sent from Thebes, beseeches (CEdipus that 
he should return and reconcile his sons. (Edipus 
refuses, and betaking himself to the dismal forests, 
lavishes his execrations upon those sons. 


jV^hI thou descendant from a royal race, Thebes, 
II trembling with alann at the war between the brothers, 
invokes thee as an admirable example of the changes 
of Fortune, and implores thee, that thou wilt drive away 
the flames of war which are threatening their native 
homesteads, and these are not mere alarms ; already, the 
dogs of war are loose, and at their very thresholds —For 
the brother, that is seeking lo gain back the kingdom, 
and to disturb the order olsuccession (reigning by turns) 
has drawn the entire population of Greece into this war 
seven military camps nave pitched themselves around the 
walls! Help us I Prevent alike war and t 


Seplenn muros caftra Thebanos premuDl. 
Succuire; prnhibe pariler & bellum & nefas. 

go [lie fum, qui feeler 
Et abninere fanguioc a ca 
DoceaiQ? magifter juris & 
Ego fum! meorum facinqruni eierajila appetunL 
Me nunc fequunlur. laudo, & agnofco libens. 
Exhartor, ali(|uid ut pntre hoc dignum geiuil, 
Agile, o propago clara, geuerufam indolent 
Frobute faAis; gloriam ac laudes meas 
Superate; & atiquid facile, propter quod patrem 
Adhuc jnvct vixilTe. fncielis, fcio. 
Sic edis orti. fcelere defungi hand Icvi, 
Haud ufilato, tanta nobililas poteH. 
Ferte anna, facibus petite pencCroles Deos, 
Fnigenique flamina nietile oatalis foli. 
Mifcele cunfta. rapjte in exilium omnia. 
Dejicite pafTim mcenio, in planum dale. 
Templis Deos nbruile, maculatos lares 
ConHale. ab into tola coolidal domus. 
Urbs concremetur. primus a thalamis meis 
Incipial ignis, ant. Mitte violeulum impclum 
Doloris, ac te publics exoreul mala, 
Auflorque placidx liberis pacis veni. 
CEDIP. Vides modeftce deditum menti fenem? 
Piscidseque amantem pacis ad partes voctts? 
Tumet animus int, fervet itnmenfum dolor. 
Majufque, quam quod cafus & juvenum furor 
Conatur, aliquid cupio. dqq fatis e(l adhuc 
Civile bellum. frater id fralrem rnat. 
Ncc hoc fal eft. quod debet, ul Rat nefas 
De more nodro, quod meos deceat toros; 
Date snna patri. nemo me ex his erual 
Silvis: latebo tupis exeCx: cava, 
Aul fepe denfa corpus abflrufum tegfim. 
Hinc aucupabor verba rumorls vagi, 
El ficva fralrum belli, quod pofTuni, audiam. 


(EDIP. Am I to be the man, who can take upon hiiu 
self Co forbid crimes to be committed, and to advi» 
men to stay their weapons from the shedding of the 
blood of others, however dearly it my be cherished? Am 
! the administrator of Justice's laws and the chanipioi ' 
legitimate love ? Why ! they are only too desirous 

taking me as an example for their guidance in the ca 

of crime I Why! they are only following in my footsteps 1 
I commend them for it and I recognize their operations 
most gladly, and I exhort them, moreover, that they should 
acquit themselves, in a way worthy of such a "sire" as 
myself! Push on! Oh I my illustrious progeny, and establish 

^HfliPje,! PHCENISS^,. 

a claim to thy noble origin by thy deeds— outstrip me in 
my glorious exploits, and in my triumphs, and mind to 
do something yet, on account of which it may give me 
pleasure to find that I have lived to witness it: Ihoo wilt 
do this. 1 am persuaded, for thou wast bom for it! 
(Composed of ihe exact materials.) Such a nobility, as 
thou possessest, can only faithfully perpetrate any cnmes. 
any unheard-of wickedness (and tnus support thy dignity). 
Carry on thy war, enter into the sanctums even of thy 

Eaternal gods, with thy blazing torches, gather in the 
arvesls of thy natal soil with flames instead ol the 
sickle (that is bum them down), throw everything into 
i;onfusion— hand over everything lo destruction— destroy 
the city/ walls everywhere, ana level them all lo the 
ground— bury the gods themselves in the ruins of their own 
temples, pull down the defiled images of thy Lares— let 
the entire cit>- of Thebes lie burnt lo the ground, and 
let the conflagration bo initiated by the destruction of 
my marriage bed! 

ANT, Dismiss these violent transports of rage, and let 
the bad tidings (misfortunes) which have been reported 
to thee, have some weight with ihee. Come, father, be thou 
ihe means of establishmg the blessings of peace between 
thy sons. 

o-^iiii'. Dost thou regard me, as an old man, abandoned 
to mental serenity and moderation, that thou shouldst 
invite me, as one loving the blessings of peace (as thou 
callest them) and desirous to encourage others to follow 
out a similar course? Why! My own very soul is 
swelling out with wrath— a deeply rooted hatred rages 
within me, and much greater than any undertakings or 
furious experiments; that the ardor of those boys could 
bring about! I still crave for my "something," civil war 
is not, as yet, enough for me— let brothers fly at brothers' 
throats, nor is that enough! What ought to be, is that 
some crime should be done worthy of my own formula, 
something that shall be consistent with that incestuous 
bed of mine! Supply thy father with defensive weapons, 
and no one shall ever rescue me from these forests! 1 
would hide in the hollow of some excavated (eaten away) 
rock or I would conceal my inexpressible body under tlie 
dense thickets, and there I would listen with rapt enjoyment 
to the words of flying rtimors and should hear, with my 
own ears, of the savage warfare of the brothers! What 
could I do better? 



JOC. A ELIX Agave, raciuua horreiiJum, i[]ai 

Qua feceral^ gellavit; & fpolium lulit 

CrueQLB D>ti MiEnaii Eq porter dati. 

FecU Teelus, Ted inirern uoii ultra fuum 

Scelus hoc cucuTcli. hoc leve ell, quod fuui ii< 

Feci nocentrs. hoc quoque etiamnuru leve eft: 

Peperi nocenles. deernt xrumnis mets, 

L'l & hoftcm amarem. Bruma ler pofifil iiives, 

Et tenia jam falce decubujl Ceres, 

Vt eiful eriat ualua, & patti: 

Profugurque rcgum auiilia Grajoium ragat. 

Gener ell A draft i, cujus imperiu mare. 

Quod ciogit Iflbmoii, regitui. hie eenies funs, 

Seplemiiue recuin regna ad auxilium Irahit 

Generi. quid optem, quidve decernam, haud fdo. 

Regoum repofcil. caufa repclenli!i boua eft; 

Mala, fie petenlis. i ' ' ' "■ 

Utnimque natura vi 

Pietate falva facere. quoduuuque alleri 

Opiabo iialo, fiel allerius malo. 

Scd utrumque qamvis diligain affeflu pari; 

Quo caufa meliar. foHquc deterior irahit, 

Indinat auimus, feniper iulirma favrns. 

Miferijs magis lactuun concilia! fuis. 

HUNT. Regioa, dutn tu tiebiles queflus cirs, 

Terifque tempus, torn nudatis Iletit 

Acies in armis. xra jam bellum cieiil, 

Aquilaque pugnam lignifer motn. vocat. 

Srpleaa regcs bella difpofili paraiit. 

Aninia pari Cadmea progenies fubil. 

Curfu citato miles hinc illinc ruic 

Vide, ul atra nubes putvare abfcondat diem, 

Fumoque fimiles campus iu ccelum erigat 

Nebulaii, equenri fraifta quas tellus pede 

Kubmitlii: &, fi vera meluenles vident, 

Infcfta fulgent figtia: fubre^lis adelt 

Fruns prima telis : aurea clnnim nota 

Nomen ducum vexilla piicfcripmm fecuat. 

I, redde araoreni fralribus, pacem omnibus; 

Et itnpia arma mtler oppolita impcdi. 

Pan of th 




Pan of this tragedy is lost— (the commencement). 


Jocasta from the report that the armies of the brothers 
are drawn up against each other in battle array, is 
summoned hastily, and if it were possible to be done, 
tries her utmost to reconcile the brothers. 


A PAVE, in a happy mood enough, carried her abomin- 
able crime, in the hand that had committed it, and 
she (a Maenad of Bacchus) the sanguinary mother, 
held up as a trophy affixed to her Thyrsus the mangled 
remains of her Son (Pentheus). (See First Act, line i6 et 
sqq.) She committed a crime in the first instance, but 
this one crime of hers did not lead on to others— this is 
trivial compared with mine I Because I am criminal my- 
self, I make others criminal ; this likewise, so far is a light 
offence, but I was the means of bringing forth criminals, 
but this much was wanting in my budget of misery, that 
I should even love ray enemy (Polynices). Winter has 
deposited her snows three times and the third year's 
harvest has been laid low, with the sickle, since my son 
Polynices, wandered abroad as an exile and vaninhed 
from his native soil, and now that same exile is enlist- 
ing the Grecian kings, as auxiliaries. He is a son-in-law of 
Adrastus by whose sway the sea which girts the isthmus 
of Corinth IS governed— this king is drawmg in an alliance 
with his own subjects, those of seven other kingdoms, to 
reinforce the army of this son-in-law 1 What 1 wish for 
and what I shall determine to do, I know not. Polynices 
seeks for the kingdom again, the reason for seeking for it 
thus is excusable enough, but obviou.sly, reprehensible as 
to the mode, in which lie seeks to attain his object 1 How 
can I, as a parent, wish either of them success, on each 
side of me, I behold a son, I can do nothing conscien- 
tiously, which could render justice to both, what I would 
desire in favor of one son, would resolve itself as an 
injury towards the other I But although I love them both 
with equal affection, my heart, which always takes the 
side of the weaker, inclines mc towards the one whose 
cause is just, at the same time that it attracts me to thai 
one whose lot is the harder I Fortune induces us to sym- 
paihiite with the miserable, and all the more when asso- 
ciated with the lies of kindred. 


ANT. Ferge, o [larenii, & concita celercm griuiiini: 

Corapefce tela, fratribus ferrum excute. 

Nudum inter enfes pedius infeHos tene. 

Aul Tolve bellum, mulcr, nut primn eicipe. 

joc. Ibo, ibo, & onniii obvium opponDm caput. 

Stabo inter arnia. pelere qui frntram mlet, 

Pent ante malrem. tela, <jui fuerit pius, 

RoganCe ponnt tnatre: qui Hem eCl pius, 

lucipisl a me. fervidas juvenes anus 

Teuebo nulium telle me Bel aefas. 

Aut fi aliquod & me tefte committi poteft, 

Non liet uoum ant. Sign a collatis micant 

Vicina fignis: clamor hoililis fremit: 

Scelua in propinquo eft : occupn, mater, preccs. 

El ecce moloii nelibU9 credos meis; 

Sic agmen armis fegne compodtir venit. 

Procedit acLes tarda, Ted properant duces. 

JOC. Quis me piocellce lurbine infajis vehens 

Volucer per auras veulus xtherioa agtH 

Qarc Sphinx, vel aira nube rubiexens diem 

Stymphalis, avid is prapetcm penuis ferel? 

Aut qua: per alias xris rapiel vias 

Horpyia, fievi regis obfervaus famem? 

Et iuler acirs projiciet raptani duas? 

NITNT. Vadit furenli ftmilis, aut etiam rurilj 

MESS. Oh! Queenl Why dost thou trouble thyself, 
with these mournful reflections, and fritter nway the time 
— The entire army is marching onwards with their glitter- 
ing swords— already the war-trumpet rouses them to action, 
and the standard-bearers with ine Eagles waving to and 
fro in the air ^ve notice of the impending battle. The 
seven kings havmg so disposed their battalions, are getting 
ready, as it were. Tor the seven-strong encounter— the sons 
of Cadmus have entered upon the campaign with eqtial 
martial determination! Here, there, everywhere, the sol- 
diers are rushing on precipitately with a rapid advance I 
Observe how the sky is becommg black with the whirl- 
winds of dust and how the day-light is becoming obscured, 
and the licld of batUe raises volumes of clouds like smoke, 
towards the heavens, which, the ground being broken up, 
by the hoofs of the cavahy, is made to send up, and if 
those that are timid or flurried will only take the trouble 
to observe attentively, they can behold the warlike banners 
which are being proudly displayed— The front rank is 
advancing with their arrows halfraised, and the standards 
bear the names of the generals, inscribed on them, accom- 
panied with some sort of glaring device set forth iii soldi 
(Jo thou and induce a feeling of fraternal love with tibe 

u««^^_,,,T PH(ENISS«. 173 

belligerent brothers, and thus insure peace for al! and as 
a mother standing forth with unflinching courage between 
■ny sons, stay their impious strifel 

ANT. Go, Oh! Parent; hurry onwards thy departure 
3nd appease their angry strife, and putting aside their 
'veapons dash them from the hands of the brothers, and 
present ihy naked breast between their anjiry swords; 
put ihou an end to this war, or he thou a sacrifice 1— first! 

joc, I wil! go— I will go and present my head, as 

Tley deal their strokes and I will stand between their 

■ostile swords so that the one that is seeking the brother 

'r a target, shall make a target of his own mother! The 

te, who proves his affection will put aside his weapon 

_ t his momer's earnest entreaties —the one who proves 

Fwmself the reverse shall begin with mel As an old 

* ' *oman, I will hold back the raging boys, and no fratricidal 

crime shall have me as an eye-witness; or if any work 

of slaughter is capable of being committed, with me for 

an eye-witness, it shall not be Hmiled to that solitary 

kdeed, for I myself will perish tool 
ANT. The standards are now ciosing in I they are 
joining battle I The warUke din of the hostile forces is 
distinctly heard, as the opposing armies clash I Crime is 
not now far off mother, let them give ear to thy prayers, 
and take my word for it, thou mayst rely on their being 
wrought upon by thy tears! The army is tardy in its 
advance, is now meeting with the opposing battalions— 
""Tie battle is progressing slowly, but the generals seem 
> be hurrying forward impetuously! 

! JOC. What wind wafting me in the whirlings of a violent 
mpest, will hurry me quickly through the aerial regions? 
'^at Sphinx will be of some service to me? Or, what, 
iresentative from amongst the Stvmphalidfe, that darken 
. day, as with a black cloud, will swiftly bear me hence 
on its eager wings? or which of the three Harpies, that 
take such morbid deUght at the craving hunger of the 
cruel King, Phineus, will conduct me along the paths of 
the lofty sky, and after seizing me up, will eventually 
throw me forwards between the two armies? 

MESS. She, Jocasla, is starting off like a mad < 
she is in reality mad, just as the swift arrow shot forth 
some Parthian marksman is urged on to its destinatioi 
as the ship is caught in a heavy squall, and is pieaa 






Sagitla qualU Fortliica velon manu 
ExcufTi fcrlurj qiialia infano ratis 
Premeote venio rapitur; sut quilii caJit 
Dclnpra ccelo ftella. cum (Iringens polum 
Redlaiu citBtia ignibas rumpit viani; 
Altonila curfu fupil, A binns ftniim 
Diduxit aciea, vi<fla materna prece 
Kisfere bella, jamque \a Bltemam necem 
nlinc & hinc mifccre cupiEntes manum, 
Vibrata dexLra lela fufpenra teaenl. 
Paci favecur. omnium femim Intet 
Ceffalque ledlum, vibml in fralrum manu. 

Rogat abnuentes: iirigal fletu genas. 
Negare malri, qui diu dubilal, polefl. 



Jocada utrumque filium ferio precalur, ul (imultali 

in gratiam & amoreiQ rcdire velinL Polynice 

impie refpoadet. 

joc. A N me Bima & ignes verlite. ia me on 
Unam juvenliu; quxque al> Inachia vcnit 
Aniinara oiuro; qUEcque Thebana ferox 
Defcendit arce. civis atque hotWs Utaal 
Hunc petite ventrem, qui dedit fraties vira. 
HiEC membra pnrfim TpBrgile, ac divellile: 
Ego utrumque peperi. ponitis fernim ocius^ 
An dico, & ex quo? deileras malri dale. 
DslF, dum piie funt. error invitos adhuc 
Fecit nocentes. omne Fortunie fuil 
Peccanlis in nos crimen, lioc primum aefas 
Inter fcientes geritur. in vedra manu cfl, 
UlTum velilis. faoi^a Ti pielas placet, 
Donate matrem pace, fi placiiit fcelus, 

onwards through the waves, or as a meieor, (falling star) 
descending from the skies approaches the earth with 
extreme velocity, and the igneous matter thrown off, 
brushes the air, as it forces its progress, in any direction 
it may take, so Jocasta quite Mstde herself flies along 
will all speed and immediately places herself between 
the two opposing armies; which being prevailed upon 
by her maternal entreaties, the fighting ceases! just KS 
they were most bent on dealing their blows right and 

l,n^-,^_.;* PHfENISS.«. 

left for each other's deslruction, and now they hold iheirl 
weapons aloof, balanced in their right liands— AJI are in 
favor of peace I Every one else assumes a pacific attitude, 
^d sheathes his sword 1 but they are stil! flourished, 
inenacingiy, in the hands of the brothers, and the mother 
fearing: down her hair, displays her hoary locks—she 
itnplores them, but they refuse to listen— she bathes her 
lace with lears. to think that where hesitation once seemed 
Ip prevail at first should at last end in a mother's being 
tiented any efficacy arising out of her e " * ' 



.f^^casta entreats the brothers most suppliantly, that thevfl 
should put away their mutual hatred, and return t 
the paths of reconciliation and affection; Polynice 
gives an unnatural reply. 


^HlT^URN the fire and sword on mc, let all the bravftL 
H^ I young warriors make a rush at me alone and what] 
ever combatants have marched from the city of 
Inachus, or whosoever else, led on by their youthful 
ferocity, have come down from the 'I'heban citadel — armed 
citizens and soldiers, alike seek out my body, the body, 
that has borne such brothers to a husband, scatter and 
tear asunder these limbs of mine in every direction — I 
brought forth both of you, but shall I tell you by whom? 
therefore insert thy swords quickly 1 — ^Give tny right hands 
to thy mother, give them whilst they are yet unpolluted 
by a brother's blood I Blind ignorance hitherto has made 
us (thy father and myselO the unconscious instruments 
of crime, all the evils of an unjust lot have been visited 
upon usi this crime, however, is ine first which thou wouldst 
have committed with full consciousness of thy wrong acts. 
The crime is at Ihy own option, commit it if thou wishest, 
but if the sacredness of filial affection is felt bi; thee 
both, make thy mother happy if not a greater crime is 
ready at thy hand, thy mother interposes herself between 
thee, either stop the war or kill me, who am now delaying 
thy warlike domgs! To which son shall, I the anxious 
mother, first address my alternate entreaties? Which of* 

K shall I, wretched as J am, embrace the &rsi: I am 
acd towards boih of you with equal love\ One ol 


Majus pamtum ell media fe oppi 

Pi'oinde bcUum lot! lie, aul belli i 

Sollidta QUDC cui malcr allenia prece 

Verba admoveboJ mirera quem ampleftar prinsi 

In utramque partem ducor alTeiflu pari. 

Hie abfuit. fed padla fi rratruni valcnt, 

Nunc alter aberiL ergo jam nunquam duos, 

Nifi fic, vidcbo? junge coroplems prior, 

Qui lot labnres lolquc pcrpeiTus mala, 

Loago parentem felTus exfilio vides. 

Accede propius. elude vagina impium 

F.nfem; S Iremenlem jamque cupienfcm Bxculi 

Haflam folo deliee. nialernum luo 

Coire pe^us pectori clypeus vcUI. 

Hunc quoque repone. vinculo fronlem eiue, 

Tegimenque capitis Iriftc bcUigeri leva, 

Et ora matri redde. quo vultus refers, 

Acieque pavida fratris obfervas manuni! 

AfTufa totum corpus ampleiu tegnm. 

TuD cruari per meum del via. 

Quid dubius h:eres? an times matris (idem? 

POL. Timeo; nihil jam jura naturae VftlcnL 

Pod i(la fratrum excmpla, ne matri quidem 

Fides habcuda ell. joc. Redde jam capulo manum, 

Adftringe galeam, Isva Tc clypeo ingcral; 

Dum frater exarmatur, artnalus mane. 

Tu pone femim, caufa qui es fetri prior. 

Si pacis odium eft, furere fi bcUo placet, 

Inducioa le mater cxiguas togat. 

Feral ut reverib pod fugam nato ofcula, 

Vel prima, vel fuprema. dum pacem pelo, 

Audite ineimes: ille te, tu ilium times; 

Ego utnimque, fed pro utroque. quid Ilriflum abnuis 

Recoadere enfem? qualibet gaude mora. 

Id gerere bellum cupitis, in quo eft optimum 

Vinci, vereris tratris infeiti dolos? 

Quoties necelfe ell fallere, aul folli a fuis, 

" ' 'pfe, quam facia;;, fcelus. 

Sed D 

[ hinc 

El rurfus illinc abigct. cxore, on patri 
Invideo veltro? veni, ut orcerem nefas, 
An ut viderem propius? bic ferrum nbdidil 

you has been absent (Poh-nices), if the treaty between 
the brothers is still to hold good, the other will now "" 
away: I wonder therefore, iT 1 shall ever see you 1 _ 
brothers otherwise than 1 see you now, in open warfare 
with each other! Let the one. therefore, who has under- 
gone so many difficulties ana misfortunes and who now 
sees his mother, wearied out with his long exile! be the 


i.i««;-.*i] PH<ENISS^. 177 

fci to mecl my embrace; come nearer, return Ihy wicked 

'Word lu its sheath and put aside that trembling spear 

already eager. 10 be employed, and stick it into the ground ; 

'''>■ shield, too, prevents my maternal bosom from meeting 

inline in affectionate conjunction, put that aside also. 

Keino\e thy helmet, relieve thy warlike head of that 

■"^fu! appendage, and turn thy unencumbered face to- 

"^'ards thy Mother! Why dost thou direct thy glances, 

and watch the hand of thy bi-other with such an anxious 

'ook! I will cover thy entire body with my dose em- 

•jface, and the road to thy blood shall be that shall pass 

'firough ininel Why dost Ihou hesitate, as ifthoudoubt- 

**lst It: Or dost thou question a mother's sincerity? 

toL. I do doubt; the laws of Nature are now of no 
*Vail after the example shown by two brothers, no trust 
'^'Ui be reposed even in a mother! 

joc. Turn thy hand, now towards the hih of thy sword, 
•asien on thy warlike helmet, and arrange thy shield on 
the left side, and remain accoutred, whilst thy brother 
Casts aside his military appendages Thou, Eteocles, put 
aside thy blade, for thou art the original cause of this 
appeal to the sword, if thou enlertainest such an un- 
conquerable dislike for peace, and nothing pleases thee 
but fighting, thy mother asks thee for a short truce and 
dial my son having returned from his mother's exile, 
may receive a mother's kisses for the first or perhaps the 
list timet Whilst I am seeking for a temporary peace, 
listen to me both of you, unarmed I Eteocfes, Folynices 
iears thee, and thou fearest Folynices and I fear you both, 
that is, I fear for you both I Why dost thou refuse to 
restore that drawn sword to its scaobardl Glory in thy 
reluctance, as much as thou likest, thou dost want it, 1 
see to continue the struggle, in which, in sooth, it will 
redound to thy advantage to be overcome, rather than to 
be Tictorious, Dost thou fear any treasonable designs on 
ibe part of thy brother? As often as there must be a 
necessity for perfidy, or to suffer from perfidy at the 
hands of others, it is far better, to suffer from its effects, 
than to commit another great crime in order to correct 
it; but do not fear, thy mother will shield thee from 
treachery, Thou on the one side and the brother as well 
the other; am I to obtain what I ask by these en- 
ics of mine? am I to envy the lot that has fallen to 
father? I have come, that I may banish crime, and 
that 1 should see it drawing nigher to me I (To Po- 
Eteocles has sheathed his sword and, \ea.mi\%QTi 
r, is merely idly watching the arms \\e \vM. 




Rectiiiis hafliE, & anaa deflia incubant. 
Ad te pieces nunc, nal?, maLernas feram, 
Sed anle lacrinias. teDCo loDgi) lenipore 
Pctiltt volis orn. lej profugum fob 
Patrio, peaales regis exterai tegunt: 
Te mnria tol diverra, tot cafaE vagum 
Egcre: non te duxit in thalamos parens 
Comitala primos, nee fna fellaa manu 
Omavit leilcs, nee fua lielas faces 
Villa reviDXit. dona, non auri & graves 
GsEBS focer, non arva^ non urbcs dedil. 
Dotale helium ed. hoAium es fudlus gener, 
PaLria remotui, hofpes alieni laris, 
Externa coofecutus, expulfus luis, 
Sine crimine exful. ne quid c fatis lib! 
UeefTet palemis, hoc quoque ex ilUi babes, 
EiralTe tbalBinis. nate, poft niultas mihi 
KemilTe folis; nite, fufpenfie melus 
Et rpcs parentis, cujus afpeAum Ueos 
Semper rogavi; cum tuus reditus mihi 
Tanlum elTet creplurus adventu tuo, 
Quantum daturusj quando pro le definam, 
Dixi, limereP dixit irridens Deus, 
Ipfam timcbis. Dcmpe, Difi liellum foret, 
Ego le careiem: oempe, fi lu uon fores, 
Bello carerem. trifte confpedlus datur 
Pretiuui tui, dunimque: led matri placel. 
Hioc modo recedant luma, dum nullum nefas 
Mais f:evus audet. hoc quoque eft magnum nefo 
Tam prope fuilTe. (lupeo, & exranguis Iremo, 
Curo ftare fralrcs hioc & bine vid*o duos 
Sceleris fub iAu. membra quaflaolur metu. 
Quam piene mater majus afpexi nefas, 
Quam quod mifer videie non potuit paler! 
Licet timore facinoris lanli vacem, 
Videnmque jam nil tale, fum infclix lamen, 
Quud pKce vidi. pec decern menfjum graves 
Uteri labores, perque pictatem iucliue 
Precor fororis, Sc per irati fibi 
Genas parentis; fcclere quas nuUo nocens, 

laid aside— It is to thee now, Oh! my son I that 1 tender 
my entreaties as well as the tears I nave shed before; I 
now behold the face, which for so long a time, has been 
my eager wish to see thee, an exile from thy native 
country, the household gods of a strange king have given 
thee an asylum, thou hast passed thy time as a wanaerer 
over many seas and through many misfortunes. No 
mother at thy side, regulated the preliminaries of thy 

tjno <«— sja] 


marriage— No mother to conduct thee to the nuptial 
chamber, no mother adorned thy dwelling with festive 
decorations, no mother has affixed the sacred wreaths to 
the nuptial torches which usually crown with joy the 
marriage ceremony! Thy father-in-law has given thee no 
presents of gold or other vahiable treasures, no lands, 
no city even as a dowry, but war, simply war has been 
thy only marriage settlement, thou hast l«en made the 
son-in-law of our enemy, transported from thy own country, 
the guest of an ahen household, and expelled from thy 
own family, thou host allied thyself with the fortunes of 
strangers, an exile without any fault of thine own, and 
lest anything should be spared thee, arising out of thj 
paternal destiny, thou certainly canst lay claim to this 
particular one. Thou hast made a great mistake in marriagel 
(like the marriage of herself with CEdipus.) OhI my soni 
returned to me after so long a time. Oh I my dear son, 
the hope and anxious cart; of thy parent, for a sight 
of whom I have often prayed to the Gods, when lol thy 
return to me is only to snatch thyself away, when thou didsi 
return— When 1 asked, when I should cease to entertain 
apprehensions regarding thee, the God in a jeering tone 
only replied some day thou wilt have reason to fear on 
his account! In effect, unless this war had arisen, I should 
still have not seen thee, but as it has taken place, if thou 
wert not here. 1 should not witness this war, a sad cruel price 
is bein^ paid for seeing ihee, but cruel as is this awful 
price, It pleases me, so long as I do see thee I Only let 
arms be in abeyance, now, whilst crue! Mars dares to 
incite no more crime! It is, however, a great crime in 
itself, for things to have been so nearly approaching 
crime even! f am quite stupefied, and I tremble and 
turn pale, when 1 see two brothers standing face to face 
on the brink of crime, my limbs are paralyzed with 
fear- How nearly I as a mother have witnessed a crime, 
more heinous even in my eyes, than that which their 
miserable father could not tolerate to look uponl It is 
only just, that I should escape being an eye-witness, to 
such abominable wickedness, and 1 should never have 
beheld the like, I am miserable ai the thought of how 
nearly I did see it! Oh! Polynices! I conjure thee by 
the ten months I carried thee with pain and suffering 
in my womb (they reckoned utero-geslation at ten months 
then, lunar reckoning). The spodess purity of thy sister 
—by the disabled eyes of thy father, which he, by his think- 
ing himself criminal, but in reality being innocent, tore 
out of their sockets, exacting them as a cruel penance 
for an imaginary offence, avert these cruel flames from 
thy native city, turn back the standards of thy bellicose 



EiToris a fe dira fupplicia exigens, 

Hnufit; ncfaiulas mcenibui jiatrils iaccs S40 

Avertc; figan bellici retro Hgmmis 

Fleifle. ut recedas, magna pars fceleris tameo 

Vedri pantdla ell. vidit liollili gtege 

Campos repleri palria, fulgenles procul 

Armis catervas: vidit equitala levi 545 

Cttdmea frangi prBta, & excelfos rolis 

Voliture proceres; igne flugronlea [ratws 

Fumare, ciaeri qu^ petuut notlras domos; 

Fratrefque (facious quod iiovum & Thcbis full) 

In fe rueotes. totus hoc exercitus, 550 

Hoc utriuque populus omnis, hoc vidit foror, 

Geaitrixquc vidil: nam paler debet fibi, 

Qnod ifla qoq fpciftavil. occumit tibi 

Nunc (Edipus: quo judice, erroris quoque 

PteniE peluQiur. ne, precor, feiro cnie 555 

Patriam, ac pennies; neve, quas regere expelis, 

Everte ThebEu. quia tenet mentein furor? 

Patriam peleado perdis. ut fial tua. 

Vis efTe nullam? quin tnie caufie nocet 

Ipfum hoc, quod annis uris infeftis folum, ^tO 

Se^etefque aduftas fterois, & toios fugom 

Edis per agros. nemo fic vanal fua. 

QucE corripi igne, qux meti gladio jubes, 

Alicna credisJ rex fn e vobis uter, 

Manente regno, quierite. hire tells petes J6j 

Flummirquc leif\a? poterls has Amphioais 

Quairore moles! nulla quos (Irukil manus, 

Stridentc lardum machina ducens onus; 

Sed convocarus vocjs & citharx fouo 

Per fe ipfe turres venil in fummas lapis. ^je 

Hiec fnxa franges viflor? hinc fpolia aufcrcs, 

VinAofque duces patris xquales tui? 

Malres ab ipfo conjugum raptas finu 

Sxvtts catena miles impofita irahel? 

Ut adultn virgo raiila caplivo gregi jjj 

Thcbana nuribus muuus Argoticis eat! 

An & ipfa pnlinis vindla poll lergum dalas 

Mater (riumphi pr^eda fralenii vehar? 

Potcfne civcs loctus exiiio dalos 

Videie parfim? mcenibus curis potes 58a 

Hoflem admovere? fanguine & Hamma potes 

followers: but although thou recedest, a great portion of 
the mischief has already been perpetrated— thy country 
beholds the fertile plains overrun by hostile bands, at a 
distance, the troops proclaiming their presence with iheir 
glittering arms, it benolds the Theban meads, broken up, 
trodden down by the light horsemen, the Chiefs and 



Nobles dashing along in their chariots, the houses smoking 
from conflaCTations already set in, and which ihreaten 
to destroy the homesteads and reduce them lo ashes 1 
And the brothers rushing madly upon each other; but 
alas! What crime can be a novehy to unhappy ThebesI 
The assembled forces have witnessed all this, and the 
entire population and thy sister have seen it, and I 
the miserable mother am included amongst the spec- 
tators! For the father is indebted to himself (loss of his 
sight) that he has not seen these things, and, Qidipus, it 
vnM now occur to thy mind, by what dispensation, the 
punishment of an error even is sometimes visiledl Do 

Hot I entreat thee, ruin thy country and thy household 
Kods. nor destroy that Thebes which thou art now 
aspiring to govern I What madness possesses thy mind, 
tliat in thy endeavours to gain a country, thou must 
destroy it, in order that a country may be thine, dost 
thou wish that it should not exist! But all this kind of 
tiling only injures thy own cause, in as much as thou 
bumesl up the soil, wherever thy destructive soldiery 
go, thou throwest down the standing com, just as it is 
Retting ripe, and thou bringest about a. universal flight 
throughout the entire land, no sensible man devastates 
his own properly, or is it, that what thou believest belongs 
to another, thou must order to be destroyed by fire, or 
mown down by the swordl Seek to decide, which, of 
the two, is to be the kine, whilst there remains anything 
at all in the shape of a WnHdom 1 Shalt thou search out 
for the palaces with fire and sword? Canst thou possibly 
desire to demolish the walls raised by Amphion? Which 
no hand of man struggling with the burden, slowly moved 
even by loud-sounding machinery, could ever have built up ! 
But the stones themselves, wrought upon by the enchant- 
ing influence of Amphion's voice, and the sweet melodies 
from his lyre, of their own accord, mounted to the loftiest 
towersl Wilt thou as the conqueror, dare to destroy those 
walls? Dost thou propose to retire loaded with spoils, 
and with chiefs as old as thy own father, manacled as 
prisoners? Will the merciless trooper drag along, bound 
in chains, mothers torn away from the arms of their hus- 
bands? Will the Theban Virgin of ripe age, mixing 
indiscriminately with the rougher captives, go forth to be 
presented to the matrons of Argos? Or shall I as a 
mother, be carried off, bound with my hands behind my 
back, together with the other booty resulting from a 
brother's triumph? Is it possible that thou canst witness 
with exultation, the carrying off, at every turn, of the 
citizens into exile? Canst thou p/acidly allow the enem"} 
Hto eacamji. m'llim those Mcred walls? Is ll th-^ w\s>\\ Xo 








Imiilere Thebas? tarn fermn & durum gcris 

S^vumque in itm peiflus, & Doniluin impcras? 

Quid Tceptra fadent? pone vcfanos, precoT, 

Anirai tumores, terjue pietari refer. 

poi.. Ut profugus trrem fempcr? ut palria wcew, 

Opemque genLia hnfpes exienice fequar? 

Quid palerei aliud, fi fefellifrem Gdem, 

.'^i pejeralTem! froudis aliena; dabo , 

P(£dHs; ax [lie premium fcelenim ferel? $^ 

Jubes abire. matris imperio obreqnor. 

Dn, quo revcilar. regia fralcr men 

Habilet TupeibDa ; parra me abrcondat cafa : 

Hanc da cepulfo. liceal exiguo tare 

Penfare regnum. coDJugi donum dalus 

Arbilria Ihalami dura (clicis feram, 

HumiUrque focerum lixa dotniuantem fequnr? 

Id fervituleDi cadere de regno, grave ell. 

Joe. Si tegna quieris, nee poted fccpuo manlu 

Vacare fievo; mulia, qux polTuul peti 

In orbe Loto, quxlibet tellus dabil. 

Hiuc nota Baccho Tmolus alloUit juga, 

Qua lata lerris Tpatia frugiteris jacenL 

Et qua tnheD& oputenla Paflolus vada 

Inundat auro nira. nee Izlis minus 

Mxundros arvis flcAit errantei aquas, 

Rapidufque campos Ccrtiles Hebrus fecat. 

Hicc grata Cereri Gargara, & dives folum 

Quod Xnullius ambit nivibus Idxis tumens: 

Hiuc, qua relioquit nomea looii mam, 

Fauces Abydi Seftos oppolitic prtmit: 

Aul, qua lalua jam propior Orienti dedit, 

Tutamquc crebris poitubus Lyciam videl: 

IliEc regna ferro qutere. in hos populos feral 

Socer arma foctis : bas parcl fceptro luo 

Tndalque gentes. hoc adhuc regnum pula 

Tenerc vn'rem. melius eifilium efl tibi, 

Quam reditas ifle. crimtue alieno eifulas, 

Tuo redibis. melius iHls vitibus 

Nova regna nulla fcelere maculala appetes. 

Quia ipfe fraler, arena comilalus lua, 

Tibi militabii. vade, & id bcllum gerc. 

In quo pater materque pagoanti libi 

Favere poffint. regna cum fcelere, omnibuii 

Sunt eilllii.s giavioni. nunc belli mala 

Propone, dubias Martis iocerli vices. 

fill Thebes with slaughter and contlagrations? Dost thou 
possess a heart so truculent and callous, so cruelly thii5i- 
iog for revenge, which as yet thou hast not tried to 
mhdae? Is all i" ' " ' " ' ' 

this, what scepUcs 


Cast aside, I conjure ihee, thy maddened swelling rage, ■ 
and betake ihy heart to piety f 

POL. Shall I always wander as an exile? shall I he 
driven away from my native land, and as a stranger seek 
the assistance of an alien country, what more could 1 
undergo, even if I had broken my faith, if I could have 
perjured myself, as mv brother, has done? Shall I be 

Eunished for the frauti of another, whilst that other wil! 
e reaping an absolute reward for his own wickedness! 
'I'hou commandest me lo deparl, I am ready to obey ihy 
mandate. Teil me to what place shall I reium? Shall 
my proud brother dwell in my palace, and I hide myself 
awa)' in some humble cottage— arrange this for me, thus 
driver awav from my rrghts^let me set up as an equivalent 
for a kingdom, a small fire-side, and shall I have to bear 
the odioust yranny of a well-to-do wife and be handed over 
to a spouse, as a mere matrimonial afipendage? and as ■ 
a hum me scullion ser\'e under a domineering father-ii^ J 
law? It is a sorry fate lo fall from the height of &'■ 
kingdom into the depths of slavery! 9 

joc. If thou art in search of a kingdom, and it be 
mpossible that thy hands can rest, unless they are holding 
a sceptre stained with blood— Anv country will afford 
thee many things to gratify thy ambition, and which can 
be arrived at m every part of the globe — not far from 
here for instance. Tmoius raising its tempting summits 
noted for its wine and saffron— producing resources (dear 
to Bacchus) where broad expanses of land are to be 
seen in the most fertile distncts; then again thou canst 
turn to the rich plains, where the Pactolus, stretching 
its opulent streams ennches the banks with its golden 
sands I Nor does Nature direct the wandering course of 
the Maeander over less fruitful fields, nor does the rapidly 
flowing Hebrus divide less fertile plains I Then again 
there is the Gargara, famous for its corn {dear to Ceres) 
and the rich land, which is watered by the winding 
Xanlhus, swollen with the melted snows of mount Ida I 
or, thou mayst seek that part where the Ionian sea 
changes its name lo the Hellespont, where Seslos on the 
European side opposite to Abydos on the Asiatic shore 
encloses the straits! (Dardanelles) or to that part which 
presents itself nearer to the East, and where Lycia is 
seen to afford safe shelter to the navigators in its numerous 
harbours- seek out such kingdoms as these with thy sword. 
thy brave father-in-law will hurl his battalions against 
^^ese people, Adrastus w/JJ prepare them for thy sceyiXTe 
'd deliver such countries over lo thy sovereignty, suppose 




Licet omne tecum Gr^ecix robur trahm; 

Licet arma lunge miles oc Iste eiplicet; 

Fortuna. belli Temper mcipili in loco ell, 

Quodcuaque Mats decernil. exiequat duos, 

Licel impareii (int, gliuiiuE: & fpes & metus 

Sors Cieca vcrTat prfemiam incertnio pelis, 

Certum fcelus. FavilTe fac votis Deos 

Omnes luii: ceflere, & aveili fugoin 

Petiere cives. clade Tunella jacent. 

Obtexii agros miles. Exfulles licet, 

Viiflorque fralris fpolia dejeifli geros; 

Krangenda palma efl. Quale tu id bellum putas, 

In quo exfecrandum vi^or admittit nefas, 

!ii gBudeli liunc, quern vincere itifeiix cupis, 

Cum victris, lugebis. inrauAas, age, 

Dimille pugnas libtra patriam metu, 

Ladlu parentei. POL Sceleris & fraudis fuie 

Poenas nefandus frater ut nuilas ferat? 

joc. Ne mcluc; pcenas, Si quidera folvet graves. 

Regnabit. POL. Hatcne eft p{ETia> joc. Si dubitas, i 

Pfttrique ciede. Cadmus hoc dicel tibi, 

Cadmitjue proles, fceptra Thebarum full 

Impune nulli gerere; nee quifquam fide 

Rupta lenebal ilia, jam numercs, licet, 

Fralrcm inter iftos. POL. Numeto: & eft tanli mihi 

Cum regibus jocere. JOC. Te lurba; eifulum 

AdTcribo. regna, dumiiio3t>~4fivifus tuis. 

it is thy father, who still rules at Thebes (holds the 
kingdom). Exile is better for thee, than such a return 
from exile, as thou hast made thine I Exile thvself from 
the criminal usurpation of another. Thou wilt then be 
returning, parading a crime, towards thyself, instead of 
towards another I It is better with sueh advanti^^ in 
thy favor that thou shouldst search out for a fresh kingdom 
uncontaminated by indelible crime 1 But assuredly m 
that case, thy brother would join himself to thy forces\ 
fight in iny tntereslsl Go thou, Polynices, and wage such 
a war as that, thy father and mother could then aid 
and abet thy warlike ambition. Kingdoms arrived at by 
criminal means are far more onerous than the terrors of 
exile— Now on the other side, think to thyself, of the 
evils connected with war, and the doubtful chances of 
uncertain warfare: it might be that thou couldst manage , 
to attact to thy standards all the strength of Greece; ii 
might be, that thou wouldst, as a soldier, display th_y 
military tactics, far and wide, but the fortune of war is 
always precarious and everything depends upon the 
caprices of Mars! the sword may raise two combatants 


to an equal footing, although one might be very t 

inferior to the olher and some unforeseen circumstance 
might convert fear into hope and confidence into despair I 
No ! In war, thou seekesl an uncertain reward, but thou 
attainest a certainty in the crime, which characterizes it! 
Supposing that all the Gods had favored thy vows, that 
the fellow-citizens having been forced to yield i ' 

the ground from our sight, with his prostrate body 
(massacred by the conqueror). Thou migntesC exult if it 
pleased thee, as a conqueror to take to thyself the spoils 
seized from thy overthrown brother, but the victory would 
be a sullied conquest! In what light canst thou regard 
a contest, in which the victor owns that it represents an 
execrable crime, and then gloats over his triumph? When 
thou hadst vanquished the brother, whom tnou, in an 
unhappy state of mind, wishest to do, thou wouldst be 
sorry for it! Come, dismiss all this fighting, free thy 
country from these intestine alarms and thy parents 
from the sorrow caused thereby! 

joc. Don't thou be alarmed, he will suffer punishment, 
heavy enough! He will reign! 

K POL. Is that then to be his only punishment? 

JOC. If thou hast any misgivings on that scoic, iici- 
haps thou wilt be inclined to Believe what thy grandfather 
and thy own father would say about it. Cadmus would 
inform thee, that the entire tnbe of the house of Cadmus, 
that the 'I'heban sceptre has never been held by anyone 
without his coming to grief— Nor has anyone ever held 
it without violating the compact (alternately reigning). How « 
is it given to you to enrol yourselves as rival brothers?^ 

POL. 1 do reckon myself amongst that number, and it 
is of great moment to me to rank as a king amongst 
the others. 

^?^T. I hand thee over to the rank and file of my exiled 

Poi.. Thou mayst reign, but it will be, with the hatred 
, of those, over whom thou dost reign! 



St ' 



POL. Regnarc non vult, effe qui i: 
Simul tfla mundi conditor pofuil Dens, 
Odium alqiie regnum. regis hoc magni n 
Odia idft premere. multa dominaulem vc 
Amor fuorum. plus id irolos licet. 

', laiiguida regnel manu. 

Invifa D 



^c. Prxcepta tnelius imperii reges dubuot; 
Exfllia tu difpoue. POk. Fro regno vclim 
Patriam, penates, conjugeni ftaniinis dare. 
Imperia pretio quolibct, conflant bene. 

Dttji, el magna fan AhJui Trag^dia I'l 

. ET. To be one who dreads to reign, because he is 
hated is certainly no particular inducement to sigh for 
a throne, but the God, the creator of the universe, has 
so arranged these matters, that hatred and power ep hand 
in hand ; I deem it the function of a powerful King, to 
crush out every thing that opposes his will; The love of 
his subjects forbids a King to rule as he ought, in many 
respects, but their hatred gives him greater power to 
act— He who lays himself out to be loved, must rule 
with a very forbearing hand I 

POL. Detested rulers seldom retain their power long. 

ET. Kings will, with greater success, lay down a code 
to regulate Iheir power. Thou, Polynices. canst take in 
hand the management of exiles; to retain my kingdom, I 
am wilHng to sacrifice my country, my household gods 
and my wife with them to the flames— a Kingdom is 
worth buying, no matter what i' — '"' 

iT/ie rest of this Tragedy 



i-J- it iax.t„v-.. 


PK£DKA. Nutrix. 

Theseits. Famuli. 


A R (.-, U M E N T U M. 

HtPl'OLVTl, Thefei ex Anliope Amaione filli, Dioanm virgint 
venalricem colenlU, abrcnte apud inreros Tliefeo, "' 

caftitatcm oppugnat, nee expugnaL RepuKn iinpuilica mul^^ 
Tbefeo reduci pvirignum oblati per vim flupri infioinlat. "^"^ 
credulus, Alio, qui jam domum impudicam Fugeral, e votis q 
rellabal terlio trctus, abrenli monem imprecatur: ratum fan::*- 
vdtum Nepwous, emilTo lauro ma/ino, qui eijuiis Hippol) 
counemal, unde per vepres & faia diftraifiiu auriga diloniaiu 
Quad ubi refcivil male filii courcia mulier, fcelu'4 fuum fairaniqi 
crimen apud maritum confelTa, gladio fe transfigil. Thefeus iunoi 
Rlii cafum lugens, iramque Tuam delegatus, colleAos pollii 


difperlit; Diaimmque 

Ltb, umbrofa^i cingite filvas, 
Summaque monlis juga Cecropii 
Celeri plants luflrate vagi. 
QuiE foxofo loca Poniclhi 
Sabjefla jaceot; & quLC Thriafiis 
V^Ulibus amuis rapida curreas 








Chorus of Athenian 



mother of Hippo 
the Aniaaoniaj] Queen, whiVsV '' 



infernal regions, endeavours to overcome the chastity 
of Hippolytus, who has devoted his hfe to cehbacy and 
seleaed the pursuits of a sportsman. Phiedra fails m her 
attempts and when Theseus returned, the unchaste step- 
mother pretends that Hippotytus her son-in-law had 
violently attempted to force her to commit adultery. 
Theseus, believmg her story, invokes the God (Neptune) 
to visit his absent son with death, for he had already 
lied from his immoral home. Theseus trusts to the third 
of his vows into which he had entered, and Neptune 
confirming that vow caused a sea Bull to show itself, on 
the shore, as Hippolytus was passing— this frightened 
the horses of his chariot, and they rushed madly on, 
and Hippolytus who is driving them is dragged over 
rocks and briers precipitately and meets his death. But 
when Phcedra was informed of this, conscious of the 
mischief she had brought upon him, she confessed to 
'J'heseus her own guilt and the false charge she had 
made, and then stabs herself with a sword. Theseus 

I bewailing the misfortunes of his son and despising 
himself for the anger he had so unjustly shown, places 

I together the scattered frapnents of Hippolytus collected ■ 
from every source— (to give them becoming burial). -" 


lippolytus points out the various places eligible for the J 
sportsman, and instructs his attendants and fellow 1 
lovers of the chase, in the various functions apper- 1 
laining to hunting pursuits, and he invokes the kind J 
interest of the Goddess of Hunting (Diana). 

ET out. my sporting companions; surround the shady 
woods mth nets, snares and dogs with a keen scent, 
and as thou wanderest forth, scour with eager strides 
the lofty summits of the Cecropian mountain, and those 
plains, which Jie at the foot of rocky Parnes, and where 
the river running in a rapid stream beats upon the banks 
of the Thriasian valley, climb the hills, which are always 
white with the Ripha^an snows; some go here, others go 
there, wherever a grove is seen with its lofh' aldera— 
Wherever smiling meadows are to be found— Where the 

Sentle Zephyr with its dewy breath favors the RrQ"K\lv cit 
le vernal grass— Hhere, too, the smooth \Ussus ^\ie% 



Verbernl unda; fcaadite colics 
Semper cnnos nive Riphies. 
HmCj hoc alii, (|iia bcmus alU 
Texitui aXaOf qua pratH jaceul, 
Qux rorifeia mulcens aura 
Zephyrna vemas evool heibm: 
Ubi per glocies lenis llidus, 
Ubi Mxandet fuper xquales 
Lsbiiur agroa piger, & lleriles 
AniDi; maligDo radit arenas. 
Vos, qua Nuirathon tmmite txvo 
SallUE aperit; qua comilaUc 
GiegibuG parvis uofluroa petnot 
Pabula fCEln. vos, qua lepiilis 
Subditus auftris, f rigors mollil 
DuniE Achoiiian. alius rupem 
Dulcis Hymetii: parvas alius 
Calcet Aphidnas. pars ills diu 
Vacat immunis, qua curvali 
Lilora poDti Sunian urecl. 
Si quern laugit gloria iilv;e, 
Vocal hunc Phlyeus, hie veifalur 
Melui agricolis, vulnere multo 
Jam Qoluii aper. At vox laxos 
Canibui laciiis miltite habcDUs: 
Teneant acres lora Moloflbs. 
Et pugnaces teadant CrelTa; 
Fonia tcilo vincula collo. 
At Spartanos (genus ell audax 
Avidumque ferif) nodo caulus 
Propiore liga. veoiet tempus, 
Cum lalralu cava Taxa foDCnt: 
Nunc demiffi uare fagaci 
Caplent auras, lufiraque pieflTo 
Quferaiit rodro : dum lui dubia ell; 
UuDi ligna pedum rofcida lellua 
ImprelTa tenet; alius raros 
Cervice gravi portare plagas, 
Aliui lereles properet laqueos. 
Piifta mbeati linea penna 
Vano cludnt tcrrore feras. 
Tibi libtelur mifEile lelum. 
Tu grave dentra lievaque limul 
Robur lalo dirigc ferro. 
Tu pnccipitrs clamore feras 
SubrelTor ages; (u jam viiflur 
Curvu rotves vifcera cullro. 

slowiy along; near the barren fields, or where the Meander, 
/tj its lardy serpentine course, appioadve. v'wcfts <i^ OTwiai 



character and skims over the sterile sandsl deposited by 
that sluggish river (throwing up sand instead of mud)— 
Wend thy way to where the Marathon to the left of ihee 
opens out its forests; or in those spots where the wild 
animals, having recently brought forth, seek for their 
nightly food, accompanied by their little flocks— or turn 
to that side where, subjected to the warm South West 
wind, the hardy AchamK is able to tone down the severity 
of the cold (assisted by the rocky mountains near it)— 
Another detachment must explore the mountain heights 
of sweet Hymeitus (famous for its thyme and honey)— 
and another will take the small places about Aphidna; 
but that part has for some time ueen exempt from our 
sporting raids, where the promontory Sunion stretches 
out its shores to the winding sea— If any of you are 
attracted by the excjiemeni of the chase, then the woods 
of Phlyeus will satisfy thee, here, the wild boar, so well 
remembered by those who have been wounded by his 
tusks, still incites the fears of the natives (husbandmen). 
But some of yon let loose dogs, which do their work 
without alarming the game, with their barking or other 
canine noises, but thou must hold in with stout thongs 
the fierce Mastiff breed and the fiery Cretan hounds. 
Blood-hounds will strain even strong chains, which hold 
them in, and wear away the hair of their strong necks, 
with their energy— but when you are using the Spartan 
hounds, they are courageous dogs, and very eager for 
blood^you must hold tnem in with a shortened cord; 
(give them less latitude) the time will soon be here, when 
they will make the hollow rocks and caves resound again, 
when they give tongue; after that, with their noses to the 
ground, they will catch the scent, and with their beads 
verily pressing the earth, they will search out every spot, 
even whilst it is yet twilight, and whilst the dewy surface 
still retains the imprint of the game, that have traversed 
it, another portion of you will carry the larger nets, a 
great load, tnough, for the shoulders! Another will get 
ready with the liner sort of nets; large feathers, painted 
over with red marks, you will find, have a tendency to 
shut in some of the wild animals, frightening them with 
their novelty I then will be the time for you to discharge 
your arrows— you will at the same time nave to aim your 
blows vigorously with your broad sword, right and left 1 
Another division of you will hide in ambush, and scare 
the wild animals, in all directions with the human voice 
(plentiful shouting). Then thou as a conqueror, wilt with 
thy curved hunting-knife cut them open and remove the 
viscera [the thorax and abdominal contents)— bchoVdV 
Diana I courageous goddess, thou art always alWni loi 



Pelitur lelis TenL, qus gelidum 
FolQl Antxen, & qutc flanti 
Ludit in Iftro: ton GicliilDS 
Uextra leones, luo. Cretieas 
Kequtnir cervas: nunc veloces 
Figis damas leviore manu. 
Tibi dant varite peftora ligres, 
Tibi villoll terga. bifontcs, 
Latifque feri comibus uii. 
Quidijuid folis pofcitur arvis, 
Sive illud loops novil Garamas, 
Sive illud Arabs divlte filva, 
Sive ferocis iugo Pyrenes, 
Sive Hyrcani celaot faltus, 
Vacuifque vagus Snrmatn campis, 
Arcus metuil, Diana, luos. 
Tua fi gratas Dumiua cullor 
I'ulit ia faltus; relia viniflas 
Tenuerc feras; nulli laqueum 
Rupere pedes; ferlur plnuftio 
Pr^a gemeiiti. tura rodra caiics 
Saagutne mullo lubicunda gerunt; 
Repetitque cafas tunica tongo 
Turbs triumpho. 
En, Diva favel. rigDum arguti 
Mifere canes, vrjcor in filvas, 
Hoc. hoc prrgam, qua via longum 
Compenrnt iter. 


I'll. I' OK A, NUTklX. 

\ valli Crcta damiiinIri>L Treti, 

a fellow-sportsman, thou whose assigned territories a , 

sequestered and solitary places, Ity whose never-failinc 
arrows the wild beasts are sought out and brought to earth 
wherever Ihey may be Tound, whether it be those which 
slacken their thirst in the cool Aroxis, or those that frisk 
about on the frozen\>e-, w'rt\\ xX^v ctrtam ri?,ht land 



failing) thou layest low the Libyan Lions, (G^luhan) 
u, who overtake'si the Cretcean Stag, wilt at one lime 
down with thy nimble hand the swift follow deer— 
the striped tiger will oflfer its breast to ihy weapon 
, h advances to the attack— the shaggy bisons will lend 
eir backs for thy certain aim, and the wild buffaloes 
ith their wide-spreading horns! avail ihyself also of 
lything that is seeking its food in the deserted plains 
Whatever is noticeable in thecountrj'of the poorwander- 
g Garamontes, or anything which tne Arab can offer in 
s woods, abounding with spices, or on the summits of ' 
e wild Pj-renees, or those regions which are obscured 
■/ the Hyrcanian forests, and where the wandering 
:ythi3n in his uncultivated plains fears thy quiver! Ohi 
[ighty Diana! if any grateful hunter, who invokes thy 
d, and if thou art propitiously inclined, ventures into 
le forest, the nets he prepares will hold the wild animals 
;curely confined, no siruggiine efforts with the feet will 
reak through the snares, and the spoil is safely borne 
ivay on the creaking waggon— then it is, that the dogs 
ave their noses freely tinged red with the blood of the 
aiipais ihey had fastened upon with their teeth, and the 
lie party will return to their cottages with protracted 

lonslraiions of joy— Behold I the Goddess is favorable 
■ cause! Hark the knowing dogs are sending forth 
lal for us, they are barkingl We are invited to the 

_>, this way! Companions, all this way! our journey 
I be shortened by caking this route! (signifying the 
BCtion they were to take). 


JEdra confesses to her nurse— thai she is ardently in 
love with Hippolytus. and the nurse exliorts her in 
vain to desist from such a wicked amour. 


DhI Crete! thou important ruler of a vast sea, whose 
innumerable ships command the ocean, beating on 
— ^ every shore, wherever Nereiis carves a path for the 
ions tracks of the navigators as far as the Assyrian 
ES— Why dost thou compel me, handed over as a 
ies of hostage to repugnant household gods, married. 

..^, . an absolute enemy, and doomed to pass my 

in misery and tearsi Behold I my exiled ii\is\)aa4 ^ 

tins j»ar /rom me, and Tbeseus is still Veeping iMfti "^ 



Tellure Nereus peivium rollris fccnl; 
Cur me in peaates obridem inviros dalam, 
Holliquc nuptam, degere letatem hi nmlis 
LucrLmirque cogis? profugus en conjux nhed, 
Piwdatque nupte, i^uam falel, Thefeus ficlem. 
Fotlii per altos iiivii retro lacus 
Vadit lenebiai milca audnci* proci; 
Solio Jt4evu1saiii regis iDfenii abftrahat, 
Ferj^it furoris focius. baud ilium timor, 
Pudorque letiuil. llupra & illicitus toro* 
Acheronle in imo qnserit Hippolyli pater. 
Sed major alius Incubat intenx dolor. 
Nod me quin noiflurna, □□□ altus fopor 
Solvere cutis: alitur & ccefcil malum, 
El ncdct intus; quails JEtaxo vapor 
Exnudat antro. PnlladU te\x vacant, 
El inter ipfas penla labuntur manus. 
Nan colere donis lemplit votivU libet; 
Kon inter aros, Atlhidum miilani choris, 
Jadlare lacitis conrdas facris faces; 
Nee adire cadis precibus aut rilu pio 
Adjudicala; pncfidem lemc Dcnm. 
Juvat cxcitatas confequi curfu feras, 
Et rigid* molli gxCa joculari maou. 
Quo teodis, anlme? quid fureos faltus amas^ 
Fatal« miferx malris agiiofco malum. 
Peccare nollcr novit in filvis amor. 
Genitiix, tui me miferet: iafaiido malo 
Coirepta, pecoris efferi fajvura ducem 
AudaK amaili. torvus, impatieus jugL, 
Adulter ille, dui^DC indomiti gregis. 
Sed amabat aliquid. quis meos miferx Deus, 
Aut quis iuvarc Dadalus flammas queal? 
Nod, li ille remeet arte Mopfopia potens. 
Qui noflra cxca mDa[tm concluQt domo, 
Promiltat ullam calibus nodris opcm. 
Slirpem perofa Soils Invill Veous, 
Per nos catenas viadicat Miirtis fui, 
Suafquc. probris omne Phicbeum genus 
Onerat nefandis. nulla Minols levi 

with his wife after the old fashion, promising 
back ! As the valiant companion of a venluresome love- 
making adulterer Pirithons, he starts off Ihrough the realms 
of dartnesB to that relentless river, whence there is no 
return ('rhe Styx) in order that he may forcibly abduct 
Proserpine from the throne of the King of Hell— the con- 
spiralor in this mad scheme is persevering— No fear pos- 
sesses iii'in— no sense oC &\ia,me,aiid\i\\^?a^KMof Hippolytus 

on the look-out in the depths of Acheron, f 
opportunity to practise hb lustful propensities and to 
overcome the chastity of Proserpine— But another distress 
stiJl greater sits on my troubled mind ;— quiet— repose — 
know me not — no welcome sleep visits me lo relieve my 
oppressed mind, bowed down by ray anxieties! and the 
mischief is being nursed and is waxing strotiETp-and I 
am burning inwardly, much in the same way, that the 
smoke of ^tna is nourished by the flaming caverns 
below! The knitting and weavmg work as taught by 
Minerva is completely set aside, and the wools no sooner 
than they are taken up, slip from my fingers— It is not 
allowed to me to propitiate the Godtless of Chastity in 
her temples, and mixing in the company of the Attic 
Matrons at the altars, to brandish my guilty torches 
amidst the Eleusinian ceremonies, nor to approach with 
chaste prayers, and pious observances, the Deity that 
presides in the realms subject to her jurisdiction— No ! it 
pleases me more to pursue the terrible wild animals, as 
tliey take to flight, in the company of Hinpolytus and to 
hurl the weight)- javelin from my gentle nand— But why 
rave I thus, Oh! my soul: Why do I hanker so madly 
after the forests ? it calis to my mind the fatal misfortune 
which befell my miserable mother; our criminal amours 
were both conducted in these fatal woods I Oh ! my 
mother! as th^ daughter, have compassion on mycrimel 
for thou, inated by some criminal passion, wert bold ■ 
enough to be enamoured with the fierce leader of the ] 
herd (The Bull ^iven to Minos by Neptune), but though * 
fierce and impadent of restraint, that practical adulterer, 
although only the bead of an indomitaDle flock, was sus- 
ceptible of the influence of the fatal passion ! What deity 
art thou, who comest to me in my misery? Or what 
D^datus will be able to assist me in restrainmg the 
consequences of my ardent passion? Nol even if he 
were to come to ray aid, with all the contrivances and 
labyrinths arising out of the Mopsopian skill (Da^alus 
hailed from Attica, where Mopsopus was King), although 
he did shut up far from mortal ga%e the monster that ' 
emanated from our racel Could even he, alas, promise! 
any alleviation to my miseries? Could even, alasl VentiBil 
assist usr she who hates the endre progeny of Phcebus and'T 
who is only too ready to avenge herself upon us; as a 
set-oflT, for her own amorous entangle in ents with Mars, she 
saddles them with everj'thing, that is infamous to the whole 
race of Phtebus (Phcebus detected Mars and Venus daring 
an amour) and gives out that no amour of a legitimate 
character could be boasted of by any of us, bul'KMA'WMi'J 
always associaied with some indelible crime\ 


DefunAn smdre eft. jungilur femper Dcfits. 

HUTR. Therea coniux, cUra proglDies JovU, 

Nefanda cado pe<flcirc Exturbi ocius: 

ExAinguc ftammos; neve le dine fpei 

Fnebe obrequeulem. Quifquis in [rimo obftitit 

Pepuliique amorcm, tutus ac viAor fuit. 

Qui blandiendo dulce tiulrivil malum, 

Sero recurnt Tcrre, quod fubiit, ju^m. 

Nee me fugit, quam durus, & veri infoUns, 

Ad refla flefli regius nolit tumor. 

Quemcuaque dedcrit exitum caru&, ferani. 

Fortem facit viciua libertas fenem. 

Obrtarc primuux eft velle, nee kbi via: 

Fudor eft fecundus, oolTe peccandi modum. 

Quo, mifera, pergis? quid domum infainem aggravas, 

Supenlfquc malremJ majus efl monftro nefas. 

Nam monnra fata, moribus fcelera impulcs. 

Si, quod tnarilus fupera non cemit loca, 

Tutum elTe Tacinus credis, & vacuum metu; 

EiTHs. teDCri crede LethEO abdilum 

Thefca profundo, & ferre perpetuam Stjgo. 

Quid ille, Into maria qui regno premit, 

FopuUrijue redilil jura cctiteuis paler, 

Loiere untum facinus occullum finel? 

Sagix pareatum eft cara. credamus lameo 

Alia doloque tegere nos tuitum nefas. 

Quid ille rebus lumen infundens fuum 

Mains parEDi? quid ille, qui mundum quatit, 

Vibrans corufcu fulmen ^tmeum manu, 

Salor Deorum? crcdis hoc polTe effici, 

Inter videmes omnia ut lateas avos? 

Sed, uC fecundus numinum abfcondat favor 

Coituji nefandos, utque conlingai ftupro 

Negata magnis fceleribus Temper lides: 

Quid pcena prxfeos, coufcix mentin pavor. 

NUR. Oh I wife of Theseus! tlhistrious progeny of Jupiter, 
expel at once all criminal thoughts from th;^ chaste mind; 
cont]uer thy ardent passions, and do not give thyself up, 
without a slrugs'e, to these wicked desiresl Whoever 
resolutely opposes illicit love, and checks it in the bud, 
what a happily-secured conqueror that person isl— On the 
contrary sne who encourages a wicked passion, because 
it is pleasant and does her best to deceive herself, and 
whilst desirous to give up the task upon which she has 
entered, sometimes finds that it is too late to be easily 
accomplished— Nor does it escape my conviction, how 

1 ^.: J. : :i.i. ._ i :_h..,jjpgg ^^^ unaccustom- 

^ a»'j\'Kiftij, but willing 

Lines .28-162] HIPPOLYTUS. 197 

to be turned into the right path, when once it had swerved 
trom itl Whatever ending this business may have, I am 
^willing to subscribe to it (endorse it). Thou seest, my time 
is nearly up, my approaching enfranchisement (freedom) 
is nigh, ana this makes an old woman like myself speak 
out I The first step for the honorable mind to encourage 
is to be willing to remove an evil and do not let the 
opportunity for so doing slip from thy grasp ; the second 
^tage of honor would necessarily be, to learn the fuU 
-extent of that evil I To what art thou tending in thy 
miserable frame of thought? Why dost thou aggravate 
the evil which still attaches to thy house (race)? or art 
thou endeavouring to surpass thy mother in crime? thy 
sin would be greater than even the "monster" crime! 
For thou must put the "monster" crime down to fate I 
thy wickedness tnou couldst trace to nothing but thy own 
foul inclinations! If thy husband does not see what is 
going on in the upper world (Theseus is away in the 
Infernal regions), aost thou believe that the crime could 
be kept away from his knowledge with any degree of 
certainty, and that, under any circumstances, that he would 
not entertain grave apprehensions as to the true character 
of the crime ? If thou supposest otherwise, thou art mis- 
taken : dost thou believe that Theseus will remain hidden 
in the depths of Hell, and have to put up with his Stygian 
prison for evermore? And what will he say (Minos) who 
rules the seas in that wide kingdom, that father who 
administers the laws to hundreds of nations? Will he 
permit a crime of such magnitude to remain undiscovered ? 
The principal function of a parent is to exercise especial 
vigilance and care as regards his offspring, and to take 
care too, that he is not in any way the victim of deceph 
tion I But we may take it for granted that we shall never 
be able to conceal so enormous a crime with any amount 
of craft or artifices! What will that maternal grandfather 
of thine (Phoebus) think of this crime ? He that sheddeth 
his penetrating rays upon the things of this world! What, 
too, will thy fraternal grandfather (Jupiter) the ruler of 
all the Goas, think? He that causes the very universe 
to tremble, with the lightnings shot forth from the furnaces 
of ^tna, and hurled with a hand too, of such dazzling 
brightness? With such grandfathers as these seeing ana 
knowing all things as they do, dost thou suppose that this 
matter can be so managed that thou shouldst remain 
undiscovered? Dost thou think, on the contrary that a 
favorable construction will be put upon such abominable 
adultery, and the clemency which is always denied to all 
other great crimes, should form any exception in the cast 
of thy uduiterjr? What thy present suffering is, appt^x^ 

Animufque culpa pleiius. & feniet limens! 
Scelus aliqua tulum, nulla fecurum lulit. 
Compefce amori^ impii fliimnijs, piccor, 
Nefafque, quod non ulk lellus barbara 
Commirit unquaro, non vagus campis Ceta, 
Nee iDhorpiuUs Taurus, aul Cparrus Scylhes. 
EipeUe facinus meme ciftificx horrEdum; 
Memnique matrix, metue concubitus oovoth 
Mifcere thalamos palrU & nali apparas, 
Uteroque prolcm caperc CDnrufom impio? 
Perge, & uefaudts verte naturam Ignibus. 
Cur Dionftra cclTaDt' aula cue ftalrU \atMt 
Prodi^ toHes orbU infuela audiel, 
Natura totirs legibus cedet fuis, 
Quolies amabll CrclTa: PH. Qux memoras, fcio 
Vera elTe. uulrix: fed funir cogit fcqui 
Pejora. vadit animus in pra:ccps fciens, 
Kemealque, fnlHra fnna cnnrdia appelcQS. 
Sic cum gravalam navita adverfa ralem 
Fropellil unda, cedit m vanum labor, 
El viAa prono puppis aufertur vado. 
Quod ratio pofcit, vicit ac regnal furor, 
Folenfque lota menle doniinalur Deus. 
Hie Volucer omni rrgnal in terra polcos, 
Ipfumque flaminis toir^ indomiliB jovem. 
Gradivus it\as belligcr Tenfit faces; 
Opifcx irifulci fulminis fenril I)eui; 
Et, qui furentea femper /Etn^is jugis 
Verfat camjtios, igne tarn parvo calel. 
Ipfumque Phcebum, tela qui nervo regit, 
Figit fagitla cenior mifTa Paer: 
Volilatque coelo pariter & terrx gravib, 
NUTK. Drum elTc Araorem, tuipii & vitio fave 
Fioxit libido: quoque liberior foret, 
Tilulum furori auminii fatfi add id it. 
Nalum per omnes fci licet terms vagum 
Erycina mittil. ille per crelum volans 
Proterva leneia. tela molilur tnanu: 
Regnnmquc lantam miuimua e fuperis habet. 

to be the fear of a guilt}' conscience onlj;, a heart steeped 
in criminal desires and dreading the stings of remorse! 
Any woman may deem herself safe from punishment for 
her adulterv", but no woman can reckon on absolute security 
aga.itist the chances of teing found out I I entreat thee, 
extinguish the flames of thy impious love— a crime that 
has never been known to be committed in lands the most 
barbarous— not by any of the Getie, who wander in the 
njjLdns- Nor those in the wild steppes of the Taurus, or 
-\ the wandering ScythiansV Biwe \i»s -wVtVitil design 

Lines x63-«,i] HIPPOLYTUS. I99 

out of thy mind, preserve thy chastity, and think of thy 
mother's fate, abhor fresh copulations and such onesl 
Whjr I thou art now meditating an unheard-of medley — 
sharing the nuptial couch with father and sonl indis- 
criminately 1 and about to risk an inexplicable impregna- 
tion for thy adulterous womb! Go onl and invert the 
^'ery course of nature by thy criminal passion! Why 
should monsters be done away with? Why should the 
labyrinth of thy natural brother go begging tor a tenant? 
As long as a Cretan woman, I suppose, desires to carry 
on an amour, so long must tne world be prepared to hear 
of some monster's arrival, which it is unaccustomed to 
"behold, and so long must Nature herself act conformably 
with her complications! 

tPH. What thou tellest me, Nurse, I know is quite true, 
but my infatuation leads me to contemplate even the 
worst things, my mind, although I am perfectly aware 
of what I am aoing, carries me away headlong and it 
then, as it were, sways to and fro, seeking in vain to 
follow more righteous counsels, as when the mariner is 
urginff on his heavily-laden craft, against an adverse sea, 
his labor is expended in vain, and his craft is driven 
astern, in spite of every effort, by the obstinate tide! 
What rgf ^on suggests, my infatuation overcomes^ and I 
continue to rage, and a very potent deity it is, i assure 
thee, which exercises such perfect dominion over my mind 
and its inclinations— the deity I mean is that winged god, 
that rules in every land, and sets the feelings of tne great 
Jupiter himself on fire, with his indomitable power— and 
the warlike Mars has also shown his susceptibility to the 
fatal passion ! That God, Vulcan, the fabricator of the 
three-forked lightning, and he, who is always keeping his 
furnaces in working order on the summits of ^tna, has 
himself glowed again, with the fires inspired by Cupid, 
whilst Phoebus himself has heen wounded by that Boy 
(Cupid is always represented as a boy) who directs his 
darts with greater precision than he who has succumbed 
to darts more powerful than his own ( Jupiter). This little 
winged boy hovers about the bright heavens and this 
dull globe of ours with equal pertinacity! 

NUR. It could only have been lust, which always basely 
inclines to vicious courses, that originally transformed the 
amorous passion into a deity, and in order that there 
should be more latitude afforded to the votaries of Venus ! 
Erycina (Venus) sends forth her prowling little son^ I 
warrant thee, through every land, and has dignified Vvvccv, 
f{}r the pass/on, which he inspires, by investing Vv\tn VviJci 



Van* iflii dcmens animus adftivit fibi, 

VcDcrirque Dumen UnKit, alque arcui Dei. 

Quifquis fecund is rebus eifulUl nimis, 

Kluitque luxe, femper infolitu nppetit. 

Tunc ilia magnx ilira fonunic comes 

Subil libido: noD placent Tuets dopes, 

Non teiia fnai moris, aul vilis cibus. 

Cur in penatea rarius tenues fubit 

Hxc delicatas eligens pedis domos? 

Cur t%a&.a parvi* habitat in ledlis Venus, 

Mediumque fanos rulgns offeflus tenet, 

El fe coercenl modica? contra diviles, 

Regnotjue TuRi, pluro, quam fa? eft, petuntJ 

Quod uon petell, vull polTe, qui nimium poleCt. 

Quid deceat alio prxdiiam folio, vides. 

Meluc, ae verere fceplra remeautis viri. 

PH. Amori& in me maximum regnum fero, 

Reditu f que nullos metuo. uon unquam amplins 

Conveio Ictigil fupera, qui merfus femel 

Adiit filcDtem noifle perpetua domum. 

NITTK. Ne Creole DiU. cluferil regnum licet, 

Canifque difas Slygius obrcrvel fores; 

!>olus negatas iavenit Thefeus v'm. 

PH. Veniam ille amori forfilan nollro dnbil. 

Nt;Tft, Immitis etiam coajugi caftx fuit. 

Experia fxvam est barbara Atitiope manum. 

Sed polfe flefli conjUECm iralum pura: 

Qais huJDs animum lleiflel intraflabilem ! 

Exofus omne (eminx nomen fugil^ 

Immitis annos cielibi vitie dicai^ 

Connubia vilat. genus Amaionium fcias. 

PH. Hunc in nivuli cullis hrereolem jugis, 

Et afiiera agili faxa calcaalem peite, 

Sequv per oJta nemorBj per moates, placet. 

Ihe title of a spunous Deitj"! This little son of Venus 
flying through Ine heavens, dares to hurl his dangerous, 
wanion and insolent darts at the Clods themselves, with 
his delicate httle handl And this little fellow, althoudi 
he holds only a certain special powers amongst the gods, 
the mad ambition ol his mother has awarded him this 
empty rank and made him her ancillary deity and armed 
him with the bow of a god ! Whosoever exacts loo mudi 
in prosperity and is surrounded with luxury is always 
hankering after something fresh— his lustful propeadties, 
those awful companions of unlimited fortune, advance- 
upon him "pari passu." Ordinary food does not satisly 
bim^he is not content whK a Tesidence of respect^lft 
pretensions, and his viands ate o'o'iftOiciTiaHift, "■& "iMt^ do 

Lines 203-235] HIPPOLYTUS. 201 

not cost enough money I Why then does this pest, crimi- 
nal love, select and fasten upon the homes of the opulent, 
and enter so rarely the homesteads with impoverished 
Penates ? Why does laudable love exist only amidst humble 
roofs; the common herd of mankind hold their natural 
affections in check, avoiding extremes, and the man with 
modest means restrains his unbridled passions; on the 
contraiT, the wealthy, especially those who enjoy the ad- 
ditional advantages appertaining to a kingdom, are always 
sighing for more than is really right for them to havel 
What is not possible they wish to be so, so thou canst 
understand, wno art desinng too much, what the obliga- 
tions are, and what becomes one who is raised to mat 
royal pinnacle— a throne. Go thou in fear, and dread the 
husband who will return to his kingdom 1 

PH. I reign in the kingdom of Love, which is at present 
a sovereign power with me, and I do not fear any one's 
return— He who has been once submerged in that silent 
abode of j>erpetual darkness, has gone whence he will 
never more reach the regions above I 

NUR. Do not believe that Pluto may have been pleased 
to shut him up, as a prisoner in his kingdom, and the 
Stygian Dog (Cerberus) may be guarding the dreadful 
portals. Has not Theseus unassisted, already found a 
way "there" which is denied to all others? 

PH. Perhaps he might forgive me for this love affair 
of mine. 

NUR. But was he not severe enough in his nature, 
even towards a chaste wife? Did not the barbarian 
Antioi>e experience his savage nature? but supposing it 
possible, under ordinary circumstances, to pacify an angry 
nusbana! Who could expect to subdue a disposition so 
intractable as that of Hyppolytus? He avoids women, 
and hates their very name ; he has dedicated his life, per- 
haps cruelly towards himself, to perpetual celibacy; in a 
word, he eschews marriage entirely: remember his Ama- 
zonian origin I 

PH. It pleases me to follow his haunts, to find him 
hanging about on the heights of snowy hills, and to see 
him tramping along, over the rough rocks with nimble 
strides, and to accompany him over the lofty foTesXs ^Il4 
the moantain sides. 


TR. Kefiflel illc, feigue mulcetidum dubil, 
Caflufqiic ritiu Venere nou calla exuclJ 
Tibi ponet odium, cujus odio farTitBii 
Perfequilur cranes! pk, Precibui baud vinci poleflf 
.. Ferus eft. PH. Amote didicimus vinci feros. 140 

.. Fugiet. PH. Per ipfa maria, fi fugiat, fequar. 
lento. rH. Meminimus malris iiinul. 
le profugtL PK. Fellkis careo metu. 

.. Aderit maTilus. ph. Nempe Pirithoi comes, 

.. Adcrilque gcnitor. PH. Mitia Ariadnse patet. 145 

. Per has feneifta: fplendidas fupplex camaa, 
FefTumque curis ueiflus, & cara ubera, 
Precor, furorero lifte, injue ipfam adjuva. 
Pus fanitatis, velle fonari, full. 

PH. Nan omnis animo ceffit ingenuo pudor. tyt 

Paremus, altrU. qui regi noo vuli, amor 
VincBtur. baud te, fama, macutari linam. 
Hiec fola ratio efl, unicum effueium niali. 
Vinim fequamur. moitc pnevcrtntn nefas. 
NUTR. Moderore,, aluniDa, mentis efTretue Impetos, 355 

Aoltnos coerce, dignani ob hoc vila reor, 
Quod elTe lemet aulumas dignnm ncce. 
PH. Decrela mors eft. quseritur fat! genus. 
Laqueone vilam finiam, an fciro incubem? 

An mifTa pnecepa orce Palladia cadam? SSo 

Prd, caftitatis vindicem annemus manum. 
NUTR. Sic te feneiflus noftra pracipiti (inat 
Perire 1eto? fifte fuiibundum impelum. 
[Haud facile quifquam ad vitam revocari poteft.J 
PH. Prohibere ratio nulla perilurum patefl, 365 

L'bi qui raori conftituil, & debet mori. 
NUTR. Solamen annis utiicum feffis, hera, 

NUK. Dost thou think that he will slop and abandon 
himself kindly to thy adulterous embraces, and exchange 
his chaste habits and ideas for those of a highly immoral 
love? He will put thee imder the ban of his hatred, the 
same hatred, mdeed, which he entertains towards all 

PH. Could he not be overcome by my soft entreaties? 

NUR. He is fierce and obdurate. 

PH. I have learned the method of overcoming savage- 
ness with love (meaning that she has managed Theseus}. 

NUR. He will fly from thee. 

PH. If he does fly, I will follow him, over the seas. 

Lima ,36—67! HIPPOLYTUS. 

N'UR. Remember his father. 

PH. Remember the mother as well. 

NVK. He flies from our whole sex. 

PH. I do not fear any meretricious rival. 

KUR. But thy husband may return. 

PH. Yes, the confederate of Pirithous ! 

>iruR. Thy father, also may come. 
^ Ohl the father of Ariadne, he was kind to her? 

NUR. By these locks (placing her hands od them) now 
grey with old afie. as a suppliant I entreat thee bv this 
Dreast of mine enfeebled by anxieties, by the nipples at 
■which thou once didst fly with infantine eagerness— stay 
thy madness— lend aid to thy own righteous cause; a 
great step in the art of being cured, is to wish for a 
remedy, and then submit to the "modus curandi"— the 
means of cure! 

PH. Everj- feeling of shame is not quite extinguished 
from my natural dis[)osition ! Let me prepare, Nui-se, for 
my task— a love which cannot be kept under, must be 
trodden down. I am not willing that my reputation 
should be sullied— this is the only way out of my difficulty, 
the only means of escaping from my crime— I must join 
my husband 1 I must anticipate crime by death I 

.viiR. Try and govern, my nurse child, the wild impulses 
of thy heart, restrain unholy passions. I conclude from 
thy remarks, that thou art more worthy to live, and for 
this reason, that thou now considerest thyself more worthy 
to die. 

PH. I have determined to die, Nurse, but the kind of | 
death is the next question— Shall I end my life with the 
noose (strangulation) or fall upon the sword, or sallying 
forth shall I throw myself heaalon^ from the lofty citadel 
of Pallas? Ah! happy thought! I will arm my hand as 
the means of avenging my chastity. 

Dost ihou think that even my old age wiU e^ei 


ti generata ponlo, 
Quam vocal matrem geminus Cupidol 
Impotens flammls (imul & fagitiis, 
Il\c lafcivu!! Puer ac reniden^ 
TeU quun certo moderatur arcu! 
Labitur touu furor in medullis, 
lene furtivo populniile venos. 
NdD habd lalam daU |>iaga frontem,! 
S«d vonit teiltts penitus medullas. 
NulU pax ini Puero. per orbeoi 
Spargil effufas agilU fagitUs. 
QuEcque nnfceDtem videt ora Solem, 
Quxque ad Hefperias jacet ora metas, 
Si qua ferrenti fubjeiSa Cancro eft, 
Si qua Pmrhafiie glncialis Urfse 
Semper erranles patitur colonos, 
Novit hos xRia juvenum feroces 
Confilal flammas: fcuibufquc tcffis 
Rnrfus exftia^oa revocat calores: 
Virgmum ignolo ferit igne pe<5liu: 
Et )ubet cirlo Superos reliito 
Vuttibus fairis habilare terras. 
TbefTali Phiebus pecuris magifler 
Egil armentum, pofitoque [iledlro 
Impnri taurus calamo vocat-it. 
Induil form as quoties miaores 

r life, 

■ say. 


««-^] HIPPOLYTUS. 205 

NUR. Oh! my mistress! the only solace li 
mad notion so persisienlly haunt 

deserves a worse character and a worse character v 
one merits a more favorable one Let me try what I can 
do for thy sad unraanageabSe mind— that shall then be 
my undertaking to seek out the wild youth, and see 
whether 1 can bend the inclinations of that savage young . 

The Chorus espouses the assumption, that all things should I 

yield to love, that mankind of every position, every 
age, every condition, the Gods above, and the Gods 
below, and even down to the dumb creation, all 

» animals whether terrestrial (brutes), aquatic (fishes), or 

aerial (birds). 
^'"nh! Goddess (Venus) sprung from the tempestuous 
II waves whom that double-functioned Cupid (Eros 
^~^ and Anteros, the latter the divine love, the former 
the grosser and sensual passions) calls mother— never flag- 
ging in his activity with the arrows, and reckless, as to the 
love- inspiring passions, he brings about. Oh! that lasci- 
vious little boy (Eros) with his deceptive smiles, with what 
sure effect does he operate with his ceaseless quiverl 
His inspiring power searches out the innermost marrow 
of our very bones, drying up in its progress the coursing 
veins with his furtive fires 1 The wounds which he inflicts, 
however, present no very broad external surface I they 
are deep wounds! but the germ absorbed therefrom con- 
tne marrow hidden away 

oi^aaism (figuratively neutralizing the power of resistance) 
— ^there is no rest where that little boy is concerned in his 
nimble flight, he scatters, far and wide, in every clime, 
in every nook, the arrows which he shoots forth from his 
restless untiring quiverl Whatever land witnesseth the 
rising of the sun, or whatever land lies where the chariot 
of PlKebus stops at the end of his Hesperian journey 
(the West, the late setting of the Sun), or whatever country 
is under the scorching tropic of Cancer, and if there be 
any country beneath the frigid Ursa Major, which affords 
a sheltering resting-place to the hordes of wandering tribes, 
each one of these has experienced the effects of the 
^^rounds of Cupid, which equally excite the fierce ardor 
^Kf 'mpetuous youth, or coaxingly invite back the d\fcd- 

11 le Qodluniiu agitorc blgiis 
Difcit, 4 gy™ breviote flet^L 
Ncc fuum tempus [enuece nodles, 
El dies tardo remeavit onu, 
Duin tremunl axes graviore curru, 
Nalus Alcmena poCuil pharelmio, 
El miDax vafYi fpolium leanis; 
PbITus aptari digilis fmaragdos, 
El dari legem rudibiu capillis: 
Crura difliniflo religavit aura, 
Luleo planlas cohibeole focco : 
El manu, clavatn modo qua gereb 
Fiia deduxil properante fufo. 
Vidil Perils, dilifque feran 
Lydia regnl, dejefta feri 
Terga leoois, humerifque, qoil 
Sederat alti regia cali, 
Tenuem Tyrio flamine 
Sacer ell ignis, (crediU 
Nimiumque potens. " 
Cingilur alio, qufliq 
Candida muudo lit 
Urge regntt tenet 
Spicula cujus Tentit 
Cxrulus undis grex Ifi 
FlammoiDquc nequit 

h,r,^nn HIPPOLYTUS. 

^1 the cloudy firmament, sometimes as a bird, lias assumed 
^^^ its wings and plumage of shining whiteness, and furthered 
^^1 tiie deception with a voice sweeter than that of the dying 
^^B iwan-at another time, as a fierce bull, with a savage 
^^M nsage, he gives up his back for the amusement of young 
'^r 'upns, and then travels over a fresh kingdom, his brother 
W Nepmne's aquatic emjiire (the sea), and overcomes the 
I suspicions element, with his powerful chest contending 

■ sjainsl its obstinacy, and furthermore to quiet it (the sea 

■ recognizes a new master) imitates the sounds produced 
f ^/rowers, through certain movements of his feci— as he 
f "mijjjy nursues his way with his capture [Europa) lest 
F she sliould be submerged 1 The iilustrious goddess of the 
' **J". when in darkness (night) forsakes her nocturnal post 

^"d hands o\er to her brother her brilliant chariot to be ■ 
"^idcr his guidance after a different manner (hinting at 
"'* mode of driving)— he learns, however, to manage the I 
'^'o-horsed nocturnal chariot of his sister, and to go by 
" shorter circuit, but the night does not preserve its 
^•Jal duration— it is longer, and as a consequence the 
^^y-light returns with a retarded arrival, whilst the axlea 
?* the chariot seem to give way under their heavier 
^Mfden (Phcebus). That son of Alcmena (Hercules) laid^ 
^ide his quiver, and that terrifying trophy the ski 
'he Nemfean Lion, and permitted his fingers tc 
?'«jewe!!ed, with emerald rings, and to hai'e his rough 
'f*cks perfumed and dressed, and to be carefully done up 
^ccoroing to the prevailing fashion, and with that huge 
nand, which hitherto had only wielded a ponderous cluD, 
now and then drew out the threads, in a mincing, effemin- 
ate manner, whilst working away right merrily with the 
spindle !— He then fastens to nis legs with bands ornamented 
■ith gold, the yellow slippers "Socci" with which he had 
inclosed his feet. Persia and Lydia, those fertile countries, 
»ith their rich kingdom, have witnessed the fact of 
Hercules throwing down in disgust the lion's skin from 
his shoulders on which had aforetime rested the very 
heavens with their palaces; and donning a cloak made 
up of some flimsy 1 yrian-purple fabric. And this is that 
execrable fire of Love. Believe in those, that have suffered 
from its too terrible effects! Whatever land is surrounded 
by the deep sea, whatever bright stars pursue their course 
in the ethereal sky, this insolent pertinacious little boy 
holds such kingdoms in his sway— Of whose thrusts the 
blue water-nymphs, the offspring of Nereus and Doris, 
are susceptible, in the retired waters even which they 
inhabit; nor does he, it is perceived, exempt the sea from 
his visitations (passions)— the wing-bearing portion of 
nature, they &eJ his fires', and what tertinc oallits ■ftve 


Igaei feulit genus utigeruin. 

Venere inftinifli quam magna gerunt 

Greg« pro Iota hella Juvenci ! 

Si conjugio limuere (uo, 

Pofcuni timidi prtelia cervi; 

Et mugilu duDt couccpti 

SLgna iuroris. Iudc virgalis 

India ligres decolor hoiret. 

Tunc vutoilicos acuic denies 

Aper, & toto eft fpumens ore. 

Pteni quMiunt collii leones, 

Cum movit amor, turn filva gemit 

Muimure (avo. 

Amal infuii b«Uua ponti 

Lucsque bovrs. vindicac omnes 

Nalura fibi. nihil immUDC eft. 

Odiumque peiit^ cum jufTil amor: 

Ve'eres cedunl ignibus irx. 

Quid plura csnam? vincit fsEvaa 



D & leflum conqueiitur nuiri 
lox ipfa prodil Phn'drB mutatis vellibus In ciniflum 
Atnaionis feu venalricis, ut Hippolylo placeal. 


LltRIX, profore, quid Terns? quonam 
Kcgiuaf fLcvis ccquiii eft flammis moduli! 
Ntrrit. Spes uulla, lantutn polTe leniri malum ; 
Finifque flammis nullus infanis erit: 
Torreiur Eeftu tacito, & indufus quoque, 
Quamvis tegatur, proditur vultu furor. 
Enunpit oculis ignis, & laprs genx 
Lucem recufant. nil idtm ilubix placet; 

bulls, urged on by the venereal cestrum, will wa^ ficr< 
supremacy amongst the rest of the herd; and the dmid 
stags will stand their ground, when their females are in 
danger, and ihey evince with their loud mewings ths 
symptoms of the anger which possesses them— then the 
tawny Indian dreads the striped tigers more than ever, 
and then the wild boar appears to nave his teeth sharper 
thao usual by the crue\ wounda tc ta.iMes, atid his jaw« 

x.ine» 338—365] HIPPOLYTUS. 209 

are covered with foam ; the Carthaginian lions shake their 
manes unusually when the amorous feelings possess them, 
and then it is, that the forests resound witn their savage 
roaring — even the huge brutes, denizens of the sea, (whale, 
^ampus etc.) leam to love, and then even the huge pachy- 
<ienns (the Elephants)— Nature claims all— everythmg for 
herself! Nothing is free! Hatred vanishes, when love 
oomnaands — Old animosities yield to the sacred fire of 
love I What more shall we sing? It is this! It overcomes 
with its persistency, even cruel step- mothers ! 



"The Nurse complains of love as a disease, as regards its 
intolerance and the power it assumes; after which 
Phaedra gives herselt up to a thorough change of 
raiments, and dons the garb of an Amazonian huntress, 
that she may the more easily captivate Hippolytus. 



URSE, tell us all thou knowest. In what state of mind 
is the queen ? Is there any moderation evinced yet 
in her wicked passions? 

NUR. No hope ! so great an evil cannot be easily got 
rid of! there will never be an end to her insane in- 
fatuation; she is literally burnt up with the secret flames 
that rage within her bosom, and her madness, though 
kept within herself to some extent, shows itself in her 
very looks and gestures, however else it might be hidden 
—this secret fire springs up into her eyes and her droop- 
ing eyelids avoid the li^ht — nothing which might have 
pleased her formerly, satisfies her capricious mind now — 
and her uncertain temper discovers itself in her very 
bodily attitudes, in the arms which she throws about, as 
the mood varies— sometimes her legs give way, and she 
falls down, like one about to die, and her head seems 
with difficulty held up by her enfeebled neck; now, when 
she retires to rest, she seems to have no disposition to 
sleep, but passes the night in vain wailings— she then 
orders herself to be raised up in bed, and tor her body 
to be placed in some other position (to have hex b^A 
and arrangeznents altered to give greater ease lo \v« 

SENECA'S TRAGEDIES. rura ,m-ot 1 


Anufque varie jaiflnl incertus dolor. 
Nunc at foluto labilur morieni e">du, 
Et vix tubiDte ruHiner collo caput. 
Nunc fe quicti reddit; & fomni immei 
NoftcDi querelis ducil; oltoli jubet, 
Ilenimque pooi corpus; & folvi cmnng; 
Rurfufque nagi, femper impntiens fui 
Mulalur tinbitus. nulla jiun Ccrerii fubil 
Cura, But Talutis. vadil incerto pedr, 
Jam viribus defefio. nan idem vigor, 
Non ora lingcua nilida purpureus rubor. 
Populalur artua cura. jam greffus tremunl; 
Tenerque nilidi corporis ceciilit decor 
Et, qui ferebant figDa Phtxbex facii, 
Ocul) nihil gentile nee patrium micant. 
Lacrimije cadunt per ora, & afliduo genoe 
Rore iiriganlur: qualiter Tauri jugis 
Tcpido madcfcunt imbre pereulTai: nives. 
Sed, CD, pnefcunt regiee falligia: 
Reciinis ipfa fedi& auralic loro, 
Solitos amiAus menie Don {aaa abnuit. 
FU. Removete, famuls:, purpura atquc auro 
VeAes. procul fit muricia Tyrii nibor, 
QuK fila rarais ullimi Seres legunt: 
Brevis expedites lona connringal finus. 
Cervix monili vacua; dcc niveus lapis 
Deducat aurea, Indici douum maris. 
Odore crinis ftmrfus Affyrio vncet: 
Sic lemcre jai^ee coUa perfundant conue 
Humerofque fumnioe; curfibus mola: cilis 
Venlos fequantur, Ixva fe pharelrx dabii; 
Haltile vibret dextra ThefTalicum mauus. 
Talis feveri maler Hippolyti fuiL 
Qualis, relidlis fri^idi ponti plagis, 
Egit catervBs, Atticum pulfans ioluni, 
Taaailis, au[ Mxolis, & nodo comas 
C»et;il emifilque, tunata latus 
ProteifU pelta; talis in Tilvas fenir. 
XUTK. Sepoue qucdus. non leva! miferos do 
Agrelle placa virginis numeo Hex 
Regina Dcmarum, fola quit monies colls, 

Et u 

1 foils 


ileris Dca. 


body); then all at once she orders her hair to be let 
down, and then to be dressed again immediately after- 
she is intolerant of her very self; her whole demeanour 
has undergone a change, she is careless about her food, 
and does not care whether she is UI or well— she walks 
with a tottering gait, in feci, she is thoroughly spent u 
regards physical vigor. There w a.n. a.tisence of aU her 

ines 366—407] HIPPOLYTUS. 211 

[ uondam vivacity, nor does the rosy tinge show itself upon 
ler once delicate complexion, rivalling the driven snow 
ri its purity— she is wearing out her body with anxiety— 
Jxeady her steps tremble, and the delicate, graceful come- 
Lness of her figure has vanished— and her orbs, which 
»ore the indication of her divine origin (Phoebus) now 
tune in no way to remind thee of her ni^h-bom descent, 
>r that of her lathers— Her tears are contmually trickling 
lo"wn her face, and her cheeks are bathed with perpetual 
XKoisturel just in the same mode as the driftmg snow, 
cxielted by the warm showers, moistens the surface earth 
oil the mountain ridges of Taurus— But further, behold 
-^ehen the palatial portals lie open to the visitor, there is 
the queen on her throne lounging languidly on a gilded 
couch, where she sits and discards all her usual attire and 
accessories, in a most unaccountable frame of mind ! 

PH. Take away, slaves, these garments dyed with pur- 
ple and ornamented with gold; remove, I command, the 
ravishing colors of the Tyrian d^res which adorn those 
delicate fabrics, which the Seres *' in their far-off country, 
gather from the branches of trees; let a short girdle 
encircle my loose garments giving me free use of my 
limbs, let my neck be relieved of this necklace, and let 
not Uie eamngs with their snow-white precious stones, 
dangle any longer from my ears— the stones which trace 
their original home to the far-off Indian Seas; let my 
flowing locks be exempt from the Assyrian perfumes- 
let my hair carelessly fall down my neck and around 
my shoulders— let those dishevelled locks wave to and 
fro, just as the wind, whatever humor it is in, pleases to 
direct them. Give me the quiver which I shall carry in 
my left, whilst my right hand shall brandish the Thessa- 
lian spear! As the mother of stem Hippolytus, used to 
be, so I desire to be just as she was, when she led on 
the savage Amazonian battalions recruited from the marshy 
districts near the Tan^is and Maeotis, and when she left 
behind the countries bounded by the frigid Euxinel and 
when she began to tread the Attic Soil she still continued 
to gather up her hair in a knot and let it fall down on 
her shoulders, with the shield shaped like a half-moon 
protecting her side! In such a guise will I make my 
appearance in the forests! 

NUR. Dismiss thy grief, vain bewailings do not mitigate 
sorrow; invoke the aid of Diana, the virgin Godaess, 
who presides over what relates to the chase ^ the queen 
of the forests, who alone inhabits the mountains, and the 
only goddess thou canst worship in those deserted e\e\aled 



Jiftes o 

O magna filvos inler & lucos Deo, 
Clanimque cult lldus, & noi!lis dccU9, 
Cujus relucel mundus altemn face 
Hecate Iriformis, en ades cceptit favens. 
Anlmum rigentem iriftis Hippolyti dom». 
Ainare dircat, mutuos ignes ferat. 
Del facilU aures. mitiga ped^us fenim. 
loneifle menteni. lorvus, averHis, (erox, 
Id jurs. Veneris redeat. hue vires Iubs 
Intende. fie le lucidi vultus feraiit, 
Et Dube rupU cornibus puris cna. 
Sic te, rcgentem frena no^flnroi lelheris, 
Detrabere nunquam TbelTali cantus queanl; 
Nullufque de le glariom paAor feral. 
Ades iuvocata. jam faves votis, Dea. 
Ipfum intuor folemoe veDcraulem facrum, 
Nuilo lalus cumilante. quid ttubilas? dedit 
Tempus locuniqne cafus. atendum attibus. 
Trepidatnus? baud efl facile maurlalnm fcctus 
Audere. venim jufta, qui regcs timet, 
Deponal; omae pcllat ex animo decus. 

Malus efi miatlter regii Jmpnii pudor 


Nutrii Hippolyti animun 

lleiflere eallide tenlat. 

cullatam pr^ 

.re, & sd nnptias & delicias uibnnM 
E coslibis & rusticce (quam urbwuB 
ditumm immotus tenet. 


hue fenilcs fefTa inoliri 

O fidn nulrix, turbidam fronlcm gerens, 
Et mcel\B vuUui? fofpes ell ccrte parens, 
Sofpefque Pbidra, (lirpis & gemins jugum. 

regions. Change thy sad apprehensions ofevil foi 

favorable future I Oh I great goddess who presides! amongst 
the forests and graves, the brilliant star of heavens and 
the glory of night whose dominion is lighted up, in thy 
alternate capacity with Phcebusi Oh thou three-fonneS 
Hecate! pray come to us, with any form thou mayst 
choose to assume, and favor our enterprise I Break the 
adamant heart of this wretched Hippolytus, let him lean 
to love, let him reciprocate the passion that bums in the 
bosom of another— let him give ear patiendy to our 
entreaties— soften his hard spirit— ensnare his heart in flie 
meshes of Love, a.nd \el Vm, \iit WLX^'gt, ^e^ulsive^ 

i^".. .oR-.s,l HIPPOLYTUS, 313 

^liring Hippolytus turn back his nature, and be brought 
''o ftiH allegiance to the canons of VenusI OhI Use 
'y utmost power to promote this endl And thus may 
'y bright countenance shed its brilliant light upon the 
Lrth, and mayst thou come forth, having dispelled the 
>scuring clouds, which hide thy elory, wtih ihy radiance 
t impaired 1 (with thv"comua" undimmed that is,) that thy 
sc may bedislinctly seen— (the "horned" heifer was held 
cred to the Moon) and thus may no Thessalian incan- 
doDs be able to draw thee from thy undertaking as 
ou, handling the reins, art ruling the operations of the 
)ctumal skv, and may no future shepherd fEndymionl 
orify himself at having received favors from thee ! Come 
ou as thou art invoked; Ohl goddess, be propitious to 
y prayers— I see Hippol>-tusl he is about to offer his 
customed sacrifices; no one is accompanying him, no 
le at his side I Why do I hesitate? Time, place and 
iportunity are at my disposal! I must use some artifice, 
It 1 dread the experiment! It is not always an easy 
in,e to dare to commit a crime, e^en when thou art 
dered to do it, but sometimes in the interests of those 
e feaj, of Kings, for example, and fearing as I do 
Daedra, one can afford to ignore the justice of the cause, 
id to chase away every known sentiment of shame from 
ne's breast. But it is a very sorry sample of virtue, 
^vertheless, which is the mere tool of regal power. 


le nurse tries artfully to soften the infl''^ib'i''T of Hip- 
polvtus, and to turn his thoughts towards marriage, 
and the enjoyments of a city life; unmoved by her 

I persuasions, he adheres to his resolution of passing 
his existence in celibacy and devoting hims'elf to rustic 
pursuits, which he ranks as preferable lo urban at- 



ly faithful nurse, why comest thou hither, thor- 
oughly fagged out and advancing with the feeble 
pace of an old woman, wearing, too, such a look 
sadness in thy face, and with such a woeful, troubled 
ook? Surely my father, Theseus, is quite safe, and 
fhfedra, too, is not she quite well ? For she, thou knowest, 
s the connecting hnk of our race, between myself, I mean, 
Antiope, my mother) and my half-brothers (,Iiem3Vf^QC>ft ■ 
jid And^onus by Phxdra). 1 



NUTR. Metu* reniilte. profpero cegaum in flatu 
Domosque florem Torle felici viget. 
Sed lu beotis mitior rebus veni: 
Namijue anxiam me cura follicilat tui| 
Quod ic ipfe picnis giavibui iufellus domas. 
Quern fala cogunt, ille cum venia eft mifer. 
At fi quis ultro fe mnlis olfert volcos, 
Seque ipfe lorquet. pcnlere eft dignus bona, 
QueU nefcit Mi. potius annoruui memor 
Mealem relaxa. noAibus feftis facem 
ACtolle. curns Bacchus cuonerel graves. 
Mtate fruere, mubili curfu fugit. 
Nunc facile peiflus, grata nunc juveni Veous, 
Exfultet animus, cur ton> viduo jaces^ 
Triflem juveaUin folve. nunc luxus rape. 
ESiinde babenas. optimos vilz dies 
Eftiuere prohibe. propria defcripfil Deus 
Officiii, & iEvum per fuos ducit gradus. 
Lxlilia juvenem, frons decet triftis rencm 
Quid 1e coerces, &. necas re^am indolem? 
Seges ilia magaam fceuus sgricols dabit, 
Qusecunque Ixtb tcncra luxuriul fatis: 
Arborque celfo vertice evincet Demus, 
Quam HOD maligna cxdit nut refecat manus. 
Iivgenia melius reAa fe ia laudes ferunt. 
Si Dobilem aoimum vegeta libertas alii. 
Truculentus, & filvefter, & vitte iDfcius, 
Triftem juvenlam Veoere deferta coljs. 
Hoc effe munus credia iodii^um viris, 
Ut duia lolereni? curfibus domitent equos. 
El Cseva bella Maite fanguineo gcrantf 
Providit iile moiimus mundi parens. 
Cum lam rapaces cemeret fati manus, 
Vl damna Temper fobole repararcl nova. 
Excedat, agedum, rebus humanis Venus, 
Qux fupplet nc reflituil exhauftum genus; 
Orbis jacebit fqualtido turpls litu; 
Vacuum fine ullis clarTibus ftabit mate; 
Alefque ccelo decrit, & (ilvis fera; 


NUR. Banish thy fears, the kingdom is in a prosperous 
condition and thy illustrious family is in the full enjoy- 
ment of its happy lot— but come thou, I pray, in n mild 
and happy mood amongst all our pleasant surroundinfjs, 
for my regard towards ihj-seif, rouses within me certain 
anxious thoughts, in that, to thy own injury, thou op- 
presseat thyself with such heavy self-imposed restrictions 
—that man whom the fates hold in their power when 
such a one is miserable, we reward with our sympa&y! 
—bat if any man only too teafiftf %\\e^ \\\tt\?ftft ^'^ aa ^ 


voluntary recipient of misfortune and so far perverts his 
natural tendencies he richly deserves to be deprived of 
the good things of this world, and which, if he had them, 
he would be utterly unable to enjoy! But thou rather, 
as thou shouldst, be mindful of thy vigorous youth, relax 
the severity- toward thyself— brighten up, and pass thy 
nights in exhilarating amusements, if necessary, lei Bacchus 
assist thy endeavours in shaking of dull care I Enjoy thy 
life, thou art young— time flies in its nimble course, now 
is the time for an assailable mind, now is the time that 
Venus should be a welcome goddess to amorous youth, 
let thy heart leap at the very thought! Why shouldst thou 
lie at nights, with no desirable bed-fellow? Throw aside 
sadness from thy youthful nature, now fasten upon the 
enjoyments of life! Throw aside the reins, with which 
thou hast restrained thyself, prevent the last days of thy 
life from shpping away from thee— a beneficent Deitv 
has very wisely prescribed the various duties of mankina, 
and he has so planned his programme that life should 
pass through well-defined stages I Joy becomes youth— a 
thoughtful orow befits old age; wtiy shouldst thou curb 
thy nature as thou dost, and blot out thy stage of youth, 
the stage through which thou art now passing? The 
growing com will afford a plentiful return to the husband- 
man for his labor, and each lender shoot will increase 
till it becomes a luxuriant blade, and contributes its indi- 
vidual share towards producing an abundant harvest! 
And the sapling will eventually look down upon the forest 
with its lofty branches— the tree, which no greedy hand 
has attempted to fell, or rob of its umbrageous investiture 
— a man's mind— when It is well re_gulated, is much more 
calculated to lead on towards a glorious goal, if seasonable 
liberty gives scope to generous impulses— Savage and 
ignorant of the pleasures of Ufe, and of exclusively sylvca- 
trian ideas, thou art passing thy cheerless youth, foregoing 
the pleasures of lovel Dost, thou think that this way of 
passing a lile was ordained for man ? that he should simply 
put up with every hardship and privation— that he should 
do nothing but break in horses for running races and to 
wa^e cruel wars in honor of sanguinary Mars? No— the 
chief parent of the universe has provided against such a 
contingency! When he said that the hand of Death was 
so eager to take away what he had made, in order thai 
he might replace the losses by producing fresh offsprings, 
"Come on, he said, " let love ^o forth amongst human 
affairs, and play its part," and it is that (Love) which fills 
up the vacancies, and replenishes the races, when they are 
becoming exhausted! The unattractive earth would remain 
in an uncultii-ated condidon — the blue aea ■wouVi ""' 

lain J 



Solis & oer pervius venlia cril, 
Quttin varia leii genent motUlem mihunl 
CirpuDtque lurbam; ponttis, & ferrum, & dolil 
Sed fata credas dceffe; fie atrani Styga 
Jam petimus ultio. cielibem vilam probet 
Sleriiu jurenlu<i, hoc eril, quidiguid vides, 
Uoius xvi torba, & in femM ruel. 
Proinde vita; fequere naturam dacrm: 
Urbem frequenta, civium crelus cole. 
HIFF. Non alia magis efl libera, & vitlo carens, 
Ritnfqoe melius vita q\ix prifcos colat, 
Qaam quK reliiflis momibus filvas amat. 
Non ilium ovar^e mentis inflammat foror, 
Qui fe diCBVit montium inronlem jugis; 
Non aura populi, & valgus jnlidum bonis, 
Non pedilens invidia, Don fragiliii favor. 
Non lUc regno fervit; nut regno imminens, 
Vanos honores fequitur, aut fluxas opes; 
Spei metufque liber, haud ilium uiger 
Edaxgue livor dente degeneri petit. 
Nee Icelera populos inter stque urbes fita 
Novit; nee omnes confcius ftrepiEus paveL 
Haud verba lingii. mille non qu^eril legi 
Dives columnis; nee Cnibes multo infolene 
Suffigit auro. non cruor largus pias 
InuDdal aras; fruge nee fparfi facta 
Cenlena nivei coUa fubmittunt bovra: 
Sed rure vacuo potiiur, & aperlo sethere 
Inaocnus etrat, callidaa tanlum feris 
StruxilTe fraude« novit; & fefTus gravi 
Labore, niveo corpus IlitTo fovet 
Nunc ille ripam celens Alphei legit; 
Nunc nemoris alti Hfiifa metatur loca, 
Ubi Lerna puro gclidn pellucct vado; 

unvisited by any noble fleets— the winged aerial denizen 
of the sky would no longer be seen, and the wild animal 
would no more infest forests and the atmosphere would 
be left only for the use of Phoebus and jEolusi What 
different kinds of death take off and snap tjp the human 
racel— the sea-the sword— the poisoned cup! But can it 
-...-. 1 of j;), - ■ 

■ PI 

m 'P. 

be believed that the hand of Destiny is wanting on all 
this that we should seek willingly tne dark realms of 
Pluto — that youth should choose a life of celibacy and 
not propagate the species— this would be the state of 
matters. Wherever inou easiest thy eyes, there would 
only be one generation of every species of anitnality and 
ev«y thing would come to a standstill with their dis- 
appearance from the scene\ ThwefeKifoWQw the dictates 

Li»« 4n-s°7] HIPTOLYTUS. itj 

of nature, the originator of life itself, frequent the cities, 
and cultivate the society of the citizensl 

HIPP. I do not think there is any life which gives one 
more liberty, or one more free from harmful influences, 
than that which inclines one to love the forests, the cities 
being left out of one's calculation— There, no madness of 
a covetous nature assails a man who devote!^ himself, 
interfering with no one, to the mountain fastnesses—he is 
not annoyed there with popular clamor— No vulgar herd 
to practise their treachery upon men of uprightness— no 
wretched envy— no questionable kindness—and what is 
more, he is suoject to no dominations; but he that hangs 
about a Kingdoni, seeks only for empty honors, or the 
amassint; of riches— the denizen of the forest is exempt 
from alternating hopes and fears, nor do the loathsome 
fangs of wicked and voracious envy inflict their wounds 
upon him I Nor has he ever been brought in contact 
with such people as he would find there, nor with the 
villainy they practise, nor docs a troubled conscience 
cause him to fear every popular outbreak 1 Nor has he 
to invent excuses or to tell liesl— like the rich man of 
the cities he does not sigh for a palace supported by a 
thousand columns, nor in his pride, does he adorn his 
palatial ceihngs with a profusion of golden display — nor 
do a hundred snow-white bulls submit their necks to 
the sacrificial knife, and with the ceremonial meal thrown 
over them, to be then ser\-ed up as sacred offerings to 
the Godsl But he enjoys the open plains, and wanders, 
hurling no one— a free man breathing the free air! His 
only knowledge of deception is setting clever snares 
for the wild beasts, ana when, wearied out with his 
hunting exertions, he soothes his tired-out frame by 
bathing in the silvery streams of the Ilissusl Sometimes. 
he chooses the banks of the swiftly-flowing Alpheus; at 
other times, he pitches upon the densest spot in the lofty 
forests for the purpose of laying his snares, and then he 
will shift his scene of operations to where the cool Lema 
is transparent with its crystal streams; here the noisy birds 
give forth their various notes— here behold ancient beeches 
with their branches trembling, whenever struck by the 
slightest puflT oF wind: or sometimes it pleases hun to 
confine himself to the banks of some wandering river, or 
to pass his time in gentle slumber, lying on the naked 
sodl or sometimes a tremendous fountain will pour down 
its rapid streams, or at other times, a swift murmur would 
strike the ear, as the water ran in and out amongst the 
fresh flowers which line the banks, and the fruit wl\w\i 
faUs, blown down by the wind serves to sausty Vtt%\iM'Q^«c 


Sedemiiue nmut. heic aves querulfc fremunl, 
Kamique ventii lene percufTi tremuat, 
Veterefque fugi. juvll aut amol^ vagi 
Prerfide ripas, csefpite aut nudo leves 
DunilTc romnoB, sive foai loigus ciu^ 
Defundit undas; five per ttores novos 
Fugieote dulcis munnurat rivo fonus. 
Excufla Tilvis poma compefcupt hmem: 
El fraga parvis vulfa dumclis, clbos 
Faciles miuinraQl. regios luitus procul 
Eft impetus fugilTe. foHicito bibant 
Auro fuperbi. qunm juvat Duda manu 
Captafle fontemi certior fomtius prcmit 
Secura duro lacmbra vcrfsnicm laro. 
Nod in recelTu Auta & obrcuro improbos 
Queeril cubili, feque muttiplici timeos 
Domo recondit: xlhera ac lucem petit, 
El telle csla vivit. hoc equidem reor 
Vixi{re ritu, prima quos mixtos Deis 
Prorudit xtas. nullus his auri fuil 
Ckcus cupidq. Dullus in campo facer 
Divide agros aibiter populis lapis 
Noadum fecabaat credul^ poDtum rates: 
Saa qaifque narat maria. iion vado nggere 
Crebraque turn cinxerant urbes lalUE. 
Nan atma fsva miles aptabit maoui 
Nee lorta dufas fiegerat faxo gravi 
BatiAa portas; julTa iiec dominum pali 
JuQifio fecebal terra rervitium bovc: 
Sed arva per fe fcela pofceutea niliil 
Pavere gentes. fllva nativas opes, 
Et opaca dederanl antra uativas domos. 
Rupere ficdus impius lucri furor, 
Et im prseceps: quxque fucceafas agit 
Libido menles. venit imperii (itis 
Crnenta. faiilus prjwla mojori minor. 
Pro jure vires eOe, turn primum manu 
Beilare nada: faxaque & rainos nides 
Vetlire in armB. non erat graeili levia 
Armala ferro conius: aut longo iaius 
Mucroae cingens enlis; aut crifta procul 
GaleiE comatjtes. tela faciebal dolor. 

—and the wild strawberries plucked from amongst the 
smaU thickets afford him a very ready means of appeasi 
his appetite — he is possessed of an invincible desire — 
fly from royal luxuries. Kings are at liberty- to quaff their 
wine from the golden goblet, amidst the uncertainties 
which surround royalty, but it delights him to take his 
draught from the nearesv spiing,, fee VqWo-n q^ Via liaod 

Li»j^-s„! HIPPOLYTUS. 219 

seniog him as a drin king-cup— Sleep steals upon the 
fffiiry with greater certain^-, those that commit their limbs 
in security, to a hard bed -The man of the forest does 
noi tquire, as a thief, to hide away his pilferings in some 
sly comer, or obscure place of concealment, and who 
beinK always in fear of detection, shifts his resting-place 
labode] from one locality to another! Nay! he seeks 
only the air and light of fieaven and lives openly, under 
ihe canopy of the skyl Indeed, I suppose during the 
earlier ages, when men mixed up with the gods, they 
lii'ed pretty much in this kind of way. No one, amongst 
such men as those, was led headlong by any desire to 
amass heaps of gold. No stone, held sacred as the land- 
maflL of proprietorship, parcelled out the lands amongst 
tile people (at that time). Venturesome crafts had not at 
such an epoch dared to risk the dangers of the ocean — 
E*erv one knew his own sea— his own surroundings— they 
™d not at that time encompassed their cities and depended 
'ne approaches thereto with vast walls and numerous 
joweis—no soldier sighed to handle the ferocious weapons 
for slaughtering his fellow-man, nor did the battering-ram, 
Qirectetf against closed [jortais, break them open with the 
Hionnous stones which it hurled against them! Nor did 
"le earth demand the necessity for any ploughman to 
Piide the efforts of the yoked oxen! but the people 
demanding nothing but what was necessary for their 
frisience, with no anxious care about agriculture, subsisted 
'n what the fields, fertile of their own accord, afforded 
hem. TTie forests yielded up their native resources, and 
'iiscure grottoes supplied them with habitations; an im- 
ious desire to obtain power then induced them to 
reak treaties, into which thev had solemnly entered 
len heedless rage and the lawless desires which agitated 
e maddened mind, then ensued the sanguinary thirst 
T power— the weaker man fell a prey to the stronger 
le— and instead of law, and justice, strength became 
e prevailing arbiterl then, at first, they fought with the 
deed fists, and when they began to be more civilized, 
ancs and rough cudgels (club-law) served them as weapons 
ith which to conduct their strife. At that time, tnere 
IS no cornel stem, armed with the slender spear, or 
ford with its tapering point attached to the side, or 
ested helmets with their plumes shaken by the agitating 
■eeze— universal rivalry dictated these various instruments 
' destruction. Then warlike Mars discovered fresh devices 
id a thousand different forms of dealing out Death— 
ince, very soon, the blood that was shed stained every 
nd, and uie sea was even reddened by ill Thencfraves 
■ving no bounds, spread into every* dwelling ati4 qo 




E bellici 


Inveoit u 

El mille fonnas n 

Infecit omoes fufiu, & nibuil mare. 

Turn fcelera, dcmlo fine, per cunftaa domos 

lere. nullum coniit ciemplo nefas. 

A fialre fruer, deitera nati pRreas 

Cecidit, maiitus coaJDgis femi jscel, 

PerimuDlquc fielU! impiae matres fuos. 

Tnceo novercas. mitius nil ell feris. 

Sed duH malorum femina. hxc rcelerum aitifex 

Obfedit aoimos, cuius infeftie ftupris 

Fumant tot urbes, bcUa tola gentes geratit, 

Et vecfa ab imo regna tot populos premuot. 

Sileantur alise: fola conjiu jEgxl 

Medea reddit feminas dirum genus. 

NUTK. Car oianium lit culpa paucarom fcflui? 

HlPl'. Deleftor omncs, honeo, fugio, exfecror. 

Sit ratio, fit oatura, lit dims furor: 

OdilTe placiiit. igoibus iunges aquas; 

Et arnica ratibus ante proraittel vada 

loceita Syitis; sate ab eitremo finu 

Hefperia Telliys lucidum allollct diem; 

Et ora damis blonda ptLEbebunl lupi; 

Quam viftus animum femins mitem geram. 

mJTR. Sape obdinatis induit frenos amor, 

Et odia mutaL regna malema afpice. 

Illx feroces fentiuut Veneris jugum. 

Teftaris ihud unicus gcntis puer. 

HIPP. Solimen uduid matrls amiJTx fero, 

OdilTe quod jam feminas omues licet. 

NUTR. Ul dura cautes undique intmiftabilis 

RefiniE undis, & laceOentes aquas 

Longe temittit, verba fie fperuit mea. 

Sed Phffidra prreceps graditur, impaliens mora;. 

Quo fe dabii fonuna? quo verget furor? 

Terrx repente corpus CKaaimum accidit, 

Et ore moni fimilis obduxit color. 

Altolle vultus, dimove vocis moras; 

Tuus en, aiumoa, leniet Hippolytus tenet. 

crime was committed thai had not a. precedent I Brother 
slew brother, and parent fell by the right hand of son. 
hushand lay prostrate by the sword of a wife, and impious 
mothers destroyed their own offspring— I will be silent 
about stepmothers, nothing is less cruel even amongst the 
wild beasts! But a. woman is the leader of alUmischief 
— this architect of crimes besieges the minds of mankind 
in consequence of whose adulteries, entire cities have 
been noted incestuous and have been burnt to the ground 
Many nations wage war on few accoMW, — * ^' — ' 

thus cast down from ti'.cir !....-: :.'..•,■ •_'.■.- 

so many peoples! Let no mention ut made oi outers, 
Medea to wit, the wife of iCgeus, is saffident to malu;, 
through her acts, the whole race of womankind dctestaMe ! 

NUR. Why should the crimes of the few be construed 

as the sins of the many. 

HIPP. I detest them all, I dread them, I avoid then^ I 
curse their very existence ! HTiatever the reason may be, 
whether it is my nature to do so, or whether it be some 
inexplicable madness (on my part), it nevertheless pleases 
me to hate them I Thou mayst attempt to amalgamate fire 
and water, or rather reckon upon a favorable voyage for 
thy crafts over the treacherous sands of the S>Ttes, or 
rather that the Hesperian Tethys should expect the god 
of li^ht (Phoebus) to reverse his chariot, and cause the sun 
to nse at the western extremity of his journey! And the 
rapacious wolf will learn to eaze with absolute affection 
upon the timid deer— when i am so for subdued as to 
entertain a mild feeling towards womankind. 

NUR. Love often breaks in obstinate rebellious hearts 
and changes their hatred into the tender passion—Think 
of thy mother's kingdom, the ferocious Amazonian women 
feel the force of love— Thou (a boy) the only remaining 
male descendant of that race art a living proof! 

HIPP. This consolation, the only one I retain for my 
having lost my mother, is that I am now able to hate 
all women! 

NUR. As the rugged rock remains on all sides, obdurate 
to the waves beating against it, and repels to a distance 
the waters which become fairly weary of their task (making 
no impression on the said rocks), so does Hippolytus turn 
back (reject) my appeal, but Phaedra impatient of delay 
abruptly advances (exclaiming). What chance will bring 
Hippolytus here? Where will her mad resolution lead her? 
On a sudden she falls to the ground like a dead person, 
and a death-like pallor comes over her face! Raise thy 
eyes, look at me, speak quickly, behold! my nurse-chilcl, 
thy own Hippolytus ! Tis Hippolytus himself who holds 
thee in his arms! (This is said to rouse Phaedra out of 
her swoyn.) 




PH. V_^t-is me dolori icddit, aLque xSbis graves 

Reponlt animo? quam bene eicideram mihi ? 

Cue dalce maiius reddiU: !aci$ fugis? 

Aude, animc. lenla. pciage mandarum tuum. 

Intrepida coonenl verba, qui limide rogau 

Docet Dcgare. magna pars fctlerU mei 

Olim perafia eft Tenu clt nobis pudor 

Amavimus neranda. fi ccepca exfeqnor, 

Forfan jugali crimen abrcaodam fic:. 

Honena quxdam fcelera fuccclTiu facit. 

Eq, incipe, anime. commodes paalum. prccor, 

SecrMus aures. fi quis ell, abeal, comes. 

HIFP. Ea, locus ab omni liber arbibio vacat. 

PH. Sed ora cceptis tranfitum verbis negaut. 

Vis magna. Tocem emittil, at major lenel. 

Vos icftor omnes, cccliles, hoc, quod volo. 

Me nolle. 

HIFF. Animufne cupiens aliquid efTari nequil? 

PH. Curat leves loquunlur. ingentcs (lupeol. 

HIPP. Commitle curas anribus, maler, meis. 

PH. Mstris ruperbuin ed nomea, & oimium polens. 

Noftros humitius nomcn offeflus Jteet. 

Me vel rarorem, Hippoljle, vel famulam voca: 

Famulamque poltus. omne rervitinm feram. 

Non roe, per alln ire fi jubeas nives, 

Pigeal gelalis ingrcdi Pindi jugis: 


They all try lo overcome the virtue of Hippolytus, but 
without success; they have recourse to deceit and 

WHO is it that is restoring me to mv old ancuish 
(now that I am coining lo) and is bringing Dack 
the dreadful tumultuosities which agitate my soul? 
How well it was, when my senses had left rue (alluding 
to the swoon and the mental respite it had affordcdi 
Take couragel ohi my soul; !et me try my utmost! 


i-«mJ hippolvtus. 

I Why do I refuse the welcome arrival of ligh^ shining as 
\ it were on a dark place (alluding to the arrival of Hip- 
■ polytus who is standing by)? Let me carry out the task 
I already determined upon I (To the Nurse) Courageous 
I words wilt often succeed! Whilst they who titnidiv appeal, 
I only tacitly ask for a rude repulse!— I am the chief per- 
I foriner in this drama of crime, and it has already been 
F, half enacted, any reluctant feelings on ray part are now 
I too late for me to be showing! I have chosen to love 
* in a criminal manner, and if I persevere as I commenced, 
' perhaps! who knows? 1 shall be able to neutralize the 
crime after all, with the kindlv aid of the marriage knot 
(that is if Theseus does not Velum, Hippolvlus may be 
induced to marry me). Success we all know some times 
makes even certain downright crimes wear the appearance 
of glorious deeds! Now let me begin. But on! for the 
courage to do sol Give me a hearing, Hippotytus. I 
pray Tor a short time! but alone— if there be any com- 
panion or attendant near, let him go away! 

spot which is free from any 

PH. But my tongue forbids me to utter what I wani 
to say, just as I am about to begin— Great exertion 
enables me to speak, but a stronger power chokes my 
utterance— I call all the heavenly gods to witness this' 
do not thou be unwilling to grant me what I crave. ' 

HIPP. Let not the heart desire anything which cannot 
find language to express what is the ihing that is sought fori 

PH. Trivial matters are easily spoken of, but those of 
overwhelming concern are difficult to approach 1 

HIPP. Trust thy cares to my ears, mother! 

PH That name of mother, Hippolytus. is no doubt a 
proud one, but from thy Ims it sounds too 
for me a milder name woufd represent my love towards 
thee, Hippolytus. Call me sister, Ph^dra. or slave an v 
name but mo lher-1 prefer the word slave-as l" will 
render to Ihee all the duties of a slave; it would not 
distress me, if thou shouldst command me to walk in the 

i!Xf norTfTh" "''■"J' '^' ^^''^^" mountain sides'of 
I'mdus, nor if diou orderedst me to pass through thp 
wluNf ^h^iH^K^ the hostile battalions '^in batde^™ 
would I hold back, from presenting this breast of miV?^ 
to the pointed sword! Accept the .Lone wS "haS bl 




Noti, fi per ignes ire & iDfeda agminii, 

Cunfler pirfllis enfibus peflus dare, 

Mandati recipe fceptrft; me fimulam itccjpe. 

Te imperia reec"i '"^ decei jufli exfequi. 

Muliebre non eft regna tutnri urbiuni. 

Tu, qui JDVeutie llote primxvQ r'lges, 

Civei palerno forlis imperio rege. 

Sinu reccptam, fupjilicem, ac fervnm Icee. 

Mifererc viduae. HIPP. .Suramus hoc omen Deus 

Avertat. aderil fofpes aiflulum parens 

PH. Regni lenacis dominu^, & lacitx ^lygis, 

NuUaiD relii^os fecit ad fuperoi viam. 

Thalami remittet ille raptorem Tui? 

Nifi forle aniori placidus & Pluton fedel. 

HIPP. HIuiD quidem xqui ccelltes reducem dabunt. 

Sed, dum tenehil vola in incerto Deus, 

Pietitte caros dcbita fmtres coIdiii, 

Et te merebor; elTe ae viduam putes: 

Ac tibi pareutiii ipfe fupplebo locum 

PH. O Tpes amanlum credulu! o fallax amor! 

Satifae dixit? precibus admolis agam. 

Miferere. tacitx mentis exsudi preces. 

Libet loaui, pigelque. HIPP. Quadnam iftud malum 

PH. Quod ia Dovercom cadere rin credas malum. 

HIPP. Ambigua voce verba perplejia jacis; 

EITaie apette. PH. Pe£lus iafanum vapor 

Amorque (orret. inCimos fiCvus vorat 

Penitus medullas, alquc per venas meat 

Vircoibus ignis tnenua & venis lateos, 

Ut agilts alias Ramma pcrcurrit trabes. 

HIPP. Amore nempe TKefei cafto furi*. 

PH. Hippoljle, fie eft: Thefei vultus amo 

Titos priores, quo: lulit quondam puer; 

handed over to thee, and accept me as a wiUing slarat' 
It is only right that thou shouldst rule the kingdom, and 
that I should obey thy commands— it is not a woman's 
duty to undertake the sovereign power over the cities. 
Thou who art in the very prime of youthful manhood, 
and vigor, and brave withal, do thyself govern ttic 
citizens in thy father's Kingdom 1 Protect me as ihy 
humble suppliant servant, whom I pray thee, to receive 
into thy bosom (the bosom of protection not of love), 
pity me a widow! 

HIPP. May the chief of the Gods avert such a predic- 
tion from being verified (that Phxdra should be a widoir); 
my parent will soon return in safety. 

PH. The monarch o( Aai V^TO^.Aoia, which keeps a 

Lines 6.5-647] HIPPOLYTUS. 225 

tenacious grasp on its subjects, and the ruler of the silent 
St}Tc— has not ordained for them a way back to the 
earth above, when once they have quitted it, and it is 
not likely that he will release those who meditated the 
capture of his spouse unless, indeed, Pluto is indulgent 
and inclined to connive at the daring amour of the 
ravisher I 

HIPP. The Gods of heaven, more favorable, however, 
will allow him to return, but whilst they may be regarding 
his wishes as uncertain^ I will take charge of my dear 
t>rothers with that affection which I ought to show them, 
*nd let my reward be, that thou wilt no longer consider 
^hjrself a widow, as I will myself fill up tne place of 
^eir absent parent. 

PH. Oh ! the clin^ng hope of credulous love ! Oh I the 
Jj>ve that is playing witSi my affection! Have I not 
declared myself sufncientiy, I will approach thee once 
'^ore with my entreaties I Pity me, listen to the prayers 
^f a heart that dares not to speak out ! I woula speak 
?^ore plainly but I cannot ! it grieves me to confess what 
I feel! 

HIPP. What is the evil which troubles thee in this 

PH. An evil which thou wouldst scarcely believe could 
oefall any stepmother! love for her step-son! 

HIPP. Thou throwest out puzzling expressions, in such 
ambiguous language too, speak out openly. 

PH. The fire of my passionate love is burning within 
my maddened breast, and with its cruel fiames, it is 
consuming the very marrow of my bones, and traverses 
the innermost blood-vessels of my body, and that latent 
fire descends to my very entrails and courses through the 
deeply-seated veins, just as the active flames capriciously 
ascend, till they reach the lofty ceilings! 

HIPP. Thou art raving now, of course — in consequence 
of the chaste love thou nast for Theseus. 

PH. The fact of the matter, Hippolytus is this (when I 
gaze on thee) I look back with aamiration on the face of 
Theseus, which he had in davs gone by, that face which 
he had when a boy, when tne incipient beard began to 
show itself on his cheeks in the freshness of his yow\!tv 


Cum prima puras barbn llgnnret genas, 

Monftrique cecaro Gnoffii vidil domuni, 

El longa curva fila collcgit via. 

Quis turn ille fDlfil! prelTeTaDt viltx comam, 

El ora Savus teneriL liugebat rubor. 

iDcrsnt laceitia moUibus fortes tori : 

Tuieve Phcehes vultus, aut PhtEbi mei; 

Tuufque poliua: talis, en, talis Tuil, 

Cum placuil hnfli. Tic tulit celfuin caput. 

In te mngis refulget incomlua decor, 

El eenilor in te lotus; S: torva tamen 

Pars aliqua matris mifcel ei aequo decus. 

In ore Grajo Scythicns apparet rigor. 

Si cum parente Creticum intralTes frctum, 

Tibi lila poliua nollra DeTifTet foror. 

Te, te, foror, quacunque fiderei poti 

In pule fulges, invoco nd caufam porem. 

Doinus forores una corripuit duas; 

Te genilor, at me natuE. en, fupplex jacet 

Allapfa genubua regiic proles domus. 

Kerperfa labe nulla, & intaft^ innoceos; 

Tibi routoT uni. certa defcendi od preces. 

Fioem hie dotori faciei, nul vitx dies. 

Miferere amantis. Hll'P. Mague regnotor Dedm, 

Tam leotus audis fcelera? lam lenlus vides? 

Ecquando fxva fulmen emitles mana. 

Si nunc ferenum efli omnis impulfus mat 

j^ther, & atria □ubibu.'i condal diem; 

Ac verfa retro fidera obliquos agont 

Retorta curfus. tuque fidereum caput 

Radiate, lanlumoe ncfaa ilirpis tuje 

Speculeref lucem merge, & in leuebras fuge. 

Cur dextra, DivQm reftor alque homiuum, vocot 

Tua, nee trifalca roundus ardefcit face? 

In me looa. me lige. me velox cremet 

TnmfaAus ignis, fum nocens. merui mori. 

Placui novercK, dignus en ftupris ego 

Scelercque lanto vifusf ego folus tibi 

and innocence, when he iirst caught sight of the hidden 
home of the Gnossian Monster (the Minotaur) and when 
he gathered up Ihe clue (the threads) which giiided his 
steps along the winding paths of the Labyrinihl How 
radiant he looked at that time I Delicate wreaths confined 
his locks, and carnation hues pervaded his tender cheeks, 
but powerful muscles lay beneath the soft skin of his 
arms! Were his features (let me think) those of thy be- 
loved Phtebe, .or of my progenitor Phoebus, or rather 
thy own, yes! just thy own, as they were, when he first 
found favor with tVie daugVvleT (,^T\a.^iBe1 of his enemy 

un« 6,g-6Bsi HIPPOLYTUS. W7 

Minos— Just like thee, he posed his lofrr Ik*<1. bu there 
is a natural-bom altractivencs tD thee, which shows to 

greater advantage (more than what ail caa sapph), bat 
)ere is all the "father" nevertheleas, about ineie. yet 
some portion of the strikiRf; dignity tbou po«e»ot is 
obviously traceable, cquaDy to thy tarag^ Qneen-Hotbcr 
A nti ope— thy countenance combines the stem pbraocnomy 
of the Scythian with the delicate contoor ol tae Greek ! 
If thou hadst set out for the Cretan Sea, with thy parent, 
my sister (Ariadne) could rather hare spun those faul 
threads (the clue) for thee 1 Oh ! ihoa sister of mine, m 
whatever part of the starry heavens thou mayst be shining, 
I invoke thee to aid my cause so similar to thine own! 
One race has wrecked the happiness of two sisters, thou 
lovest the father— and I love the son! Behold! the off- 
spring of a royal line of ancestors supplianilr approaches 
thee on her bended knees — contammated by no crinKL 
my virtue still intact, spotless in purity! I am changed 
from all this, as regards thee alone! Confident of my 
success. 1 have himiiliated myself In- vain entreaties!— 
This day shall either release me of this consuming ijassion 
or there shall be an end of tny existence. Do pity the 
loving woman at thy feel! 

HIPP. Ohl great ruler of the Gods, with what slowness 
do crimes reach thy ears, with what tardiness dost thou 
take cognizance of them ! Why wilt thou not send forth 
thy lightnings with thy terrible hand, even if it be quite 
serenely disposed at this present moment? Let the entire 
sky fall with the shock of the power and shut out the 
light with the blackest of clouds and let the stars, driven 
back, perform their oblique functions in an opposite 
direction! And thou CPh<£bus) the head and chief of the 
starry throng— thou grand luminary— wilt thou not take 
notice of this terrible wickedness in one of thy race and 
lest thou shouldst see it, drown ihe day itself and retire 
into thy self-created darkness! Why. ohl thou ruler of 
the Gods and men, is thy right hand withheld, and why 
is not the world set on fire by thy three-forked light- 
nings! Visit me with thy lightnings, let me be singled 
out for thy violent shocks— let thy swift fires pass through 
and consume me forthwith 1 I am a guilty wretch and 
deserve to die— I have inspired my stepmother with 
criminal desires! Behold! Shall I live to be regarded 
as an object for lustful passion and as one capal^le of 
countenancing such horrible impiety? Oh! why was it 
that 1 should have been selected as a ready target for thy 
crime? Has my religious austerity, as regards women, 
deserved all this? On, for that entire fema\c pqtUot\ o^ 


? hoc mcus meruit rigor? 
O fcelere viaccas omne remiacum genus! 
O majua aufa malrc monflrirera malum, 
Cenilrice pejor! ilia fe tanlum Oupro 

Conlamiiuivit, Sc tamen ticitum diu 69D 

Crimen biformi partus cxhjbuit nota, 
Scelufijue malris arguil vultu truci 
Ambiguus infaos. ilk le venter tulil. 
O ler qunlerque piofpero fnlo da.ii, 

Quoa haufit, & peremjt, & leto iledit £95 

Odium, ilolufque ! genilor, invideo tibi. 
Colchide noverca mnjus hoc, majus mnlum eft. 
I'K. Et ipfa DodcxF fata cognofco domus: 
Fugieoda pelimus. fed mei non fum poleos. 

Te vcl per igncs, per mare iufanum fequar, Jtn 

Rupefqne, & amnes, unda quos lorreus rapit 
Quacunque erelTus tuleris, bac ameos agar. 
Iterum, fuperbe, genubu>< advolvor luia. 
HIPP. Procul Impudicos corpore a caflo amove 
Taflus. quid boc eft? eliam in amplexus nllt? joj 

Stringalur cans, merita fupplida exigal. 
En, impudicum criae contorto cuput 
Lseva rellexi. juftior nunquam focis 
Datus tuis eft fanguis, arciteneus Dea. 

PH. Hippolyte, DUoc me compolem voti facis. JK 

Sanas furentem. majus hoc voto lueo eft. 
Salvo u[ pudore monibus immoriai' tuis. 
HIPP. Abfcede. vive. ne quid cuores; & hie 
Conlaflns enfis defernt caftum latus. 

Quis einet me Tiuiaia? aut qua: barbniis yij 

Mxotis undis PonCico iaeumbens mail? 
Non ipfe toto magnus Qccano paler 
Tantum cxpiarit fceleris, o filvit o fcne! 
Ntrm. Deprenfa culpa cfl. anime, quid fcgnis ftupesf 
Regeramus ipfi crimen, atque ultro impiam 71c 

Venerem arguamus. fcclere velandum eftt fcelus. 

the universe that subdue mankind by their insidious 
conquests! Ohl Crime greater than that conmnitted by 
Pasiphae, that monster-bearing motherl Worse art thou 
than that motherl She defiled herself with adultery only! 
and however the crime was hidden for a long time, tne 
parturition proclaimed the shoi-kinf; deed, in the two-formed 
being which revealed her infamy! And an ambiguous 
infant with, the horrible visage of a bull set the matter 
at rest! She bore thee in the same womb! Oh! thrice 
and four times blessed are those handed over to a more 
fortunate fate, whom the hatred and treachery of Step- 
mothers have wounded, nimcd and feT\^a?i -^va. qui of ne 


world 1 Oh! my father 1 I envy thee CTcn! Thi* crime 
is worse than was that of such stepnicithen as the 
Cokhian Medea with the poisoned bowl! It b a greater 
calamity this one (for mei to be ensnared hy the mys- 
terious love of a atcpmolher! 

PH. And I myself am not unacquainted with the des- 
tinies of our race— we always seek to gain what ou^n 
to be avoided; but although 1 am not powerful in myself, 
yet I will follow thee through fire, across the tempes- 
tuous sea, over rocks and rivers, which are convened mto 
absolute torrents, with their impetuosity I Wherever thou 
wendest thy way, I shall be madly led on (by my love 
for thee) and be constantly at thy side! Oh! proud man 
thou, for the second time I turn towards thee and cling 
myself around thy knees! 

HIPP. WTiat is this ? (retreating a little) Remove the con- 
tact of thy adulterous self from my chaste person ! Let 
go I Why, she is actually embracing me! Let my sword 
quit is scabbard, it must exact condign punishmenll 
(seiiiine Phxdra) Look, with these curled locks which 
1 am Holding in my left hand, I have bent back thy 
adulterous head (Phxdra shows an up-turned face) and 
never could blood have been offered at thy altars with 
greater justification, oh! quiver-bearing Diana! (This was 
also an epithet applied to Apollo,) 

FH. Hippolytus, thou art now making me a participa- 
trix in thy desires, thou art curing me of my madness, 
and thy act exceeds any previous wish of mine : it is this. 
that I should die by thy hands, with my chastity unsullied! 

HIPP. Go away, live, ask for nothing at my hands, and 
this blade of mme alter having been in contact merely 
with thy adulterous body, shall never more hang from 
my side, hitherto innocent of all inchastitj! WhatTanais 
(a river in Scythia) shall purge me of all this? or what 
marshy Mseotis stretching with its sluggish waters into the 
Euxine Sea? Nor even the great father hjmself of the 
entire ocean world (Neptune) could cleanse me from this 
foul contaminadon ! OIJ! for the forests then! Ohl for 
the wild beasts to fall back upon (as a means of my 

NUR. This criminal plot of ours is completely seen 
through by Hippolytus! Why should I hesitate what to do? 
Ohl happy thought of mine! 1 must fasten Vhe CT\mc Qtv 
Hippolytus and give out thai he on his own accord, tciade 


TutirTimum ed infeire, cum limeiis, gradum. 
Aufx priores fimus, an palTx nefm, 
Recrela cum ill culpn, quis leftis fcict! 
AdeAe, AihcDie: lidii famuloriLin tnanits, 
Fer opem: neraadi raptor Hippolj^lus nupri 
Inflst, premiCque. mortis mtenlat metum. 
Ferro podicam lerrcl. en, praceps abiil, 
Enfemque trepida liquit atlonitus fuga. 
Fignas tenemus fceleris. Hanc ninef\am prius 
Recreate. cTiais lmiflu<i, & lacenc comiE. 
Ut funt, remaDEant, faeinoris tanli noise. 
Rererte in urbem. Recipe jam renfuii, hera. 
Quid U ipra lacerans omnium arpctflum Tugis^ 
Meos impudicani fncere, noo caAis, Tolet 

X uciT infanx Umilis procellx, 
Ocior nubes glomeranle Coro, 
Ocior curfum rapientc flaTDma, 
Stelk cum ventiii agitata loagos 
PorHgit ignea. 

CoDfumt tecum decus omiiE prifcum 
Fama, mirntris rcnioris tevi: 
Pulchrior tanto lua forma lucet, 
Clarior quanto micat orbe pleiio, 
Cum fuo^ ignes coeunte comu 
Jtiiuit, 8c curru properante pernox 
Exferit Tultus rubicunda Plirfbe; 
Ncc tenent HcIIk faciem mjuores. 
Qnalis efl primas referens tenebras 
NuQtius nodtis, modo totui undii! 
Hefpenis, pulfis iterum lenebris 
Lucifer idem. 

the lustful advances and importuned Phaidra with his 
unlawful love, and our crime must be glossed over by 
charging him with il— it is the safest plan we can act 
upon; whilst any apprehension has possession of us, we 
must take the initiative or we may be the sufferers for 
this crime ourselves ! When the crime is more shrouded 
in secrecy who can possibly appear as a witness to what 
he has never seen? (the Nurse then cries out) Athenisns, 
come hither, ye faithful band of servitors, helpl help! 
This ravisher, Hippolylus, is "raVeuV oTvtQvnvftWCmt^Taaat 

tine act of adultery on the Queen— he is urging his 
nal suit, and actually threatens her with the fear of 
death — he is intimidating her to yield up her virtue, with 
this wicked sword I Look there, he ia running away pre- 
cipitately, and being somewhat taken aback at the Queen's 
determined resistance, has left his sword behind, in his 
hurried escape I We must preserve this sword as a memento 
of Ihe crime! But first of all let us soothe this sad 
sufferer! (meaning Phiedra) {Then addressing the Queen 
she says) Let thy locks hang down in a slate of disorder, 
let them remain rumpled as they are. as positive indica- 
tions of such a criminal outrage (on the part of the 
ravisher) — Go into the city, Mistress, and spread the report 
far and wide, and then thou canst collect thy faculties 
somewhati why shouldst thou be tearing away at thyself 
and avoid the gaze of every one? It is the consent to do 
evil that constitutes a woman's criminality, but not the 
mere accident of having been exposed to its danger I 


le Chorus prays that Beauty, which has been a source 
of destruction to many, should turn out favorably as | 
regards Hippolytus. Tney look forward to the return | 
of Theseus 1 

Hiri'oLVTUs flies into the woods, with the velocity of I 
the angry tempest, more rapidly than any north- t 
west wmd gathering together the clouds it meets 
with and driving them before it^more Cjuickly than the 
flash pursuing its way, when a star disturbed by the 
storm, shoots forth its light along an extended tractl 
Reputation, that ardent admirer of the great and heroic 
who figured in bygone times, wilt compare their an- 
cient deeds by the side of thine— for example, thy face ' 
will be lauded to the skies, as more beautiful than all . 
others, in the same proportion as the moon shinei 
more brightly in the plenitude of her brilliancy, than 
the minor sources of light (the stars) when blushing 
Phtube' approximates the two extremities of her luminous 
disc {in other words, when her comua meet and she 
becomes the full moon) and when reclining in her hasten- 
ing chariot she shows her bright visage the whole night 
through ! nor can the minor stars at that time maintain 
their usual brilliance! Just like thy beauty, is the mes- 
senger of night (Hesperus) which ushers in the approach- 
ing period of darkness (night) quite lately refreshed bj 
its near contact with the seal (The andeixta \\\omi" ' 


El lu ihyrligna Liber b1> India, 
Intonla juvenis perpetuum coma, 
Tigies pampiaea cufpide tenitaus, 
Ac mitra cohibens coratgefum caput, 
Nod Tinccs rigidos Hippolyti comu. 
Nee vnllus nimium fuljiiciaii luos, 
Omnes per populos fabuU ilidulit, 
PhidnE quem Bromio prffituleril foror. 
Anceps foimn bonuoi morulibus, 
Exigui doQum breve teroporis, 
Ut relox celeri pede labo'isl 
Non fie pmta novo vcre decentia 
^llalxs calidse defpolial vapor, 
.Sxvit foinitio cum medium dies, 
El noiSem brevibui pnccipitnl rotis; 
Languefomt folio lilia pollido. 
Et graLa: capiti delicLunI rofa:; 
Ut fulgor, leneris qui nwlial genis, 
Momenlo rapitur! oullaque non dies 
Forttiofi fpolium corporis abflulil. 
Res ed fonna fugax. quis fapiens bono 
Confidal fragili? dam licet, ntcre. 
Tempus te lacilum fubruel, horaque 
Semper prxterita deterior fubil. 
Quid dejena pelis? tutior avijs 
Non en forma locis, te neinore abdito, 
Cum Titan medium coDHituit diem, 
Cinget turba licens, Naide<> improbx, 
t'ormofos folilic cUuderc footibus: 
Et fomnis facienl iafidias tuis 
Lafcivx nemorum Dex, 
Monlivagiquc Panes. 
Aut IB ftlellirero defpiciens polo 
Sid us, pod vetetea Arcadas editum, 
Currus non poteril Heiflere candidos. 
Et nnper rubuil; nullaque lucidis 
Nobes fordidlor vullibus obllitil. 

that tbe stars and heavenly bodies derived nourishmeat 
from moistening influences) and by and bye, under the 
name of Lucifer, announces the amval of bright day (the 
darkness being then driven away)— and thou, Bacchus. 
returned from thy Indian travels where thou taughtest 
the people to carry the thyrsus like thyself, thou, the youth, 

with his looks perpetually worn long, scaring the very 
tigers with thy spear bound around with vine leaves, and 
wearing a turban (the oriental headgear) on thy horn- 
bearing head, thou wilt never surpass the severe locks 
of Hippolytus, and for that reason, do not think too 
"imiringly of thy own appeaianceX T\« &ot^ Vas gme 


Lines 753-789] HIPPOLYTUS. 233 

^orth, amongst all the peoples, how the sister of Phaedra 
look a fancy to Bacchus (Bromius was a surname of 
^acchus). Beauty after all is a very questionable gift from 
^e gods to us poor mortals, a gift which lasts only a 
short time I Oh ! Beauty, how quickly thou passest awav I 
*^ith what rapid steps! Less rapidly, indeed, does tne 
^eats of a scorching summer bum up the meadows which 
looked— ah! so inviting at the coming of spring; not more 
^ily either when the middle of the day grows oppres- 
sive with the Sim right over our heads, and when night 
'^ shortened by the changjing of the chariots— not more 
^^ily do the lilies fade with their color-forsaken leaves, 
^^r are the scarce roses (wreaths) more welcome for the 
?^omation of the heads of the wearers I How! beauty 
^kich brightens up and vivifies the tender cheek, is 
^^atched from its possessor in a second! And there is 
^Dt a single day ot our lives, that does not filch away a 
Portion of our ephemeral comeliness, of which, too, the 
^ody is so proud! Beauty is a fleeting possession. What 
Mnse man places any dependence on frail beauty only? 
^hile it does last, however, use it as an advantageous 
gift! The ravages of silent time will conquer thee, and 
^ach hour that slips along is followed bv another, which 
perpetuates the process of decay! Why dost thou go 
m quest of deserted places? Beauty is not more secure 
against attack, because the places are lonely and inac- 
cessible ! If thou hidest thyself in a shady wood of the 
densest grove, for a mid-day snooze, when the sun has 
arrived at his Meridian (noon) some lascivious troop 
will spy thee out and surround thee with their emulating 
allurements— the saucy Naiades, who are accustomed to 
confine in their streams those who possess youth and 
beauty, and the lustful goddesses of the grove (the Dryades) 
will stealthily approach thee in thy slumbers and the 
mountain-roaming Fauni (Panes, from the God Pan) or 
some Luminary gazing at thee with admiration from 
out of the starry neavens (Phoebe as she admired Endy- 
mion) of newer origin than the ancient inhabitants of 
Arcadia, will err in guiding as usual her silver chariot, and 
then blush (in her modesty) at the cause of the inter- 
ruption! For no dull cloua was it that interfered with 
her bright visage! Bfit we are concerned at the sight of 
the dimmed luminary, and thinking that was to be traced 
to the Thessalian incantations and that the magicians 
had induced her to visit the Earth, we listened for the 
tinklings (the sounds produced by their brass cymbals) 
— thou wast the object that attracted her, and the cause 
of die chariot's delay. Whilst the goddess watches thee 
at night she slackens her rapid pace! Let iVie seaTc\\m^ 



At nos fpUiciti luminc turhido, 
Traaam ThelTalicis carminibus rati, 
Tinaitus dedimus. tu fucras la1>or, 
El tu caufa monc. le Dea nod^ium 
Dum fpeiilal, eeleras fuftinuil vias. 
Vcxent hnnc faciem frigora parcius, 
Hsec folem facies larius appelnt, 
Lucebil Pario mamiore clariuE. 
Quam ETflla eft facics torva viciliter, 
E( pODdus vetcris uMe fuperciiiil 
Itio-bo colla licet fplendida complies: 
lUuro csraries, nefcia coUigi 
Perfundens humerus, omal & lat^U; 
Te {tods hirtn decet, te brevior comn 
Nulla lege jocens. lu licel nrpGros 
Pugnncefque Deos iriribus arctsu, 
Er vafti fpaiio viocere corporis, 
j&]uiis Herculeos jam juvenis Ifiroi, 
Martis belligeri peiflore latior. 
Si dorfo lilwal cornijicdis vehi; 
Frenis Cadorea mobilior manu 
SpartaDum poteris fleftere Cyllaran. 
Amenlum digilis tende prioribus, 
Et lotls jsculum dirige viribus; 
Tarn loDge, dociles Ipicula Rgere. 
Non millcDt gracilem Crctes arundineni. 
Aul fi tela modo fpargere Parthico 
In coslum placeat; nulla fine alile 
Defceadent, lepido vifcere condita: 
Pnedam de medjis nubibus afferes. 
Rnris forma viris (fecula proriiicej 
Impuuita fuit. te meliur Deus 
Tulum pttptcreai, formaque nohilis 
Dcfuntiis feaii taouflrel imaginem. 
Quid llnat iaaufum fetninic pneceps furor! 
Nefendi juveni crimina infonti paral. 
En fcelera, qaeeril criae lacerato fideni. 
Decus omne lurliat capitis, humei^at genas. 
lollruitur onmiK froude femineii dolus. 
Sed i(le quifiuuD eft, regium in vultu decu.s 
Gerens, S alto vertice nltoUens caputs 
Ul ora juveni paria Pirithoo gerilt 
Ni lao^uida cmdnre pallerent geuie, 
Slarelque lefla fquollor incultua comn. 
Ed, ipfe Thefeus redditus lerris adeA. 

cold be more merciful to such a face, let that face avoid 
^^ sun's srorchitiE rays as much as possible, and il 
II _!.:.._ f_:___ . _.. .1 ., ^^},jtg^[ i>arian marble-How 

(o behold is thv 

1 ^atfe, NnvK vhv manly 

bearing, and gravity and majesty of ihy noble brow ! we 
can really compare thy magtiificent and stately neck 
with that of Apollo himself. Thy hair, which is never 
gathered up, but droops down ^acefully over thy 
shoulders, which, whilst it adorns it, conceals in some 
measure the hairy visage, becomes thee, and thy locks 
shortened somewhat, hanging down carelessly and not in- 
terfered with by the hands of Art— it will be possible for 
thee to put to rout troublesome and lightahle demi-gods 
with thy strength, and to overcome them with thy wonder- 
ful expanse of body; although ouite a youth, thou art a 
match for a Hercules as regards muscles, and broader 
than the fighting God Mars about the chest, and if it 

g leased thee to mount the courser thou wouldst bring the 
partan Cyllarus (a horse given to Castor by Jupiter, and 
wnich Neptune had given to Jupiter) into better subjection 
and hold the bridle with a more masterful hand than 
Castor himself. Stretch the bowstring with th^ strong 
fingers, and shoot forth the dart with all thy might, and 
the most skilful archers of Crete could not hurl the 
slender arrow, or throw the javelin, as far as thou coutdst; 
or if it pleased thee to aim at any object in the sky. 
after the manner of the Parthians, thy arrow would 
impinge its mark and would not descend to the Karth 
minus the bird it had struck, the arrow indeed having 
searched out its warm entrails 1 They will bring thee a 
prize home some day from the midst of the clouds— 
beauty has been a harmless gift to very few men ; however, 
we shall see later on— may a propiHous deity pass thee 
over in that respect, and may thy noble appearance last 
thee unimpaired up to the threshold of old age I To what 
(unattempted ever before) deed will not the headlong 
passion of a frenzied woman lead her? Here a woman 
devises an abominable crime should be committed by an 
innocent youth— oh what shocking wickednessi she is 
raving now about his crime (as she calls it) and expects 
to be believed with her hair all dishevelled; she disturbs 
the arrangement of every ornamental appendage about 
her head and manages to deluge her false cheeks with 
tears! Every thing calculated to make good her story is 
brought into requisition by this woman s cunning! But 
hark I who is that coming with the look of unmistakable 
majesty about him, ana poising his head with a lofty 
carriage! How much he bears the appearance of that 
companion of his youth, Pirithotis! But his cheeks are 
pale with a sickly kind of whiteness (care-worn pallor), 
and he stands forth with his bristly hair and his entire 
person dirty and repulsive-looking from neglect! Behold^ 
Theseus himself is here, returned to the l£a.n\v ai. \aa\\ 




Reverfus ab infFris Thercus domcHici laflos canram a nmi 
obvia fcifcitatuT. lUa Ce boc umlum (ciie lefpoDitct, 
Phxdiain neds canriliam iniilTe. 

THE2. JL ANDEK profugi Doclis xttmx plagam, 

Valloque mauej carcere ombninteni polum. 

Ut vU cupiCum TulTerual ocuU djem! 

Jam quarts. EleufiD dona Triplolemi fecaL, 

Paremque toties Libra compofuil diem; 

Ambiguus at me fonU ignoCe labor 

Deliauil inl^r monis & vila: mala. 

Pan una virx maufit eiftinifto mihi 

Seofus malorum. Rnis Alcides fuit. 

Qui cum reviilfum Tarlaro extrahereT catieni., 

Mc quoque fupenus pariicr ad feiea tullL 
Sed fella virtas robore antjquo caret, 
Trepidanlque grefTus. heu, labor qaanlus Tuil 
Phlegethoule ab imo pelcte longinquum mliEia, 
Parilerquc morlein Cagere, & Alddem fequi! 
Quis (remilus aures llebilis pepulit meas? 
Expromac aliquU. luAui, & lacrim^ & dolor, 
Iq limine ipfo mtpfta laraentalio, 
llofpitia digna piorfus infemo hofpite. 
HUTU. Tenet obllioaluro Phiedra confdium necis, 
Flelufque noflros fpemit. ac morti imminel. 
TllES. Qux caufa leli? reduce cur moritur virn^ 
MiTk. H:ec ipfa letum caufa malurum atlulit. 
THti, Perplexa magnum verba nercio quid legunt. 
EfTare aperte, ([uis Brnvel mentem dolor. 

"J!-%» j 



IS having returned from the infernal regions, seeks 
■rmaiion of the nurse respecting the cause of all 
domestic grief: she replies it would be l>esl that 
hould be aciiuainied, with the fact that Phaedra 
been threatened ■with deaftv ^i-j Wv^W^^v*''. 

escaped at last from the regions of eternal 

, . . "ay- 

light which I have so long been wishing to behold: 

and the sombre sky which enshrouds the Manes:, 
-"hat difficulty my eyes tolerate the glare of thai dai 

the four annual crops 
; of Ceres) and Libra 

ready Eleusis has yieldei 
rriptolemus (under the aui ... 

the (Balance) has often made the day and night equal 
and the anxious misgivings about my own uncertain fate 
have kept me speculating as to the alternate disadvantages 
of Life or Death (that is, which under mv circumstances 
would have been the more acceptable). One pan of my 
vitality, otherwise praaically dead, was spared to me 
which was the suffering portion of that existence! Alcides 
became my deliverer from all these troubles, who when 
he had forced the gates of Hell and dragged Cerberus 
away from his post as tutelary genius, brought me with 
him to these regions above, but my shattered strength 
lark-s its ancient vigor, and 1 tremble as 1 walk along. 

Ah I 

how great was the exertion required to reach this 
earthly sky. so far off as it is from the lowest depths of 
Phlegethon! R)'ing at one and the same time from the 
deatn which had threatened me, and to keep pace with 
HerculesI {alluding to the length of ground covered by 
the strides of that hero). What lugubrious ^aning is it, 
that assails my ears? some one 1 tell me quickly; all this 
bewailing, tears and grief— what is it all about? A weeping 
entertainment ■ at one's very door-steps (threshold) is not 
altogether a welcome mode of reception to a guest only 
just arrived fresh, from the Infernal regions. 

NUR. PhKdra adheres to her determined notion about 
dying, she spurns all my tearful apprehensions, and is 
bent upon death. 

THES. What reason is there for death? Why should 
she be wishing to die, just as her husband has returned, too? 

NUR, This cause for her seeking death, has made that 
death ripe for being carried into effect. 

THES. I do not know what important thing it is, thy 
puzzling ianguage conceals it from my comprehension- 
Speak out plainly! What great trouble oppresses the mind 
of my V " 

lut pla 

llaud pandit ulli. niiDfts Ceae\ 
Slatuitque fccum ferre, (juo 
Jam pergc, qu^fo, perge. properaW ell opus. 
" Referatc dufos regii poftes laris. 


Primum fimulat Phsedra mori te malle, qunm vim libi ilUtam revehsi 

' Thereo; cui deinde nulrici crucistum minitanti onendil gladium, 

qneni Hippoiytus abjedlum reliquiifet. 


e advcnlum v 

enpetili conjugis vultuiii 
Quin eote viduas dentemm? alque animum mihi 
Reftituis? & te quidquid c: vita, fugat 
Elxpromis? FH. Eheu, pei lui fceptmin imperii, 
Magnauioie Thefeu, perque Datomm indolem, 
Tuofque redittu, perque jam cinerea meos, 
Pennine mortem, thes. Caufa quie cogii mori? 
PH. Si caufii let! dicLtur, frudlus peril. 
THES. Nemo iflud alius, ine quidem eiccepto, 
rH. Aures pudica conjugis Talas timet 
THES. EfTaic Mo pe&ote arcana oGcokm. 
PH. Alium filere quod voles, primus file. 
THES. Leii facullas nulla catitinget tibi. 
PH. Mori volenti deelTc mors nunquam poteft. 
THES. Quod fil luendum morle delii5lum, indii 

NUR. She tells nobody— sad enough she hides her 
secret, and has resolved to keep up the grief, from which 
she is dying already, in her own secret bosom— Come 
now at once— I pray thee come, there is need for hasty 

THES. Unlock the closed portals of the royal chamber. 


Phadra first pretends that she would rather die than tell 
Theseus what violence had been offered to her, to 
whom, when he threatens to punish the nurse, she 
shows the sword which Hippoljtus had left behind 
him when he fted. 


j^'nes 860-870] HIPPOLYTUS. 239 


OH I partner of my nuptial couch, is this the way thou 
greetest the arnval of thy husband? and is this the 
countenance thou assumest on meeting that hus- 
band, after having been so long waiting for nis return? 
^ut first of all, rid thy right hand of that sword, and open 
^y mind to me freely, and tell me, whatever it is, that 
^uses thee to wish to die. 

PH. Alas! Oh I noble Theseus by the sceptre with 
^"hich thou rulest, by thy natural love towaras thy off- 
spring, the sons 1 have borne thee, and by my own Dody 
<^onsumed after death (ashes) and by tny own joyous 
'"etum, permit me to die I 

THES. But what cause compels thee to die? 

PH. If the reason for my desiring death is divulged, 
^e advantage gained will be lost to me. 

THES. No one else shall hear anjrthing about it, except 
of course myself. 

PH. A modest wife hesitates to confide some things 
^ven to the ears of a husband, although such husbands 
should be the sole recipients of what she would have 
to say. 

THES. Speak; I will keep thy secret in my faithful 

PH. That another should be silent about what one 
does not wish to make known, the safe plan is to com- 
mence with silence oneselfl 

THES. No opportunity shall be allowed thee for court- 
ing death. 

PH. Death can never be withheld from those desirous 
of attaining it. 

THES. Tell me what is the crime thou desirest to be 
expiated by death? 

PH. The crime is, that I should livel 

THES. WiJJ my tears not have any effect upon tltvee"^. 



mooftrum intuor? 

n fuga 

PH. Quod vivo. THEs. I^critiue nuuiie te notlrx niovt 

PH. Mora optima ell perire lacrimandum fuis. 

THES. Silere p«rgiL verbere ac vioclis aniig 

Altrixque prodel, quidquid Kiec fnri abnuJL 

Vincile ferro. verberum vi:i exirahaC 

£«crela mentis, pit. Ipfa jam fabor, 

THES. Quidnatn ora mattii. avertis, St lacrimal geoi^ 

Subito coortas vefte praelealH oblegis! 

PH. Te, te, creator ccclilum, teflem invoco. 

Et te corufcum lucis iclherix jubar, 

Ek cujus oitu Qoftn, dependel domii^ 

Tentala precibus rcftili, ferro iic minis 

Non ceflil animus: vim lamen corpus tulit. 

Labem haac pudoiis eluet DudEr cruor 

THES. Quis, ede, noftri decoris evei'for fuilf 

PH. Qnera rere minime. tkes. Quis Tit, audire expelo. 

PH. Hie dicel enHs, quem tumultu teirttus 

Liquit lluprator, civlum accurdmi limeas. 

THES. Quod facious, hen me, cemo! qi 

Regale parvis afperuni lignis ebur, 

Capulo refulget gent is Ac\kx decus. 

Sed ipfe quonam evafit? PH. Hi irepidi 

Videie famuli coucitum cetcri pede. 

Agnito enfe deceptus paler & iratus lilic 

A. r6, fanAa pietas! prli, guberualor poll, 
Et qui fecundum fludlibus regnum moves, 
Undc iR» veoil generis intandi lues? 
Hunc Graja lelliK aluil, an Taurus Scythes, 

PH. The happiest kind of death is to die deservedly 
lamented by one's own kith and kin. 

THES. If thou persistcst in giving me no reply, that old 
woman and nurse of thine shall divulge what she knows 
and refuses to disclose, by the aid of stripes and chains; 
I will conquer her silence, if need be with the sword, but 
the force of stripes will surely draw forth the secrets 
which she is keeping back in her own mind! 

PH. I myself will speak ; be thou a little patient 

THES. Why dost thou VMtTi a."«*"5 -ivj 4<i\cfyLl face, and 

8<M^] fflPPOLYTUS. 241 

vith thy veil the tears that suddenly rise from those 
s of tmne. 

Oh thou creator of the immortal ^ods, I invoke 
s a witness, and thee, thou bright lummary (Phoebus) 
vhose extraction our race has spnmg, I resisted the 

attempts of the seducer, ana withstood his en- 
>, and my will did not give way to his threats or his 

but my body suffered from his violence, and my 
alone can wash out that stain on my chastity. 

;. What? tell me quickly who was the outrager of 

The one thou wouldst suppose to be the least 
to have been so. 

. Who may that be ? I desire to hear forthwith. 

This sword will tell thee, which the would-be 
er left behind him, when ne was alarmed by the 
md feared the arrival of the crowd of neighbours. 

. What wickedness! Alasl I now see it all! What 
ous thing am I now beholding? (And looking at 
•ry handle, exclaims) This ivory indicates its royal 
hip; it is rough to the touch from the ancestral 
i carved on it, and the emblem (golden grass- 
•) of the Royal House of Athens shines brightly on 
idle! But to what place has he escaped? 

These faithful servants saw him as he fled, scared, 
§ away at a rapid pace. 


Theseus recognizes the sword, he sees that he has 
en betrayed, and in his anger, prays for the de- 
uction ot his son. 

I for that venerated piety that inculcates the filial 
!uties of mankind! And Oh! the grand ruler of 
leaven (Jupiter)— Oh ! thou governor of the watery 
Neptune) who rulest with tny waves the second 
m of the universe, from what region has that off- 
of a wicked race, that personification of xaoi^X 
i^, sprung^ Has we soil of Greece no\ir*\sYvtd Yvva 





Colchufve Phafis! tedit ad nuiflores genus; 

Stirpemque primain degener CanguU refert. 

Eft prorfos ifto gentia annifersE fnTQr, 

Odifle Veneiis foedero, & caftum diu 

Vulgare populis corpus, o tetruin genus, 

Nulloque viAum lege melioris foli! 

Fcrie quoquc Jpfe Veneris evitant nefas, 

Generifque leges infcius fervat pudor. 

Ubi vuUus ille. & fiAa majeflas viri, 

Atque habitiiB norrens, prifta & urtiqua appelens, 

MorU[ai)ue fenium Irifle, & afpeiflu graved 

O vita fallax! abditos reufus geris, 

Animifque pulchram Inrpibus faciGin induis. 

Pudor tnipudentein celol, audacem qniea, 

Pietas nefandum. vera fallacea probaiit, 

Simulantque molles dura, filvarum incoln 

nie efferaCns, callus, iotaflus, rudis, 

Mihi tc refernas? a met. priinum loro 

Et fcelere tanio placuil ordiii vinim? 

Jam jam fupema numiui grates ago, 

Quod ii\iL Qoltra cecidit Aniiope manu: 

Quod Qoa ad antra SlygiB derceodens lib! 

Matrem reliqui. profuguK i)niotas procul 

Percurre gentes. tc licet terra ultimo 

Summota mundo dirimat Oceaui plagis, 

Orbemque noftris pedibus obvcrfum colas; 

Licet ID recelTu penitiu entremo abditua 

Horrifern celli regaa trannerts poli; 

Hiemcrque fupra polilus & conas nives, 

Gelidi (rementea liquerLi BorKe minaa 

Poll te furentes; fceleribus picaas dabis. 

Profugum per Qmnes petlinax latebras premam. 

LongioquB, claura, abftciira, diverfa, invia 

Emcliemur. nuUus obAabil locus, 

Scis, uude redeam. letit quo niilli baud queunt, 

Hue vota mittatn genitor lequonus dedit, 

Ut vota prODO trion concipiam Deo, 

Et iDvocata munus boc Tanxit Styge. 

Ed, peiage doDum trifle, tegnator freti. 

Non cemal ultra tucidutn Hippolylus diem^ 

Adealque Manes juvenis iratos patri. 

Fer abominnndam nunc opem unto parens. 

NuDquBm rupremum numinis munus tui 

growth, or the Scythiati Taurus, or the Colchian Phads? 
He has riilly confinTied his origin from his progenitrix 
Antiope, and his ignoble blood clearly throws back to his 
mother's ancestral stock I It quite amounts lo a madness, 
'"'i that armed race (the Amazons), to hold in absolute 
tempt any religious observance cQWdeKJied with Venus 

Lin« t* HIPPOLYTUS. 243 

(marriage), and after preserving their bodies chaste for a 
long time, to prostitute themselves with their subjects in 
the end? Oh savage race! ruled by no laws known to 
civilized nations I why! the wild animals avoid unnatural 
amours (pair off according to their kind) and their sexual 
instincts unconsciously conform with the recognized laws 
appertaining to their species! Where is that man's hypo- 
critical face, with his assumed gravity and repelling de- 
meanour, always hankering after what was old-fangled and 
out of date, and with that austerity, forsooth, in his habits, 
painful to contemplate: Oh! the double banked deceptious- 
ness of human nature (life), thou wearest all thy real 
qualities under a mask, and with a handsome face thou 
colorest over a debased disposition; assumed modesty 
conceals bare-faced impudence, and with a quiet manner 
thou essayest to do the most audacious things, downright 
wickedness poses as devoted piety and so-called truths 
prove themselves naught but the most blatant fallacies! 
And a hard uncompromising nature assumes the disguise 
of smirking amiability! And does that wild young .man 
of the woods, so chaste, so pure, so natural, keep back 
his real nature only for the purpose of disgracing me, his 
own father? Is this the way in which thou hast thought 
proper to induct thyself as a sample of manhood, with so 
great a crime, and commencing such practices, too, with 
thy father's nuptial bed? Over and over again, I return 
thanks to the deities above, that Antiope fell struck down 
by m^ right hand, and that when I made my descent to 
the river Styx, that I did not leave thy own mother near 
thee, lest thou mightest have violated herl As an exile 
niayst thou wander amongst unknown people— let some 
land at the extreme ends of the world serve to remove 
thee far away, to the countries bordering on the most 
distant ocean, where thou wilt inhabit the earth directly 
under our feet (the Antipodes^; but although thou mayst 
penetrate the dreadful regions of the lofi>* pole (Arctic) 
and be hidden in the innermost and most secret part, in 
some far-off comer, and settled far above, where no 
such winters as ours exist with their hoar-frosts, when thou 
mayst have even left behind the howling storms of cold 
Koreas raging at thy back, thou shall receive punishment 
for thy crime— I will follow thee in thy flight, to what- 
ever hiding-place thou mayst be traced ; with untiring 
perseverance I will travel to places however far off, places 
shut out from the approach of man, unsuspected spots! 
Kvery variety of place! Inaccessible regions! No locality 
shall stand in my way! Thou art aware from what regions 
I have just returned, an abode where I was utterly unable 
to launch my missiles! (his vows) 1 will maVe use oi fctvn 

Queritur Chorns, cum 

regautur coulilio, 

reifle cedere, < 


_ , ms Notiira Dellm 

TuquF igniferi reiflor Olympi, 
Qui fparfB. cito fidera muado 
Curiufque vagos ropis aftrarum, 
Celerique polos cardiac vcrfiu, 
Cur tibi tanta eft cnta perennes 
Agitore vias xthtra alli^ 
Ut nunc canse frigora brumic 
Nudeot Tilvas; nunc aibuflis 
Redeanl umbrs^ nunc sftjvi 
Culla Leonis Cererem rnagno 
Keivore coquant; vjrefque Tuas 
Temperet annus? fed cur idem. 
Qui Eanla regis, Tub quo vafti 
I'oudera mundi I i brain fuos 
UucunI orbes, hominum nimium 
Secunis abes; Don follicitus 
ProdelTe booia, nociiilTe nudJs? 
Kes humooas ordine nullo 
Fortuna regit, fpaTgilque manu 
Munera aeca, pejora fovens. 
ViDcil SaaHas dim libidu. 
Krnus rublimi rei^ual in aula. 

and let the youth pass on to the shades belnw! however 
angry Ihey may be towards a father that decrees ill A« 
a parent, render at this juncture, as to a son, assistance 
altnough it is a hateful thing to think of! I have not 
exhausted the three wishes I I should never have availed 
myself of this remaining token of thy divine power, unless 
the direst calamity had constrained me to do so ! When 
I was down in the deplhs of Tartarus and those dreadful 
realms of Pluto, and with the threats of that infernal Icing 
always hanging over me, I reserved this wishl Grant me 
DOW the performance of thy promise, Oh! my fatherl 
(Neptune, according to Plutarch, was the putative (aiher 
of Theseus.) Why should there be any delay? Why 
should the waves be any longer silent? Oi'erwnelm the 
night, from this moment, with hurricanes driving before 
them the blackest clouds— remove from all human sight 
the stars and the firmament itself! Lash into foam the 
terrible seas^ call up the aquatic herd inhabiting thoK 
seas (the lemble sea-monsters) and summon all the angriest 
waves from out of Ihe ocean itselfl 

The Chorus complain, seeing that the revolutions of the 
heavenly bodies and other matters in nature are 
governed by certain lixed laws, that human affairs 
do not conform hkewise to justice and order— why a 
hard fate awaits a good man, and a smooth lot is 
awarded to a bad one. 

Oh! nature, thou powerful mother of the gods and 
thou ruler of starry Olympus, who maintainesi within 
their appointed orbits the heavenly bodies scattered 
around the quickly' moving firmament, and controllesl 
the erratic course of the stars, and who regulalesi (with 
mathematical certainty) the heavens in their rapid revolu- 
tions! Why dost thou take such care that they shall 
pursue their perennial paths, through the lofty sky with 
such unvarying exactness? How is it that at one time 
the nipping cold of the snowy winter denudes the forests 
of their foliaceous beauty, at another time that the um- 
brageous adornments should reappear on these (self-same) 
trees — at one lime, that the heat of the summer (when 
the sun is in Leo) should bum up the standing corn with 
the excessive heat and that the ensuing autumn should 
moderate the force of its destructive temperature? But 
why is it that this same power which ordains the ^pNcnx- 
menl of so many things, under whose w'tU \\\e W'gt 


Gnudct; eofdem colli, alque odil. 
Triftis viniis [lerverfa lulit 
Pra;mta redli. callos fequitur 
M*la paupertas: vilioque poleas 
Regnal adulter. 

O vane pudor, falfunique decus! 
Red quid citato nuiilius portat gtadu, 
Rigntque mcellis lugubrem vullum genis 




Narrat Thefeo nunlius, ut peiierit Ilippoljrlus diCceiplus ab 

cquis fuis, quos terrucntl laurus marinus a Nepluno 

en Thefei voto immilTus. 



THES. Proloquerre, qux fors aggravet quaJTaia domuni, 
NU.ST. Hippolytus (heu me) flebili leto occubal. 
THES. Natum parens oblilTe jam pridem fcio. 
Nunc raplor obiil. mortis efTore ordinem. 
NUNT. Ut profugus urbem liquit infello gradu, 
Cclerem citalis paHibus curfum explicnas, 
Celfos fooipedes ocitis fubigit jugo, 
El ora frcnis domitiL fubAiiiflU ligal. 
Turn mulla Tecum efiatus, & patrium folum 

masses of matter are poised around the vast world, and 
conduct iheir revolutions through space, should be so 
absent as regards the security alTorded to mankind, and 
allow thein to regulate the niovements of their orbits ii 
a very uncertain lashion ? Not anxious to favor the gooi 
or punish the bad! Fortune rules human affairs by no 
defined system, and dispenses her blessings with blir 
carelessness, and appears for the most part to lean towards 
the wicked ! Cruel lust overcomes the virtuous, wicked- 
ness reigns triumphant in the lofty palace I The rabble 
delight irv lavishing honors upon the unworthy — they praise 
and despise the same men at the same time, sorrowliil 
virtue receives only some inadequate reward as its 
recompense, and wtetchtd po^etVj \dS« \n ft* \»a q( the 

Uncs 933-1004^ HIPPOLYTUS. 247 

chaste and virtuous, but the adulterer reigns still powerful 
Hith those very vices (which have placed him on his 
throne) ! Oh emptv mock-modesty 1 On ! false virtue 1 But 
w^hat is the news wnich the messenger is bringing, hastening 
hither with such rapid steps, and he appears to be copi- 
ously bedewing his lugubnous countenance too, from his 
sorrowful eyes! 



^He Messenger reports to Theseus that Hippolytus has 
perished, having been torn to pieces, through his 
own horses, which a Marine Monster sent forth by 
Neptune in answer to the wish of Theseus, had 
frightened ! 



H 1 the bitter and ungenial lot of domestic servitude. 
Why shouldst thou select me as the messenger of 
such a dreadful catastrophe? 

THES. Do not hesitate, man, to speak of this dreadful 
catastrophe; tell me all about it. I possess a heart not 
unprepared, I assure thee, to listen now to any grievous tale. 

MESS. My tongue restrains my speech, it is rendered 
incapable tlirougn grief and the mournful news I bring. 

THES. Speak; what dire disaster now invades our 
troubled house? 

MESS. Hippol)rtus, ah! me! has met with a horrible 
death 1 

THES. I the parent know already by thy manner, that 
my son has met with some sort of death. Now the ravisher 
has disappeared. Tell me, however, the way in which 
that deaui was brought about. 

MESS. When Hippolytus as a fugitive with bewildered 
strides was leaving tne city, he urged on his already quick 
retreat, at a hastened pace, but, mounting his chariot, he 
easily kept in hand the noble horses attached to that chariot, 
and with his tightened reins he held in check the trained 
mouths of the horses! Then he talked iQ \v\mse\l ^\)0\3X 


Abominiilus. (xpe genilarem ciet. 

Acerque habeois lorn permiffis tjuotili 

Cum fubilo vaftum tumuil ex alto mare, 

Crevilque ID aftra. quUus infpintl tola 

VeDtus. quieti nulla pars cccli (Irepit, 

Ptacidumque pcUgus propria lempeflai agil. 

Non lanlus Aufter Sicula diftnrbat frelo, 

Nee lam fureoll ponlns exfureil fiau 

Regnante Coro. faxs cum Ru^u tremunt, 

Et cana fummum fpuma Leucalem fcril. 

CoDfurgit ingens pontus io vaflum aggerem, 

Tumidumque moollro pelagus in Icrrsm mit. 

Nee ida ratibus lanta ctinnruilur lues: 

Teiris minalur. fluaus hand cnrfu levi 

Pnivolvilur. nefcio ijuid onerato linu 

Gravis uoda portal, qua: uovuin lellus caput 

Oflendii adris? Cyclas eioritur nova. 

Latuere ruprii, numcn Epidaurii E>ei, 

Et fcelere petra? nobilea ScironideE, 

Et <|Ua: duobus terra comprimitur fretis. 

Hxc dum nupemes qucrimur, en totum mare 

Immugit. oaiQes undique fcopnli odftrepunL 

Summura cacumen rorat eKjmlfo Tale. 

Rpumit, vomitque vicibu!) aJleniis nquas, 

Quails per alta vehilur Oceani freta 

Fluflus refundelis ore phyreter capax 

Inbomiit conculTua uadarum globus, 

Solvilque fefe, & litori invexil malum 

Majus timore jiontus in terras ruil, 

Suumque monftnim fequitur. os quafTat tremor. 

THES. Quis hftbitus ille corporis vafli fuit! 

KUNT. Cxrulea laurus colla Cublimis gercns, 

Erexit altam fronle viridauli jubam. 

Slant hifpidit aures, cornibus varlus color; 

El quern (eri domioator habuilTet gregis, ' 

Et quern fub uiidis natus. hinc flammam vomit; 

many things, and raOier wildly, as I thought; he cursed 
his natal soil 1 know and often spoke of his father in the 
course of his rarnblings; and eager to pursue his way, he 
yields the lax reins to the horses (gives them their head) 
so as not to restrain them, and gently smacks (shakes) bis 
whip, which no sooner done, than quite on a sudden, 
a terrific wave, a perfect sea in itself, swells from the vast 
ocean, and rises, as it were, to the very stars, not a hKalh 
of wind though was there on the sea beyond, ana not 
any part of the calm sky gave forth the slightest semblance 
of a sound! but the usual weather (serenity) prevailed, 
ever the placid seal Never did a south wind, however 
fierce, dislurb the Sici\\an slrarts Ute Ihis, and never 

during the very height of a North-Westem did the Ionian ' 

sea surge bo furiously as this Ihen! How the rocks, too, 
did tremble, to be sure! and the white foam, which rose, 
struck the sumnjit of Leucale, the Acarnanian promontory; 
the huge sea then swelled itself to the size of an enormous 
mountain, and the mass of water which seemed lo be 
puffed out with something or other marvellous, came with 
a grand rush upon the shore. Now, never was a visitation 
so severe as this, launched upon the crafts even whilst on 
the sea! No! this was evidently designed to terrify the 
land only ! The waves rolled forwards then, one succeeding 
another, though not with equal force. I did not know, 
I could not guess, what the laboring water was bearing 
in its loaded bosom! or what new land was about to make 
its appearance for the stars to look down upon! Surely, 
I thought, some fresh Cyclas has arisen to swell the number 
of the Cyclades— all the rocks lay hidden from sight, the 
temple of the deity of Epidaurus and sacred to .^sculapius, 
and the noble rocks, the Scironides,' famous on account 
of the crimes of Sciron, the celebrated thief of Attica, and 
also the straits which are inclosed by the two seas, were 
rendered invisible! And whilst utterly stupefied, I became 
alarmed at these phenomena, when behold I the entire sea 
gave forth a roaring sound, all the rocks around made a 
noise, the loftiest peak was moistened with the spray 
expelled from the sea; il foamed and vomited forth columns 
of water, first one and then the other, jusl as the huge 
whale is carried along the deep seas, pouring back the 
waves from its mouth! At length, this immense mass of 
water being shaken from within, breaks up, disperses 
itself and casts upon the shore a monster greater than 
any exaggerated fears of mine could form any conception 
of: the sea then rushes upon the shore, and follows its 
Monster, which it had Just yielded up; the scare it gave 
me made me tremble from head to foot! 

THES. What was the general appearance of this enormous 
body (monster) thou didst sec? 

MESS. Oh I it was like a tall bull, with a bluish neck, 
and it raised its immense mane around its green-tinted 
head, its shaggy ears stood out prominently, and the color 
varied on the horns (a sort of mixture) one of which 
renijfided me of what the leader of the fierce herd has 
on his ithe land Bull), the other color that which we see 
on the horns of the animal, a native of the sea, the sea-calf 
or marine bull. 1( then began to vomit flames, and its 
eyes shone like balls of fire, and its vast neck, remarkable 
for a certain blue line on it, supported ite \winftcnivis. 

SENECA'S TRAGEDIES. [Lin« .o,.-.^ 

Oculi hinc rclucenl. cicrula infigms nota 
Otiima cervU srduiis lollit toros; 
NarcrqMc hiulcEs linuflibus palulie fremunt. 
Mufco teaaci pectus ic palear viret. 
Loiigum nibenti fpitrgttur fuco tittus. 
Turn pone tergus ultima in monftrum coit 
Faciei, & ingena bellua immenfttm irahit 
Squimmofa paiiem, talis cxlcemo mari. 
Pidrix ctlnlas Carb^ ruI reddil rnles. 
Treniuere terra:. Jiigit ottonihiai pecns 
PalTim per ogrosj uec fuoi poflor fequi 
Meminil juvcdcds. omnis e fallu fera 
DilTugit: oiaais ftigido exfuiguis melu 
Venator horrel. folus itnmunis melu 
HIppalyliLS arflis canlinet Irenis cquos, 
Pavidofque aot;e vocis hoilalu cieU 
Eft alta ad Argos collibus niplis viii, 
Viclna langens fpatia fuppolili maris: 
Ileic [e ilia moles acuit, atijue icos paral. 
V\ cepil aaiinas, feque prxlenlans falis 
Prolufil irae, pt^peti eurfu evolal. 
Summam citato vix gradu tangens humum; 
Et lorva curnls ante Irepidantes Relit. 
Contra feraci natus infurgeiis minax 
Vultu, nee ora mutat, & magnum intonat: 
Haud frangit animam vanus hlc terror meum; 
Nam mihi paterous vincere ell tauros labor. 
laobfequentes protinus frenia equi . 
Rapuere curnim: Jamque deerranles via, 
Quacunque pavidos rapidus cvcxii furor. 
Hac ire pergunt, feque per fcopulos agaat. 
At ille, quails turbido reftor marl 
liBtem rclentflt, ne del obliquum lotus, 
Et arte Hutflus rallll; baud aliter cjtos 
Currus guberiial: ora nunc preffis trahil 
Conftricta frcnis, lerga nunc torlo frequen.>i 
Verbere coercel. feqnitur alTiduus comes 
Nunc zequa carpeus fpatia, nunc contra obvius 

Obeirat, orani parti lei 

Non licuil ultra fugere. 

frame, and its wide-spreading nostrils eToilted a roarinf! 
sound as it drew in and out its gaping breath; its chest 
and dewlap were green with moss and other sea-weeds 
clinging about them, and its side was spotted here and 
there with reddish tints; then its lengthy form, posterior 
to its back, terminated like some marine monster, fish- 
like, and the huge scaly beast dragged along its immense 
Slmcliire, just like that enormous marine phenomenODt 
"le pistrix, met wilh m iHe tw-oS \wfi\iKi — ' ' ' " 

'**^^liows up whole entire ships and vomils lliem up 

I"lie earth trembled— the cattle, frightened, fled in all 
"'•"etlions across the fields, nor was there a shepherd 
"J^ongst them, who had the slightest thought of following 
i^e scattered herds— ever)' wild animal started from the 
l^ickeis and groves, which bordered on the shore— every 
""nter grew pale and was paralyzed with fear— was horror- 
^trictenl Hippolytus, the only one in fact, was in no sort 
'jf fear, and he still kept firm control of the horses, with 
'he we 11 -hand led reins and encouraged the timid animals 
*i[h his well-known voice. There is a steep declivity on 
ihe road to Argos, amongst the broken hills, which leads 
down to the various spots that are close to the sea which 
lies at their feet, ancf here the monster seemed to be 
evincing considerable activity and prepared itself, as it 
were, to make up its angry mind. As if it nad foreshadowed 
its plans to its satisfaction, it set to work to exert its 
rage, and it dashes forth at a rapid rate, scarcely touching 
the highest ground in its humed advance, and with a 
savage glare, it stands before the trembling horses; on 
the other hand, though Hippolytus, rising up in a threatening 
attitude with a ferocious look, does not change his counte- 
nance into anything suggestive of timidity, and thundered 
out in loud tones: 'This empty terror does not daunt my 
couittf;e, for is it not the task taught me by my father, that 
of taming bulls ?"^ Whereupon the horses, disregarding the 
reins showed symptoms of rebellion, taking entire charge 
of the chariot, and then wandering madly onwards in 
their precipitate course, wherever their terrified excitement 
carried them, scared as they were ! They first go this way, 
then that, till at length they begin lo scamper wildly 
amongst the rocks, but like the skilful pilot who keeps 
his craft head to wind in a tempestuous sea, and avoids 
steering it broadside on to the surging advances of that 
sea, and thus with skilful seamanship baffles the force of 
the waves, not otherwise does Hippolytus strive lo guide 
the flying horses; at one time he pulls at iheir mouths 
with tightened reins, and at another time he turns the 
whips towards their backs to accelerate their speed! His 
companion, the Monster, however, pertinaciously follows 
him up, one time at an equal pace, side by side, at another 
lime It veers round and faces him in front, and striking 
unspeakable terror from every direction. It does not 
suit him (Hippolytus) to proceed too far ahead, for this 
horrible horn-bearing monster of the sea comes on with 
his savage aspect right in front of the horses! But at last 
tht- endurance of the horses is completelv broken dowtv 
throiiff!] their fcam; they then break through a\\ Cot\Uo\ 


Incurril ore comigcr ponti horridus. 

Turn vera pavlda foDipedes mente Cicili 

Im])eiia falvunt, feque iuAanliir jugo 

Eripere, reflique in pedes jniflant onus. 

Fncceps iu oia. fufus implicuit cxdens 

Ijiqueo lenaci corpiu: & quaoto magis 

Pugnal, fequaces hoc magis nodos lij-aL 

Senffre pecude^ focinus, & cumi levi, 

DominBiite nullo, qua iimor juffii, ruunt. 

Talis per auras non fuum Bgaofcens onus, 

Soli que falfo crcdilum indignans diem, 

Phaeihonia cumis dcvio cxcuffit polo. 

Late cruental arva, & ilurum caput 

Scopulis refullat. nufeiunt dumi comns: 

El ore durus pulchra populolur lapis: 

Perilque multo vuloere iofelix decor. 

Moribunda ceieres membra provolvunt rotK. 

Tandemque raptuni Inincus ombuda fude 

Medium per ingucn ftipiCc ereflo tcncr; 

Paulumque domino cumis affixo ftelit. 

Hxfere bijuges vulnere, & pariter moram 

DomiDumque ninqiunt. inde reminainiem fecuit 

Virgulta. acutis alperi vepres rubis, 

Omnifque tninciu corpons iiartem tulil. 

ErrasI per agros funeliris, famuli, maaus, 

Per ilia, qua dillrflftus Hippolytus, low 

Longum cmeiilB. tramitem ligiiat Dota: 

Mceftieque dommi membra vefligatit canes. 

Necdum dolcntum fedulus potuil labor 

Explcre corpus, hoccine ell fornix decus^ 

(^1 modo patemi clarus imperii comes, 

Et certu.i bieres, fiderum fulfic modo, 

Paflim ad fuprcmos ille colligitur rogos, 

Et fuueri confertar. tkbs. 0, nimium potens, 

Quanlo parentes fanguinia viiiclo lenes 

Natural quam te colimus invili quoquel 

Occidere volni noxium; amilTum fleo. 

Ntmr. Haud quifquain honelte Here, quod voluil, polefl. 

TKES. Equidem malorum maximum hunc cumulum reor, ' 

whatever, and slruggle to escape from their yoke, and 1 
rearinR themselves on their hinalegs, Ihey Jolt the chariot, 
and Hippolytus falling upon his face, becomes entanpiea 
by the reins, which, however, he still holds tenaciously. | 
and the more he fights to retain his hold, the more and . 
more does he tighten the reins about himself. The poor . 
horses seem to nave recognized the disaster, and with the 
chariot lightened and no driver left to guide them, in the 
same way that the horses of the sun, as they sped through I 
space, perceived thai they \\aA nox ftie,« \is.>i3.\ VQu-d Vhoebus, ] 

[ Lines ,081-1119] HIPPOLYTUS. 253 

and angrj' that the day was given up to a substituted 
f hcebus, dragged Phaethon through a devious track I (Jupiter, 
perceiving the danger, struck Jrhaethon with one of his 
thunderbolts.) The blood of Hippolytus is scattered over 
^ne fields far and wide, and his nead bounds back as it 
strikes on the rocks, and the shrubs through which he is 
^fagged catch up portions of his locks, and the cruel rocks 
f^nd in pieces nis once beautiful countenance, and that 
^uty, wnich was his ruin, disappears with many wounds I 
^eanwhile, the rapidly revolving wheels roll onwards with 
*^is lifeless limbs, but at length a stake rising from the trunk 
^f a blasted tree catches him in the middle and holds 
back the body, the stake being upright and piercing him 
*n the groin; the horses stand for a second with the driver 
thus impaled, and when they feel themselves kept back 
t)n account of the wound that had transfixed Hippolytus, 
they break through all further delav, and drag their driver 
along, and the thickets subdivided nis body as he is drawn 
through them, the sharp briers, and the prickly brambles, 
and every tree and trunk appropriating some portion of 
his mangled remains! Every one mourning his death — 
the servants and laborers scnitinize the tedious path along 
the various spots where Hippolytus was torn to pieces, 
indicated by the marl« of his blood, and the saa do^s, 
too, on the alert with their powers of scent, trace the remains 
of their master, nor as yet does the pressing search of 
the mourners^ succeed in discovering the body. Is there 
nothing remaining of the beauty that once was ? He who 
tin lately, was the bright sharer of his father's glory-, and 
the direct heir to the kingdom: quite recently he shone 
with the refulgence of a star, but now, from all sides, he 
is gathered up piece by piece for the funeral pile, and is 
now only brought forward to receive the honors shown 
to the dead I 

THES. Oh! nature! the powerful instincts thou incul- 
catest with what firm a hold thou causest a parent to 
cherish the ties of blood 1 Alas 1 how unwillingly we regard 
thy decrees I For example, I willed to kill Hippolytus, 
because his life was hateful to me, and now I have lost 
him I moan for the bereavement. 

MESS. No man can consistently bewail what he has 
himself desired to bring about. 

TH£S. Indeed I cannot help thinking that this climax 
now arrived at, is greater than all the evils which have 
happened before) although some accident does nol \ii\t\g, 


Ri abomiminiiii cafus opiala efficit. 

NtiNT. Et fi odia fervas, cur madent flelu gensc i 

THES. Quod iuteremi, non quod am ill. fico. 



I cafu& hurnana ri 

1 parvis FortuDA funt, 
Leviufque feril leviora Deus. 
Serval placidos obfcura. quies; 
Pnebelque lead cafa fecuros. 
Admota LclheriU culmina TedibBS 
Earos cxcipiunl, excipiunt Noto-s 
Infani Bares minas^ 
Imbriferumque Corum. 
Humid a vail is rnros pntilur 
Fulminis iAas. trcmuic lelo 
Jovis altifoiii Caucafus ingens, 
Phrygiumque nemus mntris Cybeles. 
Mctuens cielo Juppiter allu 
Vicina pelit. arm capil unqunni 
Magnos molus humilis Icdli 
Piebeja domus. 
Circa regaa toaal. 
Volat ambi^is 
Mobilis nlis hora; nee iilli 
Prasnal velox Fori una (idem. 
Qui clara videt 6dera niundi, 
Nitidumque diem noile relifla, 
Luget moeAos iriftis rcittlus; 
Ipfoque magis flebile Avernn. 
Sedi5 pnlriiB videi hofpitium. 
Pallas AAcex veneranda geali, 
Quod tuos cralum ruperofque Thefeus 
Spedial, S; fugit Siygia* [mlude!, 
Cafla oil debes patruo rapaci : 
Conftat inferno Humerus tyrunno. 
tiux Tox ab allia Hebilis teiflis Tonal? 
SuH^oque vecors I'liacdra quid ferro parat? 

about the detestable events one has preiiously been 
wishing for. (If any accident should make one repent 
one's simply detestable wishes being fulfilledl) 

MESS. And if thou still nursest thy hatred, why do iby 
eyelids moisten with th'y weepTO'^^ 


THES. I weep for what 1 killed, not for what 1 havfiS 
got rid ofl 

How worthy of oattire are the »icissiiudes which 
befall humanity, and which fickle fortune rotates in 
her capricious wheel, how she relaxes the sternness 
of her decrees towards her humbler recipients and how 
a propitious Deit}- deals more lightly with those less 
capable of putting up with her fickleness 1 An obscure 
retreat suits the contentedi, and a humble cotla_ge affords 
old age ample protection. The sharp Kast wmd makes 
a target of the roofs of structures run up to ethereal 
altitudes, the South Wind visits them with its full force, 
and they are in addition, as fully exposed to the angry 
storms of rude Boreas, and the rains likewise which the 
Norlh-West beats against themi The watered valley 
suffers but little from the lightning flashes, with which it 
is so rarely visited, whilst Caucasus trembles again with 
the thunderbolts of Jupiter sounding from above, and the 
Phry^an summits once the abode of the goddess Cybele 
— Jupiier is jealous of pretentious buildings mounting up 
lo the skies, and he singles them out for the maximum 
of his severity, as they audaciously seek to approach his 
own kingdom! (The skies). The homestead of uie humble 
citizen, on the other hand, seldom finds his modest propor- 
tions invaded by aerial disturbances I Nol the real tangible 
thunders hover over kingdoms and palaces! The fleeting 
hour flies onwards with its uncertain wings, that is, we 
are uncertain as lo the direction ihose wings are taking, 
nor does Fortune, as she is hurrying forwards, ensure 
anyone especial protection 1 He, for example, Theseus, 
when he first beheld the bright stars of the upper world, 
and the smiling light of day, when he emerged from the 
realms of darkness, in a croaking spirit, bewails his un- 
lucky return, and the hospitable surroundings of his 
paternal palace appear less mviting than the lungdom of 
Pluto itself! Oh I thou chaste Minerva, tutelary godd«s 
of the Athenian race, when thy protegtS, Theseus, again 
beheld the heavens, and the upper earth, from the places 
which he had just quitted, ana when he escaped from 
the Stygian lakes, thou oh! goddess! owest nothing to 
that greedy uncle now, for he has faithfully recruited his 
ranks in Uie infernal regions! Hippolytus has gone lo 
lake the place of Theseusl Hark! What is that plaintive 
^ voice resounding from the depths of the Palace, and what 
^^s PhKdra in her madness getting ready lo do with that 
^Hbawn sword ? 




perFolvlt, n 

e perctlam toftigal furor! 
Quid enfis ifte? (juidve vociferatio, 
PluiAurque fupra corpus invifum volunt? 
I'H. Me, me, profundi fxve dominator freti, 
Invade, & in me mondra cairulei maris 
t^mitle: quldqnid iolimo Telhys finu 
Exlrema geilat, quidquid Oceanus vagis 
Cotnplcxus undis ultimo S\ii&ii tegit. 
dire Tbefeu fcTuper, o nunquam ad tuos 
Toto reverfe! nalus & geoitor nece 
Reditus Cuos lufre. pervertis domum, 
Amore temper conjugum aut odio nocens. 
Hippolyle, tales intuor vultus luos? 
Talefque feci? membra, qiiis fxvus Sinis, 
Aut quis Procrunes fparfitf nul qui$ CrcfOus 
Dxdalea vaitu clauflra mugitu repteos, 
TBUru<i bifonnis, ore conigero ferax, 
Uivulfitf heu me! quo tuus fugit decor, 
Oculique, uollrum lidusK exanimis jaccs? 
Ades parumper, verliaque exaudi mea. 
Nil tuqie loquimur. hac manu pipnas tibi 
Sotvim, & nefando peAori ferruni infemm, 
AQima([ue Fhaedram pariter ac fceleie eiuam; 
Et le per unilas, perque Tanareos lacus, 
Per Styga, per amnes ignea; nmclis fequar. 
Placcmus umbras, capitis exuvias cape., 
Lacerxque fnmtis accipe abfcifTam comani. 
NoQ licuit animoi' jungere. at eerie licet 
JOQxiffe fata, morcre, C coda es, viro; 
Si iocefta, amori. conjugis ihalamos pclam 
TaDto impialos facinore! hoc deerat oefas, 
Ul vindicalo faniflo fruereris toru) 

1160 I 



PhKdra reveals the innocence of Hippolytus and retracIS 
her calumnious accusations— she then dies by her 
own hand. The father, Theseus, not without great grief, 
performs the funeraJ obseciuies for his son, but denies 
them to the stepmotVvei tyWd^aV 

WHAT transport of wild passion excites thee i__ . 
already smitten as thou art with grief? What is 
the meaning of that swortl: Or what, this flow 
of words ? what makes thee so desirous of wailing over a 
body that was such an object of hatred to ihee? 

PH. Attack me, mel Oh! thou cniel ruler of the deep 
Sea (Neptune), and cast up before me some monster out 
of the blue ocean, or whatever the far extremities of 
Tethys (the sea) conceals in its lowermost depths— what 
the Ocean contains in its wandering waters, and covers 
with it distant waves I Oh! Theseus I alwa>-s cruel I now 
that thou hast safely returned, but not with safely to (hy/ 
own kindred, thou upseltest the tranquillity of Honieu 
Always criminal, whether thou art so from the love of thy! 
wives or thy hatred of them 1 Thy son and a father ( .'Egeus) 
have met with death at the price of thy return! Oh Hip- 
po!>lus! do I behold thy beautiful features brought to this 
wrelched pass? And I have made them what they are 
nowl What savage Sinis (a celebrated robber who used 
to mangle his victims) or what Procrustes has scattered 
thy body in this manner? or what Cretan bi-formed bull 
filUng with its loud roarings ihe Dtedalean den (Labyrinth) 
and fierce with its horn-bearing visage has torn thee thusr 
Ah! me! where has thv beauty gone, and those eyes once 
my stars? and there iriou art, a miserable corpse! Oht 
may thy spirit come hither for a litlle while, and hearken 
to what I have to say! I will speak of naught that will 
be unworthy for thee to hear— 1 will suffer the punish- 
ment due to me, at my own hands! and with this sword 
will I pierce my criminal breast, and 1 will do away with 
Phaedra as she was, with her life as well as her offencel 
And as a demented spirit will 1 follow thee over every sea, 
over the lakes of Tartarus, and over the fiery waves of 
Phlegethon! I wish to appease thy Manes, let me remove 
all vain adornments from my head, and let me have my 
locks cut away from where they now are— it was not our 
lot to be joined in life, and surely, the fates will 


isfaction for my illicit amour! Shall I seek the 
nuptial couch polluted with this enormous crime of mine? 
Thanks to the deity, this crime has not been arrived atl 
Ohl but how as a virtuous wife should I have rejoiced to 
rejoin that couch when 1 had only vindicated its honor? 
Ohl DeathI thou art the only sedative, for the consequencea - 
of this wicked passion I Ohl death, thou att. iSc ^^^^ll 


1 lacfi decus, 

CoDfugimus kd K: pande placatos linus, 
Audile, Allienic: luque runella puter 
Pejor noveicn. falfa inemotavj; & aefai, 
Quod ipfa demeos peiflore inrano hauferam, 
Mentiu (inti. vaDa punifli pBier; 
Juveoifque cadus crimine incefta: jactt, 
Pudicus, inroDS. recipe jam morei luos; 
Mucrone peftus impium juflo palet, 
Cruorque fanflo folvit mferias vim. 
Quid facere raplo dcbcas nato parens, 
Difce ex nnverca: condere AcheroDtU plagis. 


THEii. .L ALUDI fsuces Avcmi, vorque TfEDnrei fpecus, 
Unda miferis grata Lethes, vofque toipeates lacu;, 
Impium rapite, atque merfum premite peqietui? malis. 
Nunc adede fxva pooti moullia, duuc vaRum mare, 
Ultima quodcunque Proteus xquorum abfcondil (inu, 
Meque ovantem fcelere lanto rapite in altos gurgiles. 
Tuque femper, genitor, irx facilis affeDfar mex, 
Morte (aeili dixnus baud fum, qui nova nalum oece 
Segregem fparfi per agros: quique, dum falfum nefas 
Ekfequor vindex feverus, incidi in veium Tcelu^ 
Sidcni & manes. & undas fcelere complevi meo, 
Amplius [an nulla rellat; regna me noriiat Iria, 

chief tribute to atone for uinted chastit>-I l^ me come 
to thee, open thy calm bosom to receive mel Listen! 
ohl Athens I and thou also, ihe father who hast been 
more to blame perhaps than the wicked stepmother (for 
listening so credulously to a stepmother's charges), 1 have 
represented things falsely, and I have painted in an untrue 
light, the crime which, mad as I was, 1 have bidden in 
ray own demented bosom ! Thou, the father, hast punished 
Hippolylus for that with which I accused him falsely, and 
the virtuous boy lies there under the charge of inchastityl 
an attempt of incest with myself I Oh! pure guileless boy. 
accept this just proclamation of thy innocence I and my 
impious bosom will now make ready to receive the sword 
of justice, and my blood shall ser\e as a death-sacrifice 
to the Infernal Gods I and thou, the father, leam from a 
stepmother what thou art bound to do for the son that 
has been snatched away, attend thou to the becoming 
obsequies; and as for myself let me be hidden away tn the 
streams of Acheronl 

^•^^^^ T.38-I.I.: HIPPOLYTUS. 259 



OH 1 the pallor-evoking approaches of Avemus 1 Oh 1 
the caves of Taenarusl Oh! the oblivion-inducing 
_ ^ streams of Lethe, so soothing to the miserable. Ana, 
y^ ye stagnant lakes, snatch away an impious wretch 
^Ke myself, and retain me submerged for my ever-re- 
^rring crimes! Now come forth, thou savage monster 
^f the deep!— Now approach me, thou vast overwhelming 
^af — Now may Proteus, who attends the sea-cows ana 
^ther terrible mhabitants of the ocean, come to my aid 
"Hrfth whatever is dreadful, and which thou concealest 
<lown in the lowest recesses of the deep waters, and hurry 
>xie off, just now only exulting over the great crime I had 
Committed, into the deepest gulf, and thou, Oh! Father! 
(Neptune) always the ready mstrument for carrying out 
my angry desires. I am not deserving of an easy death 
Who have been the means of scattering my son in divided 
portions ever the land, in fact, by quite a novel form of 
death I And while I, as a cruel avenger, have been dealing 
out punishment for a crime which has never been com- 
mitted, I have fallen into the commission of a real crime 
myself 1 1 have now filled up with my criminal exploits, 
the heavens, the infernal regions, and the seas ! Nothing 
more is left for me ! the three kingdoms of the universe 
have been visited with my iniquities! I now return to 
this kingdom. And the way back to the sky has been 
laid open to me, for as much as through my own agencies, 
I should witness two deplorable deaths, and a double 
funeral in consequence, and because as a bereaved, lonely 
celibate, I should light with one torch the funeral pile! 
and bum a wife ana son at the same time ! Oh ! Alcides I 
who gave me back the light which was painful to behold, 
restore me as a present to Pluto, restore to him the Manes 
which thou rescuedst from his power; wicked as I am 
I pray for that condition of death, which I left behind 
when I quitted Averaus ! And having myself, as the cruel 
contriver of death, invented unheard of, terrible modes 
of destruction for others (meaning the death of Hippo- 
lytus). For that reason let me inflict upon myself some 
just punishment ! — Let the apex of some pine forced down- 
WBTQS towards the ground cleave me in twain, as the tree 
bounds back with me to the skies in resuming its former 
position I Or, shall I be hurled headlong over the Sciro- 
nian rocks? I have seen terrible things m my time, what 
Uie cruel Phlegethon provides for those who are imprison- 
ed therein, surrounding the criminal Manes with 4atc\m% 






Id hoc redimiu? patuit ad ctclum via, 
BiD> at viilerem fuoers, & geminam uccem? 
Ccclebs & orbus, tuoebres una (ace 
Ul concremnrem prolis ac tbatami rogos? 
Donator atrfe lucis, Alcidc, tuum, 
Dili reoiiiic muDus. eiepios mihi 
Reflitue maoes, impiuG fiudra iuvoco 
Mortem relidiam, crudu*, & llti arlifcx, 
Exitia machinatus infolita, elTera, 
Nunc tibimet ipfe jufta fupplicia inoga. 
Pinus coaiflo vert ice attiogcns humum 
Coelo remiiTum fiudat in geminas tnibes, 
Miltarvs pracejis fa>n per Scironia. 
Graviora vidi, qux pati clufos jubet 
Phlegelhnn, nocEntes igoeo ciDgens vsdo. 
Qux pcEna maneat memet & fedc&, fcio. 
Umbrx Qocetites cediie, & cervicibus 
Hie, his repofiluai degravet felTas maDU9 
Saiiam, feni perennis .^oiio kbor. 
Me ludat amnis era vicjoa alluens. 
Vullur reliiflo tranfvolel Tityo fenis, 
Meumque poEOsc remper acciefcat jeenr. 
El tu mei rrquiefce Pirlihoi paler. 
Usee incitatis membra turbinibus ferat 
Nufqaain refiflens urbe levoluto rola. 
Dehifce, icllus; recipe me, dinim chaoi, 
Recipe: haec ad umbras jullior iit>b[s via el\. 
Nalum Tequor, ne melue, qui maoes regis; 

Cafti ' 

wipe n 

At n rogarem fcelera, quam proni foreutl 
CHOR. Tliefcu, querelia lempus relcrnum raana. 
Nunc jufla nalo Calve, St abfconde ocius 
Difperfa fwde membra laniatu eflero 
THES. Hue, hue reliquias vehite cari corporis, 
Pondufque, & artus lemere congeilos date. 
Hippolytus hie efl? crimeii agnofco meum. 
Ego te peremi. ncu noceo^ tanium femel 
Soiufve lieiem, facinus aufurus pareos, 

Comple<flere anus, quodque de oalo ett fuper, 
Miferaode mtBdo peiftore incumbeos fovc. 
Disjefla genitor membra laccri corporis 
la ordinem dirpooe, & errantes loco. 

streams. I am perfectly aware what punishment annics 
me. and still more the punishment which I am, at the 
present, undergoing! Ohl ve criminal Manesj act a friendly 
part towards me, let the endless labor now bemg performed 
Of that miserable old man v\m sow <3^ ^^^Vi*. (Sisyphus) 

Lin« ..,3-..s,) HIPPOLYTUS. 

—let the rock which presses so heavily ujKin his weary 
hands be plac«d on these shoulders of mine, or let the 
river Eridanus, bringing its gtreains close to my mouth, 
disappoint me in my tnireting eagerness lo partake of 
them (as they are now doing with Tantalus) or let the 
wild vulture, which only leaves Tityus alone, to fly 
back again to him, and that my liver may be made 
to grow, like his, as a punishment, and to furnish a i>er- 
petual repast to the b:rds of prey I Or, thou Ixion, the 
Kther of mv dear friend Pirilnous, rest from thy labors 
in my behalf, and let that wheel, which never ceases 
from its eternal revolutions, receive these limbs of mine 
to be whirled round by its rapid movements I Open, 
Oh! Earth, receive me. Oh! terrible Chaos, receive me, 
I pray, this is the only way to the shades, that can do any 
sort of justice to a case like mine. I am following my 
son. and be in no alarm. Oh! Pluto I who goveraest the 
infernal kingdom I I shall come, this time, in a chaster 
frame of mind, and not as before, to carry off Proserpine, 
accompanied by Piri thou s.— when I do come receive me 
for ever in thy eternal home and never to come out 
again! I find that prayers do not move the Gods I But 
if 1 were to ask them to assist my criminal doings how 
ready they are then! 

CHOB. Oh! Theseus! What an eternity of time is taken 
up with thy own troubles! Now is the time to do what 
is right ana just towards a son (a proper funeral) and to 
hide away without delay the scattered remains which have 
been so shamefully mangled! 

THES. Here, attendants, convey me hither the remains 
of the dear corpse — Here (pointing lo the disfigured trunk) 
is a mass of bodily substance having no defined form ; 
hand me the different portions, which are so carelessly 
gathered together, (exclaiming) Here then is Hyppolytus! 
Oh! I acknowledge my odious crime I have killed thee, 
my son, nor indeed am I the only criminal agent! It is 
Neptune that dared to carry out this deed to its bitter 
end 1 I appealed to that father, I am now in the possession 
of a father's gift! Oh! cruel fate. Oh! my sad childlessness, 
thou snatchest away my son, when my life is already 
borne down by age and troubles! Let me embrace, at 
all events, the torn limbs, and whatever else there is lefl 
of my son— let me press it to my sad bosom and cherish it ! 
Oh! unhappy father that I am! but as a father, let me 
place in order [in a row) the lorn particles of my son's 
mangled body, and arrange the disjointed fragments 
where they should got Ah f Here 1 this \5 ft\e v*^ ^'^^ "'^^ 



Rcftilup partes, fortis heic dextrx locus; 

He c Ixva frenis dodla modemndis minus 

Ponenda. lacvi Uteris agnofco notns. 

Quam mngaa Iscrimts pars adhuc noftris aben! 

Durate Depidx lugubri officio manus, 

Fletufqne largos (iftite arrntes gcnie, 

Dum membra iiato genitor annumEral fuo, 

Corpufque iingit, hoc quid eft (orma carens, 

Et lurjie multo valnere abrujitum undique? 

Qax pars tui fit dubito, fed pars ell tui. 

Hcic, heic rcponc; non fuo, at vacuo loco. 

HsecDe ilia fuciea igne fidereo iiilriu. 

Inimica fle^ens luminai hnc cecidit decorP 

O dira fatal numinam o fffvus favor! 

Sic ad parentem natus ex volo ledil? 

En hxc fupreina dona geniloris cape, 

Srcpe effcrcndus. inlerim h«C '^rs feranl. 

Patefncile acerba csede funeftani doiiutn, 

Mopfopia clarU tota lameotis fa net. 

Vos apparate regii flammam rogi : 

At vcu per agios ciirporis parley vogas. 

Anquirile. iflam terra dcfotlam premat, 

Gravifque lellus impio capiti incubet. 

left hand to be put, that left hand so skilful in guiding 
those fatal reinsl I know those marks on the lef^ side; 
but how great a part of his body, alas I is as yet not forth- 
coming to receive my condolence! Oh! my tremulous 
hands, let me brace up my nerves to perform this tristful 
duty. Let my eyelids restrain their tears, and conlro! 
my inordinate weeping. [Whilst Theseus is counting and 
endeavouring to map out something in the shape of a 
body he soliloquises)— What is that which is wanted to 
complete the formation, as it is mutilated in every part 
and hideous to behold from the multitude of wounds, 
(taking up a piece) 1 am in doubt, to what part this belongs, 
but it is a part of thee I am sure! Here! Here! let me 
put it aside, not in its own place, perhaps, but to fill up 
some vacancy! Here, thouj^h, is that face of his, with an 
aspect like a fiery star, his eyes reflecting an angry ex- 

firession (towards the stepmother) thus! thus! has beauty 
alien! Oh I cruel fate I Oh! maleficent favors from the 
willing Neptune 1 And does he return thus, a son to 
his father^ as a satisfaction for the third vow! Oh! my 
son! receive these last offices of a father (at least for all 
we have discovered of thee), thou wilt have to receive 
several obsequies yet! in the meantime, the flames (the 
iineral pile) shall receive these! Let me now set open 
■s palace rendered so moll^cll^A ■incM,^ ii»& ^<^tffiil 

lanes 1258 — laSo] 



slaughter, and let all Athens resound ^th loud lamen- 
tation! (Addressing the Servants) Prepare the fire for a 
royal funeral pile! And look well, all of you, for any 
stray remains round about the fields! (Pomting to the 
body of Phsedra) Cover that body up in a hole dug in 
the ground, and let the rank soil rest heavily upon her 
impious head! 







Chokus Tmebanori'm. 




(li^lipuai. Negat primum ille, fed poflea dirciuirens invmil, [e 
tilium elTe Laji, quetn iDterfecerit, & Jocallx, quam uiorcm 
duxprat. IJIToriis Uaque prx pudore utquc ira ooulU in eiClion 
abit. & Jocefla fc gladio contodit. 


CEdipus de pcftitenli^ faivitia conquerilur. 

€ED. I AM noflc Titsn dubius expulfa rcdit, 
El nube m(xllum Tquallida exaritur jubar, 
Lnmenque ftamma (rifle luftilica gcrens 
Prorpiciel avida peRe folalas domos, 
Slragemque, quam nox fecit, ofteadet dies. 
Quifquatnne regno gaudet? o fallxx boDUm, 
Quaiilum malarum froDte qnam blanda tegis! 
L't altn ventos femper exeipiunl juga; 
Rupemque faxis varta dirimenlem freta, 
Quamvis qaieli, verberont fluAus mam: 
Impelia fix excelfa FoRunx objaceoL 
Qunm bcDe parenlii fceptra Polybi fugeram, 
Curis folulQs, exful, intrepidus, vagansi 
Cieluin Deofque leflor, in regnum incidi. 
Itifanda limeo, ne mea geoilor manu 
Perimatur. hoc me Delphici lauros mooeot, 
Aliudque nobis majus indicunl fcelui. 
En majus ali^uod palre mafialo nefas? 
Pro, mifera pietas! cloqui fatum pudeL 
Thalamos parentis Phccbus & diroa loro.i 
Nalo minatw, impia iaceflos face. 
Hie me paternis eipulit regnis timer. 
Nun ego peoales profugus execffi meos. 
Panim ipfe lidetis mihimet in tuto tua, 
Satura, pofui juia. cum tnagoo. ^lOTrens^ 

''''^* »-5l 






Old Man. 


^ DREADFUL pestilence attacking Thebes, Creon is sent to 
iDelphi to consult Apollo, who tells him that the death 
of Laius must be expiated bv the exile of the mur- 
derer, who was not known at tnat time. Tiresias tried 
the Soothsayers without success, but by the aid of 
Necromancy, the Ghost of Laius being summoned, 
he is informed that it was (Edipus who killed Laius. 
CEdipus denies this at first, but making diligent inqui- 
ries, subsequently, discovers that he was tne son of 
L»aius whom he had slain, and that it was Jocasta 
whom he had married. Thereupon, in very shame 
and remorse, havinjg put out his own eyes, he goes 
away into exile, ana Jocasta stabs herself with a sword. 


CEdipus complains of the cruelty of the Pestilence. 


PHCEBUS^ in a hesitating mood, is now returning again, 
the night having been banisned, and his fretful beams 
appear through the gloomy clouds, and shedding a 
iull light from his mournful rays : he can now look down 
m the homesteads rendered tenantiess by this ravaging 
pestilence, and his dull daylight, even, will suffice to 
jhow the havoc, which the preceding night has broughj 
ibout, revealing the mortal remains of those who have 
[>enshed from the pestilence! Let not any one rejoice 
in the possession of a Kingdom I Oh! uncertain enjoy- 
onent! How many are the drawbacks which thou con- 
cealest under so plausible an exterior! As the mountain- 
tops always receive the full force of the winds, and the 
waves of the sea, although becalmed, still beat languidly 
against the jutting headland with its low-lying rocks, 
which merely serve to divert the vast sea, as it approaches 
the shore! In like manner is exalted power exposed to 
the shifting changes of Fortune ! How well for me was 
iL when 1 had fled the kingdom of my Parent Polybus, 
(tor a time CEdipus regarded Polybus as his faXhet^ i^- 


Qux polTe fieri noD pules, Tneluas tamen, 
CuDifla eipavefco, meque hod credo mihi. 
Jamjam nliquid iti nos fata tnuliri pnmal. 
Nnm quid rear, quod ifti Csdmex lues 
Infefla genti, (Iraga lale edita 
Mihl parcil unif cui rererramur mala? 
Inter niimis urbis. Si femper novi« 
DeSenda licrim[s funera, ac populi nniem, 
Incolntnis addo. fcilicet Fhoebi reus 
Hperare polerns fceleribus Isulis doii 
RegDDiD Talubre? fecimus cicluin nocetis. 
Nod aura gelido Icnis afilalu fovet 
Anhela llBmmis corda: naa Zephyrt teres 
Spirml; fed ignes augel xdiferi Caoii 
Titan, Leonis terga Nemext premens. 
Dereruil amnes humor, alque herbu color. 
Arelque Dirce. leouis irmeaos ftuil, ,^i> ^ f*- 
El Itngit ioopi unda rix uoda vado. 
Obfcura ctelo labilur Pha5bi foror; 
TrifHrque mundua nubilo pallet doto. 
Nullum ferenis noflibus ftdus micat: 
Sed gravis & aler incubal tcrris vapor, 
Oblexil arces ccelilum ac fummas domos 
Infema facies. denegal fruflum Ceres 
Adults; & altis flova cum fpicis iremat, 
Arenle culmo ilerilis cmorilur fegei. 
Nee ulla pars immunls exitio vacat: 
Scd omnia Klas pariler & fens ruil, 
Juveuerque feoibus juagil, & natis palres 
Funefta peflis. una fax thalamus cremat: 

lieved from anxieties, though an Exile, bold and inclined 
to be a Wanderer I I call Heaven and the Gods to 
ness, that I literally fell into this Kingdom I I did not 
seek itl I have always been in fear of something awfijl 
(the predictions of the Oracle} lest mv father should be 
killed by my hand! (He did not want to kill Poljbus)- 
The Delphian Laurels gave me an audible indication, 
when 1 was warned of this by the oracle; at that time, 
too, it foretold that another ereater crime was to be 
committed by me! (when the Laurels cracked when pul 
into the flames, the augury was favorable; if they emined 
no sound, the prognostication was inauspicious). Can 
there be, one would suppose not, a greater crime than 
killing a Father? Oh! what a miserable conception do 
I entertain of what oueht Id be done! I was ashamed 
ever to breathe a word about my fate. Apollo predicts 
a dishonored marriage-bed for the Parent, and a dread- 
fill taAnisL^e for the Son— some incestuous union veiled 
by aa impious ceremonv\ 'V\«a 'saii <Ica few \\\at drove 

l-incs 26—55] CEDIPUS. 269 

me away from my father's kingdom (that of Polybus), but, 
sithoueh an exile, I have never lost sight of or disre- 
gardea my country's household gods; butj Oh Nature I 
Trhilst never trusting to myself or considenng myself in 
safety, I have ever observed the laws, but when one is 
homned at what one would think impossible to come to 

rss, one does go in some sort of dread, notwithstanding, 
fear every thmg and I have no confidence in myself, 
and the Fates are already preparing for something to 
befall me 1 For what can I suppose? That this dread- 
ful pestilence, which has fallen upon the people of 
Thebes, and spread far and wide with such destructive re- 
sults, is to be sparing to me alone? For what terrible 
calamity am I reserved? Amongst the ruins of the city, 
with deaths at every turn, and fresh causes for lamen- 
tation perpetually recurring, and the wholesale destruction 
of the people, I am still here! Safe I Spared I Surely, al- 
Aough condemned by Apollo, and being told off for so 
many crimes, one can at least reasonably hope for a 
hesdthy kingdom 1 (one free from pestilence). It is I, 
surely, who nave made the country pestilential I No soft 
breeze assuages with its refreshing breath the souls pant- 
ing with the fires of inward fever! No one inhales the 
baumy Zephyrs, but Phoebus, following close on the track 
of Leo (pressing against the back of the Nemaean Lion) 
adds considerably to the temperature induced by the 
Dog-star, noted tor its intense summer heatl (Tropic of 
Cancer.) The river tracks are deserted by their usual 
waters— and the grass loses its color — and the fountains 
of Dirce are dried up— the shallow Ismenus still struggles 
on, but scarcely covers its bed with the water so scantily 
flowing— Phoebe, the sister of Phoebus pursues her path, 
but only in the dullest of skies, and tne sad firmament 
is j;>ale with clouds, such as have never been known 
before — not a single star is seen to shine, even on the 
serenest of nights, but an oppressive and sombre moisture 
sorrounds the entire earth, and a darkness akin to that 
of the regions below overhangs the Empyrean heights, 
and the most elevated palaces of the denizens of Olym- 
pus I The com arrivea at full growth is not allowea to 
ripen and to be made use of, and the crops in their 
first stage of ripening (yellowness) actually tremble with 
the weight of the ears they bear on their slender stalks; 
and then those stems are burnt up by the scorching sun 
and the com dies away and rots! Nor is any part or 
place exempt from the destructiveness of this plague, but 
every age— every sex falls alike ! This dreadful pestilence 
joins indiscriminately the young with the old, patetvts 
with their children, and one common burial does ^o\5a. 


FletuqiK acerbo funera & quella carent. 
Quid ipfa lanli pervicax elides mali 
Siccavit oculos: quodiiue in eKtremis folel, 
Feriere lacrimx. ponat hunc seger parens 
Suprcmum ad ignem: maler hunc amens gerit; 
Properalquc, ut alium repeiat in euadem roBum. 
Quin Inftu in ipfo luAus exorilur 
Suseqae circa funus exfecjaiK cndu 
Turn propria flammis corpora, aliei 
Diripitat ignis, null us ell mifcris pa dor. 
Non ofTa lumuli ranfla dircieli legunt. 
Arfiffe fnlis ell. pars qaola in cinerei abjtJ 
Deell terra lumulia. jam rogos filvx negaut. 
Non rola, dod are ulla correptos levaiiu 
Cadunl medentes. morbus anxilium tinhil. 
Affufus aiis fupplices tendo manus, 
Matura pofcens lata, prxcnrnun ut prior 
Fatriam rueotem; neve pofl omnes cadam, 
Finmque regni funus extremum mei. 
O fsevB nimiuDi numiDa! o Taium gravel 
Negalur uni nempe in hoc populo milii 
Mora tam parala r fperne letali macu 
ContaiJla regnn. linque lacrimas, funeia, 
TabilJca cifli vitia, qux tecum mvehls 
InfauHus hofpes: profuge jamdadum ocins 
Vel ad pareotes. joc. Quid juvat, conjax, mala 
Giarare quetlu? regium hoc ipfura reor. 
Advcrfa capera; quoque (it dubins magis 
Status, & ciideatls imperii moles labal, 
Hoc flare cerlo prcflius fottem gradu. 
Hand ell virile, terga Portunse dare. 
CED. Abefl pavoris crimen ac probnim procul. 
Virtu fque noftra nefcit ignavos metus. 
Si tela contra Uriaa, Ti vis horrida 
Mavortis in nie rueret; adverfus feros 

for husband and wife at the same lime, and the bitter 
moanings and wailings, usual on such occasions, are oot 
observed, for such wholesale destruction (.so great an 
array of misery ) has sensed to dry up the eyes them- 
setvesi But all this is only what usually transpires, when 
affairs are at their worst— tears absolutely refuse to flow.— 
A feeble father carries one child to the funeral pile (its 
final end) — a mother, mad with grief carries a second 
one— she then hastens back to fetch another to the same 
pile, but a fresh source of grief arises in the tnidst of 
their present trouble, and often those, who are engaged 
in conducting the funeral ceremony of their children, are 
called upon to die themselves, wnilst in the act of^dis- 
cbarging their sad duVvcsV \ie.«iv. v^'^a Desuh! TheB 


they proceed to bum the bodies, which are consigned 
to certain piles, on the piles which were destined for 
others!— Then, there is a scramble as to what bodies 
should be burnt here or burni there— there is no rever- 
ential sentiment—no respect for the dead amongst those 
unhappy people; separate tombs cannot bury their re- 
mains according to tne sanctified custom— it is necessary, 
only, lo have them consumed by fire ! How large a 
portion pass away in this guise of incineration 1— But 
ground is wanting for the tombs; already the woods are 
iinable to supply burning materials (wood) for the piles! 
No vows are of^any avail then, and no skill can a!le\-iate 
those that are seized I The medicine-men die as well, 
and the spreading disease drags away with itself the soli- 
tary aid, which once strove to contend against it (the 
healing art). Prostrating myself before the sacred altars, ] 
I will stretch forth my supplicating hands and ask for 
my fate to be at once decided, and that I may forestal 
my ruined country by dying first! Or, shall I not ' 
allowed to fall, even after allthe others have disappt 
ed. or shall I be made the last sacrifice of ray Kingdom! 
Oh! ye too severe Sisters (the Fates). Oh! relentless 
fate ! I suppose that death, which is so ready with its 
work towards my subjects, is not denied lo me alone! 
Let me despise a kingdom, which has been in contact 
with my lethal presence!— let me escape from the lament- 
ations, the funerals and the deadly poisons of the sky, 
which I. an unfortunate guest have brought with me— 
let me fly away quickly, or let me even return to my 
parents. Polybus and Merope! (He always thought [hey 
were his parents.) 

joc. Why dost thou take such pleasure, Oh! my hus- J 
band! in harassing thyself with such doleful compIaintsF ' 
I am of opmion, that the first duty of royalty is to with- 
stand adversity (by bearing up against it) and the more pre- 
carious its condition is, and the more that the weight and 
authority of waning power slips away, it is for the really 
brave man in such a position as this, to stand his ground 
with increased firmness! (Like the soldiers who deem it 
dishonorable to cede the place they occupy during a 
batdc, to the enemy.) It is not courageous to turn thy 
back upon Destiny! 

(ED. The charge of fear or shame, in my case, is cer- I 
tainly a stranger to me and my courage ignores all idle 1 
alarms. If any number of swords were unsheathed against I 
me and even if the tremendous fury of Mars himself were L 
to fall upon me, I should not quail,! wo\i\dco\iTa.¥,eQM^l 



Audan Eigantea obvias fertem mmms. 

Ncc Sphinga cxcis verba ne^eoKm modis 

Fue>' cmcDios vatU mfaodx tuli 

Riftus, & albeos olTibus fparfis folum. 

Camque e ruperna rupe, jam pficda: immin 

Aptard alas verbere, & csudani movcDS, 

Saevi leoois more, concipetet minus, 

Carmen popofci. fonuit horrendum. infuper 

Crepuere mals; faxaquc impalieos nnoroe 

Rcvullll un^is, vifccra exfjirflaiis mea. 

Nodofa forlis verba, & implexos dolos, 

Ac D-ide carmen alilis foWi hrm. 

joc. Quid Tera mortra vota none demens facis? 

Licuit perire. laudis hoc pretium libi 

Sceplrum, & peremlie Sphtngis luec merccs datnr. 

tXD. Ilk ille dims callidi monftn cims 

In nos rebetlat. ilia nunc Thebas lues 

Peremta perdil una. jam fupercft falus, 

^i quam Talulis Diccbua oHeodil oiam. 


m deplorat Chorus e ThebHuis, 


li Ecaerofa prolel 
Urbe cum Iota, viduna colonb 
Refpicis tertoa, mireraoda Thebe. 
Carpi tur leto tuus ille, Bacche, 
Mi1e«, exDvmos comes ufque «d Indos, 
Aufos Eois etjuitare campis, 
Figere & muado tua figna primo. 
Cinnami fdvis Arabea bealos 
Vidil, & veifas equilis fagillas, 

advance with these hands of mine, against the giants 
themselves 1 Nor did I run away from the Sphinx who 
dealt forth her oracular utterances in such obscure 
enigmas! I bore, without flinching, the sanguinary grin- 
nings of that wicked old prophetess, and regarded, with- 
out dismay, (he ground scattered about with the bleached 
bones of those who had failed to solve her riddles ! And 
wlien from her proud rock, looking upon me, as her 
certain prey, she flapped her wings, ready for a swoop, 
and shaking her tail after the fashion of the savage lion— 
and, as she was meditating her threats, I coolly asked hei 
for her verses— she sounded them forth with a horrible 
voice and then her jaws (leeth) gnashed, and impatient 
of any delay she tore away at the rock with her claws, 
waiting for my entrails! In the meantime, I solved the 
iweich'ed verges of this wild, ■winged creature, the different 

joc. Why dost thou in this demented way rake up. thus 
late, thy desire for death? It was auitc competent for 
thee to havQ^ied long ago (instead of answering the 
Sphinx correctlji), but now the Kingdom is given to thee 
for the honor thou deservest and as a reward for the 
victory over the Sphinx, that has now perished! 

fED. She, or rather iKl ashes of that cunning monster 
may turn against us, and thai plague, which has destroyed 
Thebes, may destroy us— only one hope of safety is left, 
and that is if Apollo will point out to us any means 0( 
arriviag at such security! ' 


The Chorus of Thebans bewails the severit; 

OH I noble descendants of Cadmus ye are falling a 
prey to the pestilence together with the entire 
City I Oh! miserable Thebes! Years now looking 
down on a land despoiled of its inhabitants 1 Oh ! Bac- 
chus 1 Those companions of thine are snatched away by 
Death, who followed thee to the far-off Indies— who 
ventured to ride on the Eastern plains and to plant thy 
standards in a world which was quite new to thee I 'I"hej 
have seen the Arabs happy and contented with their 
forests of Cinnamon trees, and they have witnessed the 
arrows of the cunning Parthian horsemen shot forth and 
anxiously regarded those backs, which were always lobe 
dreaded. Cnie Farthians shot their arrows, whilst pre- 
tending to be making a flying retreat.) Thev, it was, who 
approached the shores of the Red Sea: there Phcebus 
is early in his advent and visits the naked Indians with 
indications of his closer proximity and calorific intensity 
(making their skins black)— we are burying the descen- 
dants of an unconquered race~we are disappearing, a 
cruel destiny snatching us away I There is alwajfs some 
fresh funeral pageant being conducted as a Tribute to 
King Death I A long row of our sad people are hurried 
off on their way to the shades below, and the mournful 
train is interrupted in its progress, and although the Seven 
Gales lie open (affording free room) there are not suffi- 
cient tombs for those reguirine sepulture! Far and wide 
this human havoc prevails and one funeral after anothexj 
perpetually pressing its way on, and the p\ace a.\l^l^\^ ' 




Terga fallacis mctueada Panhi. 
Lilu.i intravil pelagi nihentis. 
Promit hie onus, Bperitqiie lucem 
Phcebus, & flunma propiorc Dudos 
In licit Indos. 

Slirpis iavi^l^ genus interimus. 
Labimur fa:vo rapienle fatu. 
Ducitur feinpet novn. pompa Morli. 
Longus ad manes properatur onlo 
Agminis nKedi, reriefque iriftis 
Hxrci; & lurbx tamulos pelenti 
Nod fatis feptem paiaere portse. 
Stal gravis lltages, pretnilurque juDiflo 
Funere funua. 

s tardas leligit bidentet; 

ues male csqifil berbai. 

s [leierat (iKeidos; 
Dum manus certum pa rat alia vatnni, 
Aurco laonis ratilanle cornu 
Labtlur regni&. patuit fub iiflu 
Pondeiis vadi refolulo cfrvii; 
Nee cnior fcmim maculsvit, atra 
Turpi; e plaga faiiies profufB eft. 
Segniof curCu fonipes in ipfo 
Concidit gTTo, domiaamque prono 
Prodidit anno. 

Incubanl pratis pecudes reliAa;. 
Taurus anneulo pertunle mnrcet. 
Deficit paflor grefje diminnio, 
Tabidos iiiier mariens juve>icoG. 
Nbn lupos ccrvi metuant rapBces. 
CelTat irati fremitus leonis. 
Nulla villofis Terilas in urlis. 
Perdidil peftem latebrofa ferpeos: 
Aret, & flcco morilur veueno. 
Nan liivn (un dccorata coma 
Fundit opacis montibus umbras. 
Non rura vireut ubere glebx. 
Non plcnn fuo vilis laccho 
Bracbia curvat 

Omnia Doflrum feufeie malum. 
RupSre Erebi clauftra profundi 
Turba fororum face Tartarea: 
Phtegethonque fua molam lipa 
Mifcuit undis Siyga Sid on i is. 
Mors alta avidus oris hiatus 
Pandit, & onmes explicat alas. 
Quique capaci lurbida cyinba 
Flumina ferval dams fenio 
Navita crudo, vix afTiduo 
Brochia conto laffata refert, 
FetTus lurbam veftare no^am. 

with the carcasses, which are strewn about. The in 
tion first attacking the slow-moving sheep: and the 
wool-bearing flocks nibbled the rank grass, only lo iheir 
own destruction! (Sheep move slowly whilst feeding and 
thus inhaled more copiously, it was supposed on that 
account, the poison rising from the Earth.) The Priest 
has paused whilst about to apply his sacrificial knife to 
the necks of the victims, and wnilst his hand is poised 
and he is making what be thinks is a successful aim, the 
bull with its ruddy golden horas falls down helplesslv and 
its neck being onlv partially detached from its bodv by 
the heavy blow of the hatchet eapcs open- but no blood 
has stained the knife— only a black gore and foul humor 
issue from the gash I (This indicates the poisoned con- 
dition of the circulating fluids.) The horses, too, in the 
middle of the race, lose their galloping powers, totter 
and throw their jockeys headlong over their shoulders at 
the same time that they fall themselves. The cattle that 
are left lie listlessly about the meadow and the Bull 
pines away, as he sees the herd (especially the females) 
dying at every turn ! The shepherd, then, is missed from 
amongst the much reduced nocks, dying in the very 
midst of the diseased plague-stricken catfle I The stags 
no longer go in dread of the rapacious wolves— the roaring 
of the savage lion is no longer heard-no fierceness, now, 
characterizes the shaggy bears, and the very serpent, which 
remains hidden, has lost its poisonous powers— it becomes 
parched up and its virus becomes dry (does not flow). 
It then diesl The forest is not decorated with its usual 
foliage, and casts no shade over the dusky mountains— 
the country is no longer verdant with the exuberance of 
its tur^ nor does the vme curve downwards with it branch- 
es loaded with grapes for its own dearly beloved Baccjiusl 
All things have felt the effects of the terrible plague— the 
three sisters, Tisiphone, Alecio and Megrera. with their 
infernal torches have burst forth from the entrances of 
the depths of Erebus! And the Phlegethon has mingled 
the streams of the St>Ti. which it has driven from its 
banks, with the waters of Thebes (Sidonian), and Mors, 
freely imfolding its wings flies above our heads, and 
shows us the pardngs of its rapacious mouth (jaws), and 
that inflexible boatman (Charon) who guards the lurbid 
river (Styx) in that capacious craft of his, although vigorous 
in his old age, with difficulty now, raises his weary arras 
lo ply his never-resting pole in urging onwards his barque, 
and seems too tired-out to convey across his river any 
fresh importations of departed humanity; there having 
been such increased demands upon his esertions on 
account of the plague, and, more than iliat, r^vete \^ •» 


Quin TiEEiarei vmcuU fcrri 
RupilTc cinem fmna, & Dollria 
ErnUTe locis: mugiHe rolam: 
Vaga per lucos fimulacra virlim 
Majors vitis: bis Cadmeum 
NiTB dircuITa tremuilTe nemus. 
Bis turbalam fanguine DirceD: 
Noae nienli 

AinphioBios ululafTe canes. 
O dira nuvi facjes leti, 
Gravior leto! piger igoHVOs 
Alligal titus languor; & xgro 
Rubor in vuUu, maculxque caput 
Sparfere leves: turn vapor ipfam 

Multoque gcoas (an^ine rmdit. 

Oculique rigent, St facer ienis 

Pafcitur sTLus. refoDaDl aures, 

Stillatque niger naris aduacx 

Cnior, & venas nunpil binnles, 

latima creber vifcera qualTat 

GEtnilus {Irideos. tunc araplexu 

Frigida prelTo faxa fatigaut; 

Quos liberior domus elalo 

Cuftode finil, peliiis fontes, 

Aliturque fitis latice ingeno. 

Froftrata jacet turba per Bras, 

Orati^ue moii. folum hoc faciles 

Tribuere Dei. Delubra petunt, 

Haud ut Tolo QUmina placeat, 

Sed juvat ipfos faiiare Deos. 

Quiraam ille propero regiam ercQa petit? 

Adeftne clams fanguiae ac factis Cieof 

An icgei animus falfa pro vcris videl? 

AdeH petitus omnibus votis Crco. 

report [hat the dog which was fasleoed to Taenana 
(Cerberus) has broken away from his iron chains, and 
is wandering at large over our country; also it is said, 
that the Earth has been making a roaring noise (symp- 
toms of the earthquake) and that Ghosts like men, but 
much larger than ordinary human beings, have beea seen 
wandering about the graves and forests (this points to 
the cerebral disturbance of those afflicted with the pla^e 
hallucinations, the delirium resulting from a highly febrile 
state), and that the groves of Cadmus have twice trembled 
again from the effects of the sudden melting of the snow, 
and that the fountains of Dirce have been rendered turbid 
from the presence of biood in ils streams, and that the 
dogs of Thebes, AmpV\on-\j>jiiJ.T\it'DesVia.Nfe\Kea known 

— J0(] 


to howl throughout the whole of the silent night I Ohl 
cruel manifestationg of a newlv-invenled kind of bodily 
destruction, so much more appalling than ordina.ry Death! 
Oppressive languor impedes the very motions of the 
joints and a hectic flush setUes on the sick man's doim- 
cast countenance 1 And small spots scattered here and 
there appear about the upper parts (pustules, petechise 
livid spots like flea-biles, indicative of the poisoned 
condition of the blood); then the fiery heats (fever tem- 
perature) bum up the crowning part of the body (the 
head, Che seat of the brain and mind, and the organs of 
the senses), and then the heat (fever at its height) dis- 
tends the eyes and eyelids with blood (suffusion) and the 
eyes have a vacant stare, and are rolled with difhculty, 
and then this heat, like some internal lire, seizes, as its 
prey, on the limbs and joints; then ringing noises in the 
cars come on, and a black sanious secretion flows from 
the nostrils, put literally out of all shape from being so 
swollen: then it forces its way through the distended veins, 
which, becoming ruptured, give wayl (causing extravasa- 
tion). The frequent and acute groaning endanger the 
internal viscera (giving rise to hiccough, eructations and 
violent fits of coughing); then the cold marble is deprived 
of its refrigerating effects, from being so constantly made 
use of, and instead of imparting an impression of cold, it 

S'ves out only the warmth which it has acquired from 
e perpetual bodily contact of the fevered mortals that 
(\y to it ; and when having no one to look after them the 
sick are permitted more licence— the master of the house 
himself having been only recently buried— they rush to 
the fountains to allay their feverish thirst, and that thirst 
is only aggravated by the water which they imbibe 1 

A large array of victims to this pestilence prostrate 
themselves before the altars and pray for death I this is 
a blessing which the kind Gods never refuse humanity! 
but in this case, they betake themselves to the temples, 
not that the Gods might vouchsafe to respond to their 
prayers, but more as a feeling of satisfaction, that they 
may tire out the Gods by letting them see the misfortunes 
that have been permitted to befall mankind, continually 
brought to their notice! But who is this who hastens 
with such rapid steps towards the palace? Is it not Creon 
of noble race and the man chosen for a lucky destiny? 
Or is one, in an enfeebled condition of mind and body, 
merely mistaking the shadow for the substance (do \ 

see false or true)? Yes I it 
ipatientjy wailing with one accord 



; we have been 



itfus Delphis Creon tiuDti&t, Jubere Deum, ut man Lajl'8 
tur, nee prius ceffatunini peflem, qusm in exfiliam mittBrar 
inlerfeflor ejus; de qno, quia hoq ooniinfttur, anbigitur. 


E quitioT, fata quo vergAut tincD*, 
TreplduRiquc gcmina peflus erentu lubal. 
Ubi l^ela durjs minla in ambiguo jacent, 
InccTtus aaitnus fcire cum cupiat, timet. 
Germane noflrse conjugis, feflis openi 
S[ quam reporlas, voce properatu edoce. 
cs. Rerponiit dubia forle perplexo. lelcnt. 
(ED. Dubinm Talutem qui dal sffliflis, negat. 
CK. Ambige nexa Dclpliico mos ell Deo 
Arcana tegere, iXD. Fare, lit dubium licet: 
Ambigiia foli Dofcere CEdipodx datnr. 
CR, Cipdera expiari regiam cxfdio Deus, 
Et iDteremtain LaJum ulcifci jubet. 
Non «nle cirlo lucidua cunet dies, 
HauHufqae tutos xtheris puri dabit. 
(Et>. Ecquis percintor inditi regis fuil? 
Quem memorel, edc, Phcebus; ul pteoas lual. 
CR. Sit, prccor, dixilTe tutum vifu & auditu borrida. 
Torpor infedit per artus, frigidus fanguis cott. 
Ul lacrala lempta Pticebi fupplici inlravi pede, 
EC pias, nmaeD precatus, rite fummifi manus: 


Creon, having relumed from Delphi reports that the God 
(Apollo) decreed that the death of Laius should be 
expiated, and that the pestilence would not cease 
till this was done— that his murderer should be sent 
into exile; but it is doubted as to who it can be, as 
he was not pointed out by name. 

I AM shaking with dread, fearing what the Fates (this 
response of Apollo) are preparing for me, and ray 
misgiving mind is hesitating between the two results 

('/'rop/tious and unpropitious). When ^ood tidings, associated 

^^^^^ ao(^-a»6] CEDIPUS. 279 

^tl unfavorable news, are brought to our notice, they 

»^^esent an ambiguous front, and the wavering mind 

?"^^tually dreads to be enlightened about that at which it 

^. most anxious to arrivei Oh I Thou brother of my 

^ife, if thou hast brought any consoling relief to my 

oppressed womout spirit tell me out quickly 1 

OR. The obsctu-e responses of Apollo, are hidden from 
mj comprehension in a puzzling fashion. (Probabilities 
and possibilities.) 

CED. He who proffers an uncertain protection to any- 
one in trouble, practically refuses to oner any. 

CR. It is the custom, you know, for the Delphian God 
to mystify his utterances in a net-work of obscurities. 

CED. Speak, I am willing even that it should be doubtful ; 
it is quite in keeping with (Edipus alone, to deal with 
ambiguities, which, quite lately, I did myself with the 
enigma of the Sphinx. 

CR. The God orders that the murder of the king shall 
be expiated by the exile of the perpetrator, and that the 
murdered Laius shall be avenged, and not before that, 
will bright Day afford us a serene sky, or give us the 
blessing of being able to inhale the pure air of Heaven I 

CED. But who was the murderer of that illustrious King? 
Tell me, whom did Apollo name as the culprit, in order 
that he may suffer the punishment, that is due to him? 

OR. So be it ! But I do hope that I shall preserve my 
mental balance (contain myself) whilst I speak of things 
to be seen or spoken of. A numbness passes over my 
entire body, and my blood seems to curdle at the thought. 
When I first entered the sacred portals of Apollo's temple 
with a suppliant step and, following the custom, raised my 
hands in the attitude of prayer and straightway invoked 
the Crod and in the same second of time, both the tops 
of snow-clad Parnassus, Tithoreus and Hyampeus, gave 
forth a diabolical sound and the sacred Laurels over- 
hanging the entrance trembled again and shook the 
temple itself; and on a sudden the water of the Castalian 
fountain ceased to flow, and the Lethaean priestess, Pythia, 
(because the responses were forgotten as soon as delivered) 
began briskly to shake out her terrifying locks, and in a 
state of excitement (usual on such occasions). When pre- 
paring to receive the inspiration of the God, ApoWoikaA 

Gemina ratnafTi nivalis nrx [mcem fouitum iledil ; 

Imminent FhicheB 1 auras tremuit & movit domum, 

Ac repenie faiictiL fontis lympha Caflalii fleti). 

locipil Lelhue vales fpargere horremes comas, 

& pali commota Phcebum. contigit nondura f| ecum. 

Etnicat vsllo fragoce malor humano fuDus: 

"Milia Cadmeis remcabunt ildera Thebis, 

Si profugus Direen irmeoida liqueris horpes. 

Regis cf de nocens, Phccbo jam nolus & iufaus, 

Nee libi longa maneni fcelerala: gaudia ccdis. 

Tecum bella geres; nalii quoque bella [eiioqura- 

Turpis maternos jterum re vol ut us in ortus." 

CED. Quod fncere mooilu ccelllum julTus pare, 

Fun^i cioFribua regis boc decuit dari, 

Ne Tancla quifquain fcepira violarel dola. 

Kegi lueuda moxime regiun eli TbIus. 

QueritUT peremtum nemo, quem iDColumem timeu 

CR. Curatn pureinti major eicunil timor. 

<XD. Pium pmbibuil ullus officium meWsf 

CD. SphiDx & nerandi carmiDis iriftes minse. 

CED. Nunc expielur numitium imperio fcelus. 

Quifquis Deorum regua placaiui vide*; 

Tu, lu, iienes quem jura pneciptlis polij 

Tuque, o fereqi mini mum muadi decus, 

Bis fena curfu figna qui vario regis, 

Qui larda celeri Tecola 

Sororque fratri femper i 

Koilivaga Plitebe; quiqi 

MnaoT per altum cwrnlos cQiTiis Bgis; 

Et qui careiitis luce difponis domos, 

AdeRe, cujus Laius dextra occidit, 

Hunc Qon qnicta teifla, non iidi laics, 

Nun hofpitatis cxfuletn lellus ferat. 

Thalamis pudrndis doleal & prole impia. 

Hie & parentem dexlera perimat fua; 

not as yet reached the inner part of the cave, when 
presently, a sound issued forth louder than any human 
voice, and with a sonorous preliminary crash, delivered 
the Oracle; [The Oracles were always delivered in 
Hexameters.) "A pure atmosphere (free from pestiferous 
influences! will come again to Cadmean Thebes if the 
stranger, now there, and the murderer of the King Laius 
quits, as an exile, the places round about Dirce, whose 
streams flow into the Ismenus; he' is already known to 
Apolio, and was known, when an Infant;— nor will there 
be^ even, any lengthened enjoyment of life, or any benefit 
arising out of that wicked murderl Thou, the murderer, 
Shalt be at war perpetually with thyself, and thou shalt 
leave naught but mtemecine war for thy sons; that man 

is base, who returns to his mother with incestuous intenlf; 
(literalJy, to approach sexually the very parts whence I 
emerged, when coming into existence. 

(ED. I am ready to do everything that I am com- 
naanded to do by tne Gods : it is only right that such a 
tribute should be offered to the ashes of the defunct 
king, but lest any one should try to violate the sanctity 
of the sceptre by treachery, the best interests of kings are 
best looked after by kings. No subject really laments the 
loss of a king of whom he might have been in dread 
whilst that king was in existence! 

CR. A greater fear might usurp the place, which anxiety 
about the dead might otnerwise call forth. ' 

(ED. Has any fear ever prohibited the performance of J 
a religious duty? I 

CR Yes I The Sphinx and the ominous threats in those ] 
horrible verses of hers (The Enigma). 

(ED. At the command of the Deities therefore, the 
crime shall be expiated, Whosoever of the Gods is now 
looking down with favor iipon this kingdom; and ihoul 
Jupiter, oh ! thou ruler of Olympus, by whose power the 
swiftly-moving heavenly bodies pursue their course; ancl 
thou, Oh! Phcebus, the chief ornament of ihy own serene 
kingdom, who directest the twelve signs of tne Zodiac in 
their various (respective) revolutions, who markest out 
with thy rapid chariot the stowly-passing ages; and thou, 
oh I Phcebe, who with thy chariot wanderest through- 
out the night, thou sister who art always meeting thy 
Brother I And oh I thou, Neptune, who art all-powerful 
in thy dominions over the winds and drivest thy sea-blue 
chariot over the vasty deepl (.Solus is not included here 
although God of the Winds); and thou! Pluto I who rulest 
over the dark abodes in the regions below I Cornel Tell 
mel by whose right hand did i.aius fall? Whoever he 
may be let him enjoy no untroubled homestead, let no 
faithful household Gods show him any respect, and let no 
country extend to him its hospitable shelter I Let him 
suffer all the penalties arising out of an incestuous mar- 
riage and a tamted ofTspringf And he that would kill a 
parent with his own hand, and do. . . . Well I What could 
there be imagined worse? The very things that I have 
avoided— Parricide and Incest 1 let tnere be no hope of 
pardon for such a man 1 I swear by my sceptre and b^ 
kingdom where I now am as stranger, anAXj-j ft^as. 


Faciatque (num quid grovius opt3r[ poled!) 
Quidquid ego (ugi. non erit veoia locus. 
Per regna juro, quzqne nunc hofpea geto, 
E< quse reiiqui; pprque peoenales Deos: 
Per le, pater Neptnoe, qui fluAii brevi 
Uttinque uolira gemious alluiliii folg. 
Et ipfe ooflris vocibus teflis veni 
Fatidica valis am Ciirheie movem. 
Ita molle fenium ducal, A rummum diem 
Secunu alto rcddal in folio piircn!i, 
Solafque Merope noveril Palybi faces, 
L'l nulla foiitem gratia eripiet mihi. 
Srd quo nefanduni facinus admifluni loco eft, 
Memoruo, aperto Marte, an inlidiia jacel? 
CR. Froudifera fan^n nemora CaftaliK peteiu, 
Calcavit safkh obriluro dumis ilrr; 
Trigetaioa qua fe fpargit id campos via. 
Secal una gratum Phocidoa Baccho folum, 
Made allui ima deferil, ccelum pelcas, 
Ciemenli'T a^o colic, Pamalfos biceps. 
At una bimares Sififphi terras adit, 
Otenia in arva. teiliue Ironies cava 
Convalle ferpeaa, tangit emnles aquas, 
Gelidumque dinmit amnU El«i vadum. 
Hie pace fretutn fubita prxaoaam mauus 
AggrefFa ferro faciaus occultam tulit- 
In lempore ipfo, forte FIuEbea excitus, 
Tirefm tremulo tardus acceleral genu, 
Comefquc Manio luce vidualum traheus. 


Tiiefuls per hanirpicium eruere Laji inlerfciflorum teaUt, fed 
propter tritlia eitifpicia iofeifla ad necromantiam •■- •■• 


CED. K^ ACHATE Divis, proximum Phcebo caput, 

Refponfa folve; fare, qurm po:Dce pclant. 

TIR, Quod tarda talu eft liogua, quod quserit mora* 


which I have recently left, and by my household gods, 
and by thee. Father Neptune, who with thy twofold 
presence sportest with thy gentle waves upon my native 
shores— my native isthmusi and cornel Apollo thyself and 
bear testimony to my words, who inspirest the prophetic 
lips of the Cirrhean priestess, that ray Parent, Polybus, 
may pass his life to a tranquil old age, and grant him 
security on his elevated ihrone, and may Merope never 
know any oilier husband but Polybus— listen whilst I 

vow, that mercy shall never be shown by me towards 
the murderer of LaiusI But tell itie how and in what cir- 
cumstances was this horrible crime comraitled— was it 
the result of an open honorable combat, or was the 
murderer (assassin-lilce) lying in wait for Laius, in order 
to perpetrate this premeditated act of High Treason? 

CR. Laius was wending his journey towards the shady 
groves near the Caslalian fountains (to consult the Oraclej 
and traversed a road thickly interspersed with brambles; 
and there is a spot which opens out in three directions, 
leading towards the iields-one of these roads divides 
off the country about Phocis, so dear to Bacchus, 
whence as you pass the hill with an easy ascent, you 
come to the two-lopped Parnassus seeking, as it does, its 
way- to the clouds, and this Parnassus looks down on the 
valleys below, but another road, the second, leads on to 
Sisyphus; Olenus, the third road, which winds round a 
hollow valley, comes quite close to the meandering streams 
and divides off the cool waters of the Ilissus. Here, 
Laius, quite relying upon being free from any sort of 
danger, was attacked by a band of robbers, who took 
his life, without any witnesses to prove the murder of 
the king; (at this moment, having been instructed and 
commanded by Apollo, Tiresias. slow with advancing 
age, attempts to accelerate his pace with trembling knees, 
and his daughter Manto leading the blind old man, r" ' 
his faithful guide). 

^Kiresias tries to discover the murderer of Laius through 
^B the soothsayers, but the matter not being cleared up, 
^B on account of the failure of the divinations by means 
^M of the entrail — inspections, now betakes himself to 



i! Tiresias! so reverenced by the Gods, and thol 
nearest friend of Phcebus, explain the responses of 1 
the oracle I Speak I Who is the culprit deservmg of 

TiR. It is scarcely reasonable, that thou shouldst be sur- 
prised why my tongue is so slow lo speak, or why it 
requires time to enable me to do so; thou must rememoet 
that a great part of what might reveal the lrMVV\s\«AiEQ. 


Haud te (juidem, iDBgnsnime, mbari nddtcel. 

Vifu careoli magnn pars veri lalet. 

Sed qua Tocat me patiia, quo Phcebos, fequar. 

Fata eiuantur. fi foret viridis miW 

Calidurque fanguis, pefiore exeiperem Deum. 

Appcllitc aris cmdidum leigo bovein, 

CuTJuque nunquam colla deprEflum jugo. 

Tu, lucis inopem, cala, geuitorem legens, 

MaoireltB facii flgna falidici refer. 

MAN. Opinm TanfUs vidlima aote aias rtetit, 

TIR. In vota Alperos vota folemni voca, 

Aisfque dono inutis Eoi exflnie. 

MAN, Jam thura facris ctclilum iogetll focia. 

TIR. Quid flamma, largas jnmiie comprendil dapcs? 

MAN. Subito refullit lumine, & fubilo occidil. 

TIR. Ulranine clarus ienis, i nitidns ftctit, 

Reftufque pumm verticem ca:lo tnlit, 

Et rnmioBiD io auras fufus explicuit comamF 

An latera circo ferpit incertus vite, 

El fliuiluuite turbidus fumo lahat* 

MAN. Nod una facies mobilis Qamni«e fuit: 

Imbrifera qualis impiicat varios llbi 

Iris cdiares, parte qu;e magna poli 

Curvita picto Duntiat nimboii nou. 

Quis deffl illi, quifve Tit, dabiles, color. 

Cieruica fulvis mixta oberravil notis, 

SsDgainea rurfus; ultima in tcnebras abit. 

Sed ecce pugnax ignis io partes dnas 

Di feed it, Sc It fcindit unius facri 

Dircors favilla. genilor, horrerco iotncos, 

Libnta Bacchi dona pcnnulal ciuor, 

Ambilque denfus regium fumus caput. 

Ipfofque circa fpiffior vuItUB fedet, 

El nube denra foididam lucem abdidit. 

Quid Ct, parens, elTare. TlR. Quid far! qaeam 

Inler tumullus mentis alloiiillE vagoa? 

Quidaim loqnari faat dira, fed id a]to, mala 

from me owing to my blindness. But when my counti; 

^ — -ids ir- — -■ ->-— ■--" • 

; the 


demands my presence, and where Apollo coes, I must 
follow; the Fates at al! events must be ifioroughly threshed 
out— if my former hale youth were in my favor, and 

ray warm blood coursed through my veins as of yore, 
Apollo would be within me in his entirety, pervading me, 
through and through, with his inspiring power. Now bring 
to the altars a perfectly while bull, one whose neck has 
never been bowed down to the curved yoke— Thou, my 
daughter, guide of thy blind father, inform me as to the 
various appearances, presenting themselves at this pro- 
phetic sacrifice. 

Lioes 394-330] CEDIPUS. 285 

MAN. A tractable victim is now standing in front of 
ttic sacred altar. 

TiR. Invoke the Gods with prayers in a solemn voice 
^md strew the altars well with offerings of Sabaean frank- 

BCAN. I have already supplied the frankincense for the 
Sacred altar of the Gods. 

TIR. What about the fire? Does it bum up yet any 
considerable portion of the offering? 

iCAN. It varies : sometimes it brightens up quite suddenly, 
9nd then again, it flags as suddenly. 

TIR. Which of the two? Does the fire remain clear and 
l>right and go straight up into the sky, preserving that 
Nearness and brightness right away to the very top, and 
^iistribute the brightest flames when they reach the air in 
equal radiations? Or, uncertain in its direction does it 
liover and spread round the sides of the altar, and becom- 
ing turbid resolve itself into smoke travelling all sorts of 

BfAN. The ascent of the flames presents by no means 
any uniformity, very much indeed, as the rainbow, the 
herald of approachmg showers, clothes itself in varying 
colors and over a large portion of the sky, announces to 
us the threatening clouds in its painted arc— One is con- 
stantly in doubt, what color is wanting in one place, and 
what is present in another— (the colors present no succes- 
sive oraer). The flames, at first blue, are now dotted 
about with brownish patches, then again, these change 
into blood-red, and finally, they pass off in a dark smoke 
(without thoroughly consuming the carbonaceous matter). 
What can all that be? Oh! my parent, tell me what 
it portends I 

TIR. How can I speak, when such a tumult of va^^e 
surmises takes possession of m]r astounded mind? How 
shfldl I speak? Why I they are indications of some dread- 
fid crime or other, but they are hidden away so high, 
you say, not to be easily discerned on account of tne 
blackness of the smoke; the anger of the gods is gener- 
aUy indicated by signs such as these I What is this, they 
wish to disclose one minute and the next decline to do 
so. (The blackness following obscures that which has gone 
before, and they thus partially conceal, the severe dxi^et 


oilendi Doiis. 
Quid inud efl, quod elTe prolatum volunC, 
Itcrumque doIudI, & IruceG irns leguat? 
Pudcl Deos nefcb quid, hue propere admove, 
Et fparge falfa colla tauromm mola. 
PiikcidoDe vuUn ficra & admolas loaiius 
Patiuolurf MAN. Altum taurus utloHeus caput, 
Primos ad ortus pofnus, ei^pavlt d:em, 
Trepidufque vultum Tohs & radios fugil. 
TIR. Unone lerram vulaere aflliifli petuni? 
MAN, Juvenca ferro (emet impofilo iuduil, 
Et vuluere uno cecidit: al taurus, duos 
PerpelTus iflus hue & hue dubius ruit, 
Animamque feiTus vix relncISDiem exprlmil. 
TIR. Utrum citalus vulnere anguno mical, 
An leulus altai iirigal plagas cruotf 
MAN. Hujus per ipfam, qua pstel peiflus, viam 
Eflufus amuis: hujus rxiguo graves 
Macuiantur iiflus imbre. fed verfus retro 
Per ora multus fangiTiii alque oculos redil. 
TIK. Infaufla magitoE facra tenores inent. 
Scd ede crtlii vitcerum nobis ootas. 
UAN. Genitor, quid hoc efl? noa levi molu, ut [ 
Agitata trepidint exia; fed lotas maaus 
Qualiunt: noiufque profilit veuis cruor. 
Cot maicet Eegnim peailus, ac merfum latet; 
Livenfque »cui; magna pais Gbris abeft; 
El rdle nigro labidum (pumat jecur. 
Ac, Temper omen unico impetio grave, 
En capita paribus bina conriu^unt lorisj 
Sed utrumqne eeerum tenuis nbrcoudil caput 
IVIembrana latebmm rebus occullis Q«gans. 
Hollile V all do robore iofurgit lams, 
Septcmque vcnas leudit, ha-i otnnes retro 
Prohit)en9 reverti limes obliquus fecnt. 
Mutatus ordo ell. Sede nil propria jacet; 
Sed adla retro cuiiAa. non animz capax 

which is being entertained.) The gods are disgusted al 
something, but I know not what: come, move hither quickly, 
and besprinkle afresh the necks of the sacrifices (the 
bulls) with sailed meall Do the sacrifices bear the pres- 
sure of the hand, when they are touched, with an un- 
troubled look ? 

MAN. The Bull raises his head high, when he is placed 
towards the East; he seems to avoid the light of day, 
and tremblingly averts his gaze from the rays of the si 

TiR. Did the sacrifices ia\\,aheT lecaw^n^vKe first blowf 

Lines 331-367: CEDIPUS. 287 

>UN. The Heifer seemed, as it were, to throw herself 
in the way, to meet the knife with which it was threatened, 
and fell after receivinjg the first blow ; but the bull, after 
receiving two blows, (CEdipus with the blows on his Eyes) 
staggered here and staggered there, and although tired 
out with his resistance, gave up his life very reluctantly. 

Tm. Which of the two was the more lively, after the 
^^laller wound, or did the blood flow more freely after 
^€ deeper gashes? 

Wan. a perfect river flowed from the opening where 

^*^e chest was laid bare— the heavy blows only resulted in 

* ^Ttxsdl escapement, but a great quantity of blood seemed 

^^ make a retroflex cour^, and showed itself about the 

^yes and mouth. 

ilR. These inauspicious sacrifices inspire me with 

S^ve apprehensions; but tell me what indications thou 
^t notice as regards the. entrails? 

y^^^MAN. Oh I Father, what is this? The entrails are trem- 
^ling in a very excited manner, and not to the small 
^^tent, which is usual— they actually shake my hands 
^hen I toudi them and fresn blood leaps forth from the 
^^eins; the heart is shrivelled up entirely and has sunk 
^own deep in the thorax, the veins are becoming livid 
^nd a great portion of the intestines is missing, and the 
Shrank liver foams out black bile (hatred of the brothers, 
^olynices and Eteocles), and behold, this is always an 
omen of special import (to monarchies), two heads rise 
up of equal size [the word "torus" alludes to the mus- 
cular structure (ergo size)], but a delicate film conceals 
bo^ the heads, suggestive of a reftisal, to offer any veil 
to conceal certain secrets hereafter to be revealeal one 
hostile side rises against the other, with ^eat force and 
presents seven veins (Polynices and his six generals), an 
obligue line divides them and prevents them from re- 
turmng. No organ is in its proper anatomical situation 
—the whole order of nature is inverted— the lungs are 
not inflated with air and respiration is impeded, but they 
are filled with blood (hepatization) and are all on the 
right side (of the thorax), tne place where the heart should 
be, on the left, is on the right side, and the omentum 
does not furnish the viscera with that adipose protection 
which surrounds them, as with a soft covering— the ways 
of nature are reversed; even the womb is not subject to 
its former fixed laws! (alluding to the incestuous womb 
of Jocasta)—we must endeavour to find out \vo^ x!Ky& 



Id parte deitra pulmo fungumeus jacet. 

Kon Icera coidis regie, nan molli ambitu 

OmeDta pinguu vifceruni obteodunt Qmit. 

Nalurii verfa eft. nulla lex utero mimet. 

Sccutemur, unde taalui hie exiis rigor. 

Quod hoc nefas? conceplus inouptte boris, 

Nee more folito pofilUB. alicDO in loco 

ImpleC parenlem. membra cum gemilu movet. 

Tremulo riEore debiles artus micanl. 

Infecit atnis tividus Rbru cruor; 

Teutnotque lurpes mobilem Irunci gradum : 

Et inane furgil corpus, ac faeros petit 

Comu mlniftroi. vilcera efTagiuiit maoum. 

Neque ipfa, quie te pepulit, armenli gravit 

Von eft, nee ufquam territi rcfonant gregesi 

Immugit atis iguis, & ttepldaat foci. 

tKD. Quid ifta facri figna terrifici feranl, 

Gxprome: voces nure nan timida hauriam. 

Soleut fuprema facere Tecuros mala 

1TB. Hia invidebis, quibus opem quterii, malis, 

<eD. Memora, quod unum fcire creticotse volimt, 

Contamioarit rege quis csfo manus. 

Tin. Nee alia coeli quic levi penna feeant, 

Nee fibra vjvis rapla pefloribus poteft 

Ciere nomen. alia tendanda eft via. 

Ipfe evocandus noiflis ictemx plagis 

EmilTua Erebo, ul cajdis aafloreoi indicet 

Re[eranda tellus. DitU implacabile 

Numen precandum, populus iDfemie SlygU 

Hue extrahendus. ede, cui maodes racrum. 

Nam le, penes quern fumma regnorum eft, uefial 

lovirere umbras, (ed. Te, Creo, hie pofcit Iftbor, 

Ad quem fecunduoi regna relpiciunl mea. 

TIR. Dum DOS profuudis dauftra laxamus StygU, J 

Fopulare Bacchi laudibus carmen fonel. 


Canit Chorus dithyramhum, qui Bi 

remarkable rigidity of the intestines has been l__^_. 
abouti Ahl what crime now? A heifer that has nevei 
been mounted by the bull to be with calfl and the fcetus 
is not in its proper place, but occupies another spot in 
its mother's inside— it moves its hmbs with a. ^oan, and 
they twitch convulsively, with tTembliags and rigors, and 

u;.c= 3ee-,o.j fEDIPUS. 289 

livid blood has stained the flesh black, and the miseraDle 
half-dead victims try to rise and get away in vain, and 
the body, with the entrails gone, seeks to make for those 
who are conducting the sacrifices; the entrails seem to 
avoid the touch, nor is the voice which it has given forth. 
that of the gruff bull, nor like that of one of tlie terrified 
flock. The flames, at the altars, emit a lowing sound at 
the same time that those. altars are themselves trembling 
at the phenomenon! 

HD. Tell me again, bow these indications in this terri- 
fying sacrifice are produced. I will listen with an undaunted 
ear to thy words. Great evils are apt to make one more 
composed at times. 

TiR. I am afraid thou wouldst regret to know them, the 
ones, at least, thou requiresl to aid thee in thy inquiries. 

(ED. Tell me what the Gods are willing for me to know I 
Who polluted his hands with the murder of the King? 

TJR. Not any feathered creature, that cuts its _path 
through the lofiy regions of the sky, with its delicate 
wings^ nor the entrails taken from the living animal, 
whilst retaining its vitality, can disclose the name of the 
murderer— another way must be tried 1 And some one 
must be summoned from the regions of eternal night, 
some emissary from Erebus itself, that he may point out 
the perpetrator of the murder 1 The earth must be opened 
and the relentless Pluto must be appealed to— the deni- 
zens of the internal regions and Laius himself must be 
dragged forth to give evidence: tell me, whom thou wilt 
intrust with this solemn mission, for it will be contrary 
to the law for thee with all the highest functions of a 
kingdom in thy keeping, to visit the shades below. 

(ED. This task will devolve on Creon, whom my King- 
dom regards as the second in power. 

TIR. Whilst we are effecting an entrance at the gates 
of the Stygian world below, let the air resound with 
some melody which will find favor with the Theban sub- 
jects, a song in praise of our God Bacchus! 


ich sets forth the exploits 

H 1 thou Deity crowned with the clusters of grapes, 

' waving to and fro, which surmount thy flowing 

locks, and poising in thy gentle hands, TejoVcKu^.'W^ 

:ir perpetual juvenility, the Nisiean ThyTsus lJ4\^K.\a 


MoUia NyHeis amiRlx brachU Ihyifis, 

Quae libi nobiln Thebot, B»cche, luae 
PiilmU fupplicibux feninL 
Hue advcrle fnveas vireineum caput, 
Vultu (Idereo dircute nubila, 

Et Itides Erebi 

Aviduiuque ratutn, 
Te decet vernii coniiun floribus cingii 

Te cBpul Tjria cohiberc mittii; 

Ederave mollem baccifcia 
Rellgare froolem. 

Sporgeie eflufos Tine lege crin«s, 
Rarfus adduiflo 
Quails irntam n: 
Ctever.i5 falfos 
Criue daveuli finiulaUi virgo, 
I.uteun TcOcm TeliDCDle iodh. 
liiile lam moltes placuere cultus. 
El fiDus laii, fluidumquc Tyniui- 
Vidit auralo refidere cuiru, 
VfHc cum loDga legeres leoncs, 
Oranis Eoi plags lafla terr^, 
Qui bibil Gangcm, niveumt]u« quifquis 
Finngit Araxeu. 

Tc feiiior turpi fequilur Silenus afe'lo. 
Turgida pampiaeis redimiltts temporik feitU. 
Cotidita lafcivi deducuDt orgii mjrdJi. 

Te Baflaridum comitata cohurs, 
Nunc Gdt)DL pede pulfavit 
Sola Pangxi | nunc Threicio 
Venice Findi; dudc Cadmeas 
Inter matres impia Mnnns 
Comes Ogygio venit laccho, 
Nebride facra prxciudla latus. 
Tibi conimotx pe<5ioni malres 
Fndere eomoni: tbyrfumque levem 
Vihranle manu, jam poll laceros 
Penlheos ortus Thyades allro 
Membra remilTic, velut ignotum 
Videre nefa;. 

Ponti regna tenet Dilidi maleitera Bacchi, 
Nereidumque cboris Cadmeia. cingitur Ino. 
Jus habet in fluiflus magni pucr adveaa ponli 
Cognalus Bacchi, niuneD uon vile, PtlxmoD, 

Te Tyrrlieno, pner, rapoil 
Et umidum Nereus pofujt n 

e of Bacchus] ; thou bright oraaraeal to the 
celestial group, come, we pray, and hearken to the suppU- 
cations which thy own Noble Thebes now offers tip to 
thee, with our hands showing tokens of reverence — ^Tuni 


191 ^^H 

dispel the ^^^B 
presence 1 

hither thv head, with its virein-Uke aspect I dispel 
clouds which oppress us, with thy handsome 

as well as the grievous menaces of Erebus— : 

the depopulating Fatesl It becomes thee to deck thy locks 
with vernal flowers and wear on thy head the Tyrian 
Mitre, and to bind the ivy-berries around thy fair coun- 
tenance ! To scatter thy locks carelessly at one time, and 
at another, to gather them up again with the accustomed 
knot, and then thrown back.— And just as thou wast, too, 
when dreading the jealousy of thy step-mother (Juno) as 
a pretended vtrfrfn with golden locks, thou dis^uisedst 
thyself further slill by imitating the carriage and figure 
of a female, a girdle keeping tosether the yellow vest- 
ments, till at last, an effeminate style of dress and manner, 
loose body-dress and a flowing train have come to be 
thy especial delight! All that vast country in the Eastern 
parts of the earth, owning thee as a conqueror, and those 
people, who drink from the waters of the Ganges and 
those who are required to break the ice of the frozen 
Alasis, before they can quench their thirst- all these have 
seen thee proudly reclining in thy gilded chariot, drawn 
by Lions, and with that train of thine thrown over the 
backs of such lions, whilst that old Sat>T, Silenus (foster- 
father of Uacchus), followed thee, mounted on the humble 
ass, with his teniples egre^ously puffed out with garlands 
of vine-leaves. The lascivious pnests conduct their orgies 
in secrecy— a troop of the Bassarides, accompanying tnee, 
at one time, tread their measures on the soil of Pangfeus, 
after the stt^e of the Edonic; at another time, on the 
summit of Thracian Pindus- whilst at still another, from 
among the Theban Matrons, a cruel Maenad comes as a 
companion to Ogygian (Theban) Bacchus, adorning her 
sides with the sacred skin of a young kid (that is held 
in sacred estimation), the matrons with their heaving 
bosoms excited by their passions (inspiration) let down 
their locks in honor of thee, and with their hands genfly 
flourishing the graceful thyrsus, the Thyades, (Thyas was 
the chief priestess of Bacchus) after the limbs of Pentheus 
had been lorn to pieces, relaxed their hands when the 
paroxysm of frenzy had worn itself out, and looked as 
if they were entirely ignorant of what they had donel 
The Aunt of Bacchus (Ino) holds sway over the glittering 
sea, and Cadmeian Ino is surrounded by a nevy of 
Nereids (sea-nymphs)— The Boy, Palamon, no inconsider- 
able god, the latest accession to the marine deities, has 
full command over the waves of the mighty sea, and 
when the Pirates of Tyrrhenus took thee prisoner and 
placed ihee on board of their vessel, Neptune converted 
the rough sea into a calm lake.— The b\\ie -waWRi '^" 


Summa ligat vilis caichefia. 
Idicu<> prorn fremuil leo. 
Tigris puppe fcdel Gangclica. 
Turn pirala frelo pxvidus natat: 
l^t nova demerfos facies halxl. 
Brachia prims, cadunt prxdoaibus, 
ItUfunique ulero peAus coit. 
Paivula dependel Inleri manus, 
El doiCo SaAaai cucva fubit: 
Luuata fcindit cauda mare, 

El Tequilur curvus fugiFoiia carbara delphin. 
Divile Pa<flo1us vex it te Lydius unda, 
Aurea torrenti deducens flumina ripa,. 
Laxavit viflos arcus GeticaJque fagiitas 
Laiflea MaJTagetcs qui pocula fanguiue mifceL 
Regna Tccurigeri Bacchum fcDCere Lycurgi. 

ScDf^re ttme ie Diidim feioces: 

El quos vicimus Boreas ferit 

Arva. luutaiilK; quafqne Mnotis 

Altuil gCDles frigida fluifiu: 
Quafque defpeiflal virtice fummo 

Sidus Arcadium, gemiQumque plauftrum. 

Il!e difperfos damuit Gelanos: 
Arma detrsxit micibus puellis: 
Ore dejedlo peliere lerram 
ThermododliiiCie graves catervie; 

Pofitis taodem levibus fagiitis, 
Mceiudes lafim. facer & Ciihiron 
Sanguine inundavil, 
Ophioniaque aede, 

Proclides fdvas peliere: & Argos 
Fnefenle Bacchum coluil noverca. 
Naxos i^geo ledimila ponlo 

Tradidit tbalaniis virgioem rrliftani, 
Meliore penfans danuia matilu. 

Pumice ficco 

Fluxit Nydleliua la lei. 

Gariuli giamcn fecoete rivi, 
Combibit dulces humus alia fuccos, 

Niveique laflis Candida Tooles 

transformed into smiling meads, and from that time the . 

Kne tree grows green with the leaves of spring and the i 
urel grove is dear to Apollo, the noisy birds chattered 
incessantly, perched amongst the branches, the can ' 
of the piratical sailors were entwined with the e\-er 

green ivy, and the vine curled iLself around the tallest 
masts I A tierce Idxan Lion roared at the prow, and an 
Asiatic Tiger (from the Ganges) sits composedly at the 
stern. Then the pirates, thoroughly scared, take to the 
water, and when they are beginning^to sink in the watery 
depths, they assume a new shape—The robbers' forearms 
disappear, and chests and abdomens are forced into each 
other, becoming blended— a small fin hangs from their 
sides, and they thus enter into their marine home, and 
with a curved body and with their moon-shaped tails, 
they divide the waves, and the Dolphin, with its curved 
form, from that time forth, follows the ships cleaving the 
sea. under their scudding sails! The Pactolus, a river of 
I-ydia, which conducts its golden streams towards the 
torrid banks, has borne thee along over its rich waters — 
Bacchus has caused the conquered Getse to lay aside 
their bows and arrows, and the Scythian Massageies [who 
mix the milk they consume with tnc blood of horses, and 
the kingdom of the axe-wearing Lycurgus (armed with 
the axe)] have feJt the power ofBacchus. and the savage 
lands of the Daci have likewise acknowledged his power, 
and the wandering tribes who change their pastures and 
who, so near to blustering Boreas, are visited with his 
severity, and the people of that region, which the cold 
Mieotis washes with its waves, and those regions which lie 
directly under the Arcadian constellation, (the Northern 
Bear and the double chariot,) the two AurigK— he has 
also subdued the scattered Geloni, who painted their 
bodies to make themselves more to be dreaded when 
they went into battle— he took away the arms from the 
truculent Amaioos, and the baltaHonsof Thermodon cast 
their eyes upon the ground with a crestfallen countenance, 
and at length, having laid aside their slender arrows, they 
became hlxnads. adopting the kid skin, the thyrsus and 
the worship of Bacchus— and the sacred CithKron over- 
flowed with blood and the slaughter of the Ophionian 
(Theban) children (Ophion was one of the five remaining, 
who sprang from the serpents' teeth sown by Cadmus, 
and who, as soon as born fought and killed each other). 
The daughters of Pretus fled to the woods, and all Argos 
worshipped Bacchus even in the presence of the step- 
mother. Naxos, surrounded by the .*gean sea. has provided 
thee with a candidate for thy marriage-bed, in the person 
of a jilted virgin who compensated her loss by obtaining 
a better husband, in Bacchus. (Ariadne deserted by 
Theseus.) From the dry stony ground flowed the Nyc- 
telian spring. (Wine) murmuring streams flowed over the 
grass aroundj and the depths of the soil absoTbe4 ftit 
welcome moisture, and the earth rendered wttve, a&Vt J 


El n 

a odor 

Ducituc n 
SoUmne Phcebua carmen 

Edit infufis humero capillls. 
Concutit ticdas gemiuus Cupido, 
Telum dcpofait Juppjter igneum, 
Oditque Baccho vecienle fulmen. 
. Lucida dum current annofi fiderit mitlidi, 
Oceanu3 clnurum dum 11u(flibu3 ambiel orbem, 
Lunaque diiQiffos dum pleua recotligel ignes, 
Dum miluiinos pra:dicel Lucifer onus, 
Altaque cnrrulcum dum Ncrea nefciel Ariflus; 
Candida formori vcDerabimur ora Lyii. 


Indical regi Creon ex tiecramanlia, feu mavis (' 

iDtellexJlTe fe inlerfwflorem Lnji Q[dipum fu: 

frctus opinione fua de Polybo p''~ — " 

poftjurgia Creonlem ii " 


cen. I -- Tsi ipre vulius flebiles prEefert notas, 
Expone, cujus capile placenius Deos. 
CR. Fari jubes, lacere qua; fuadft metus. 
a.D. Si te ruenles uon fntis Thebx movent, 
Al fceplra mnveam lapfa cognatx damu^ 
CB. Nefciffe cupies, noffe quGe nimium expelis. 
(ED. Inen malorum rtmrdlum iguoranlia eft. 
Ilane & fslutis publicx indicium obniei? 
CS. Ubi turpis efl incdicina, Tanari piget. 
(ED. Audita fare; vet malo domitus gnivt, 
Quid arma poffmt regis irali, fcies. 


were, gave forth fountains of snow-wliiie milk, 
Lesbian wine became fragrant with the sweei 
thyme! A new bride ascends to the loftiest heai 
Apollo, the deity with his locks flowing over his si 
chants an epithalamium (marriage song), and C 
his twin capacity carries triumphantly the mairia^i 
Jupiter puts aside his thunderbolts, and actuftli! 
time regards his own lightning with horror, as' 
anproacnes, (reminding nim of Semele, the ir 
Bacchus, whom he struck with lightningl Whilst t 
stars of the universe shall run their courses, ai 
the mighty Ocean coownaes \o TOuoMni wax • 

1-ines 496—519] OEDIPUS. 29s 

the full moon shall collect together her stars temporarily 
dismissed, and whilst proud Lucifer shall herald the 
approach of mom, and whilst lofty Arctos (the Bear) shall 
never be seen to dip beneath the blue sea (Nereus is 
here taken for the sea) let the fair countenance of Lyaeus, 
(Bacchus) ever be held in veneration 1 



Creon points out to the king, that from necromancy or 
rather sciomancy (calling up the Manes) he concludes 
that CEdipus was the murderer of Laius: CEdipiis 
relying on his own conviction, that Polybus was his 
fatner, repudiates the charge, and after much conten- 
tion, he orders Creon to be cast into prison. 


ALTOGETHER your manner is suggestive of mournful 
indications: tell me, by whose sacrifice, we shall 
have to appease the Gods? 

CR. You command me to tell what my fears incline 
me to be silent about. 

CED. If the ruin of Thebes were not sufficient reason 
for you to do so, at least the sceptre of an allied dynasty 
being endangered might induce you. 

CR. You will wish that you had remained in ignorance 
of what you are now strivmg to learn too much about. 

(ED. Ignorance is a very feeble remedy for evils, and 
will you conceal a clue which might be the means of 
unravelling a mystery, when such a thing is for the public 

CR. When a remedy is disagreeable, one is loth to 
apply it as a means of cure. 

CED. Speak, I say, what you know, or you will very 
soon find out, if you are visited with some severe punish- 
ment, which the power of an outraged king can easily 
bring about 

Cupreffus allis exfcrens filvis capatH 
Vireole Temper alligat trunco uemiH 
Curvofque lendil quercus & putrcs ■ 
Anuofs rsmos. hujus abnipil Ului H 
Edax vetuilas: illn jnm fefla cadea^ 
Radice. fulta pendec aliens trahe. ■ 
Ainsra l>accas laurus; & tiliiE levesjl 
El Paphia myrtus; & per imnienfunj 
Moturn rcmos alnus; £ Ph<ebo obvd 
Eiiiide ZephyrU piuus opponens lalJ 
Medio flat ingeni arbor, alque umbri 
Silvas minoTeii urgel; & magiio ambi 
DiHura ramos, una dereiid.l nemui. I 
TriDit^ Tub ilia luc» & Pbicbi Uifciuj 
Redagnat humor, frigoie xtrmo rige! 
l.imofa pi£Tiiiii circuit foDtetn palu-s. 
Hue ul fncerdos inlulit reaiot gradun 
Haud en moralus. prxHitil uodtem U 
Tunc foITa tellus, & fuper rapli nigia 
laciunlur ignrs. i])fe fuacfto iolegJl ii 

CR. Kings might sometimeW 
they insist on being told them. 

ii;n. You shall be consipied 
lo the Gods of the Manes for 
yoii unfold to me the secrets c 
sacred ceremonies, and with, t 

Lines 52>—55'J CEDIPUS. 297 

CED. He that is commanded to speak, and will persist 
in silence, sets the imperial authority at defiance. 

CR. I pray you, hear with an unruffled temper, the 
words which you are now dragging out of me. 

CED. Has any one ever been punished for speaking, 
when he has been compelled to oo so? 

CR. There is at some distance from the city, an antique 
^ove, black with the abundance of its oak trees, round 
^bout the localities, where the valley is irrigated by the 
fountains of Dirce. There a cypress raises its towering 
'^ead above all the other lofty forest trees, and over- 
^'ladows this grove at all times (being an ever-green) 
^th its flourishing trunk, and an aged oak stretches 
'^J^h its cur\'ed branches, decayed and covered with 
P^oss— the destructive hana of time (tempus edax rerum) 
*?3s disabled its trimk and it is already in a falling condi- 
^^n, its roots having given way (unable to keep it upright), 
!^<i hangs as it were, supported by another tree close to 
i^~^ there is the bitter laurel with its berries, and with it 
V^^'e seen) the slender teil trees and the Paphian myrtle 
v^acred to Venus) and the alder, of which the oars are 
^ade, which enable the mariner to work his way over 
^ne immense sea, and the Pine, which grows straight 
upwards, without any flexions or prominences (branches 
"thrown out), and which, with its spreading top affords 
protection against the Zephyrs, and tends as well to keep 
off the solar heat— A huge tree, giant of the forest, 
(presumably an oak) stands in the midst and overawes 
(in its majesty) all the smaller trees and sends out its 
branches with an extended circuit, in fact, of itself it 
seems to cover all the others. Beneath it, is a dismal 
fountain in a stagnant state and entirely deprived both of 
light and warmth, and it remains frozen from the constant 
cold— a muddy marsh surrounds this dried up fountain, 
and hither the aged Priest, (Tiresias) wends riis steps- 
he is never delayed from the performance of his duties ; 
the place itself on account of its utter absence of light, 
does all the duties of Night! Then the ground is dug 
and torches are seized up, and placed upon a funeral 
pile, in order to ignite it -the prophet (Tiresias) arrays 
nimself in sombrest attire and shakes his head ominously; 
his dismal-looking cloak hangs down to his feet, and 
the sad old man steps forward in his slovenly dress — 
Sheep, with black fleeces, and black bulls are being con- 
ducted from the rear. (Black animals were always selected 
for sBcriBces to the infernsLl deities and wYiVle outs lot 


Vntcs omifia corpus, & rrontem qu*tit. 
Lugubris imoE pnlla jierfunilit pedes. 
Squollenle cullu nKcflus iagreditur fmex. 
MortircrB cuiBni tnxus adftringit comun. 
Nigro bidcQles vellere atque sine bovrs 
Reiro trshunler. flamma prgcdBtur dapcs, 
Vivumque trepidat iBoe ferali pecus. 
Vocal iade Manes; lequc, qui Manes legis. 
El obridentem clauflra letalU lacus: 
Carmcnque magicum volvil, & labido roiuai 
Decanlat ore, quidquid aut placal leves 
Aut cogil umbias, fanguinem tlbat focis, 
Solidflfque pecudea urit, & mulio fpccum 
Satumt cniore. libal & Diveum infupet 
Laiflis tiquorem; fundit & Bacchum mauu 
Ij;vi, caniiquc niriuB, & Iwram inlueiii, 
Graviore Manes voce & aUoaita ciet. 
LAtTDvit Hecntes turba. tec valles cavic 
Sonuere mctllum. loia fucculTo folo 
Pulfata tellus. audior, vates ail, 
Rata verba fudi. mmpitur ciECDm Qiao^ 
Itcrque populo Ditis ad Tuperos datur. 
Subfedit omais fdva, & erexil comom. 
Duwre rimas robore; & lotum nemus 
Concuffit horror, terra fe retro dedil, 
Cemuitque penitus. five tentaii abditum 
Acheron profundum mcute non lequa lulii: 
Sive ipfa leltus, ul darel funiflis viam, 
Compoge nipta fonuit: aat ira fureiis 
Triceps catenas Cerberus tnovit graves. 
&ubi<o dehifcit terra, & immenro finu 
Laxatn paluiL ipfe pallenles Dcos 
Vidi inter titnbraj: ipfe lorpeotes kcus 
Noiflemque verBm. gelidus In venis ftel'I 
HcCtque fanguis. fseva profduit cohors. 
Et (letit in armis omne vipereum genus 
Fratmm, catem denle Dircico rnlae, 
Aviduraque populi Pedis Ogygii mabim. 
Turn lorva Erinnys fonuit, & ciccus Furor, 
Horroique, & una quidguid telernie eriant 
CeUntque teuebrx: Ludtus evellens comam, 

the Eods above.) And the cattle, for the few seconds that 
their lives lasted, trembled violently in the sacrificial fire, 
but the victims were soon consumed by the fietjelement 
— Then Tiresias invokes the Manes; he eschtin»:«^JiL 
thou who rulest the Manes (Pluto), and thou, Cerbems 
the guardian of the portals of the Stygian lakes! greetinci 
he inen murmurs out some sort ofmagic verws, an^ 
Tvith a fierce voice and angry look he proceeds to chanj 

l-ir.es55:r-50.^ CEDIPUS. 299 

v-vhatever he thinks will appease or prevail over the 
Planes -he then sacrifices blood upon the altar, and 
bums cattle whole, and fairly saturated the cave with a 
deluge of blood— then, he offers, in libation, quantities of 
milk of snowy whiteness, and afterwards, pours out wine 
^vrith his left hand and chants again, ana looking down 
xapon the ground, he summons the Manes in a harsh and 
astounding tone of voice.— The troop of Hecate are the 
ft^t to be heard, howling savagelv, and the hollow valleys 
send forth the most dismal souna, three times in succes- 
sion, and the entire earth is loosened (loses its solidity) 
"by the shocks and upheavals occurring subterraneously I 
3 am heard at last! exclaims Tiresias; I have uttered with 
success, what I thought would be to the purpose— invis- 
ible chaos is broken through and the right ot way to the 
legions above is afforded to the subjects of Pluto I Every 
tree sinks its head downwards^ and afterwards, the leaves 
themselves stand out erect with very fright— The sturdy 
oaks are cleft in two and an overwhelming terror shakes 
the forest, and the upper earth itself appears to be startled 
and seems inclined to retreat from what is being threatened 
around, and groans from out of its very lowest strata I 
Whether all tnis was, that Acheron was entertaining a 
feeling of resentment, that the kingdoms hidden, down in 
the lowest depths, were being practised upon, or whether 
Earth itself gave forth the sound with horror, that its 
cohesive compactness had been disturbed in order to 
afford a way lor those intruders arriving from the regions 
below, or was it that the three-headed Cerberus had 
violently shaken his heavy chains! Suddenly, however, 
the earth gapes open, ana being thus exposed, displays 
itself with its immense bosom laid bare ! 1 saw the Pallid 
Deities, Pluto and Proserpine, amongst the other Manes 
—I saw the stagnant lakes and real absolute Night, (that 
is, as it exists in the regions below) my blood curdled in 
my veins, and my heart felt as if it would beat no morel 
And the savage Trio, the Furies, (Tisiphone, Alecto and 
Megasra) leaped forth, and the entire race of brothers 
descended from the Dragon, stood up armed! the troop 
sprung from the Dircaean teeth, and all the victims of 
the rapacious plague that had visited Thebes! Then, 
the savage Erinnys sent forth the sounds from her whips 
and blind Madness and pictured Horror, and altogether, 
whatever eternal darkness is capable of producing— Grief 
tearing away at the hair, Disease holding up its weary 
head with difficulty, Excessive Old Age, a burden to its 
very self, and Fear, with its look of doubt and suspense I 
My senses left me. and Manto herself was slupefved ^tA 
struck aghast, ana she too I who was no raw lecixivX. m 


/Kgreque laffuxn furtiueos Morbus caput, 
Hravis Scneiflus fibimet, & peadeos Metus. 
No9 liquit aoiiDUS, ipfa, qux rilns fcnis 
Arlefque norat, llupuil. [utrepldus parens, 
Audaique damno, convocat Dilis feri 
ExTangue vulgus; illico ut nebulx leves 
Volilanl, & auras librro cceIo trahuut. 
NoQ tot coducas educut frODdps Eryx; 
Nee vere flores H/bIa tot medio neat, 
Cum exanien otto neiflitur deorutn globo; 
Fludlufque non tot frangit lauium mare; 
Nee tanla gelidi StrymoDJs fugiens mioas 
Pemiutat hienies ales, & ccelum Tecaiis 
Tepente Nilo peolat ArAoas iiives: 
Quol ille populos vatis eduxit fonus. 
PavidiE latebras nemoris umbrofi peluot 
Animz tiemeiitcs. primus cmergit folo 
Dextro ferocem cornibos laurum premeos 
Zetbus; manuque ruHinens Ixva chelym, 
Qu[ faia duici tnxil, Ampbioo, fouo. 
Interque Datos Tantalis laadem fuos 
Tuto fuperba feet caput faflu gravi, 
E[ numeral umbras, pejor hac genitris adeft 

Furibunila Agave; tota quam fequitur manus 

Partita regem. fequilur & Bacchos lacer 
Peotheus, lenetque fxvus «tiam nuac miuas. 
Tandem, vocatus fiepe, pudibundum eiiulit 
Caput, Btque ab oinai diffidet lurba procoL, 
Celatque femet. inftat & Stygias prcces 
Geminol facecdos, donee in apertum elTetal 
Vultus opeitos LaiuB, fan horreo. 
Sletit per artus fanguine eBiiCo horridus, 
Picdore fcedo fqualidam oblenlus comam, 
E( ore rabido falur: O Cadmi elTera, 
Cruore Temper lieta cognalo domu?, 
Vibrate Ihyrfos. enthea Datos manu 
Lacerate potius. maximum Thebia fcclus 
Muemus amor cA. patria, non ira UeClm 
Sed fcdere raperis. noii gravi flatu libi 
Luflificus Aufter, nee parum pluvio ^tthere 


the arts and mysteries of that old man, Tiresiasl and the 
intrepid Parent bold on account of his lo5s (the loss of 
his eyesight, liut who would not have been so if he cotild 
have seen what Manto saw. calls together those lifeless 
subjects of the unrelenting Pluto. How the substanceless 
shades did flit about! here and there! and appeared 
pleased at being able to enjoy the air in the free sky of 
the upper worlal In point of number, not so many leaves 
have ever fallen in tlie woods o^ t'cix— >leveT did Hybla 

trow so many flowers in the middle of spring, w 
ense hives gather round the trees, like grapes clustered 
together, hanging down from the branches! Not so many 
i has the Ionian sea ever broken against the shorel 

Not so many birds (cranes and other migratory birds) 
flying away from the frigid Strvmon to escape the winter 
and cutting their way through trie air, exchange the Arctic 

._. for the balmy sky of the mild Nilel How great 

must have been the sound, which dragged forth such 
rauhitudes of the ManesI The timid, trembling spirits 
seek refuge in the nooks and comers of the shady grove. 
Zethus.the first to emerge from the earth below, restraining 
a ferocious buil with his right hand upon its horns, ana 
Amphion, who raised the stones whithersoever he willed, 
by nis melodious strains, appears holding his lute in his 
left hand, and then one of the Tanlalides (proud Niobe) 
in perfect security! nowl poises her head with intolerable 

Eride, and counts over the numerous Manes, represented 
y her own familyl then, worse than Niobe. the frenzied 
Agave is present and the band which tore in pieces one 
of our kings, and Pentheus follows in her wake and even 
now, looks austerely, as if he is still retaining his anger. 
At length having invoked several times, one of the Manes 
raises his head, as if a feeling of shame and degradation 
had come over him, and keeps, at a distance, from the 
rest of the Manes, who are crowded together— tries to 
. elude observation, but the priest is equal to the occasion, 
and with redoubled energy addresses in prayer, the 
Stygian Deities: until at last, Laius shows his hitherto 
hidaen face and brings it into full view— I shake with 
very alarm, when I am speaking of it even— there, he 
stood, frightful to be looked upon with the blood pouring 
down his body, and his slovenly locks besmeared with 
filth and nastiness, and at last he spoke in an angry 
void— Oh I cruel progeny of Cadmus, always happy in 
shedding the blood ofone sprung from your own dynasty, 
flourish your Thyrsus, ye Bacchanals, and with your own 
hands, inspired by the Bacchic fury, tear to pieces your 
children; but I can tell you that the crime of Thebes i& 
this— impious amour between a mother and son, and oh I 
my country, may you be relieved from the odium of this 
cnme, ana not from the anger of the Gods only I It is 
not the sad South Wind, (sad from its continuous heat) 
which is blowing so oppressively upon you. nor is it, 
through an atmosphere, which yields not a sufficiency of 
rain_, that the earth is saturated with the exhalations 
arismg from drought ! but a blood-thirsty King, who holds 
his sceptre as the price of my cruel murder, and who ' 
now occupying the impious marriage-bed ai \\v^ qi 

lids ^^J 




SalUU lellus halitu Ticca Docet; 
Sed rex CTUCQlus, pied> qui Isevx necEs 
Sceplia, & Tiefandos occupat thnlaiDOS prlrii, 
lovifi proles, (fed tamen pcjor parens. 
Quam Dotiu: utero mrfus iafaufto gTsvi&J 
Egit lui in orlu* femct; & rnatri irapios 
F(etu« rcgelTil; quique vix mos efl feris, 
Fratrcs fibi ipfe geouit; implicitum nialuia, 
MagjiTque moiiftrum Sphinge perplexuiu fua. 
Te, le, crnenla fceplra qui dextca geris, 
Tc pater iDulIus urbe cum tola pelim, 
El mecum Erinnys pronubas thilami tiahaiu, 
Trabun fonaates veibera: inceftam domum 
Vertam, & Penates impio Marie obteranj. 
Pramde pulfum linibuii regem Dc[ui 
Agile exfulcni. quodcuuque fuueflo grodu 
Solum relinquet, vere florirero viren? 
Keparabil herbas. Tpirilua puros dabii 
ViCalis aura, veniel & filrU decar. 
Lelum, Luefqne. Mora, Labor, Tabes, Dolor, 
Comitatus illu diguus^ excedunt fiiauL 
El ipie rapidis greflibus fedes volel , 
EfTagerc uoflras: Ted graves pedibus moras 
Addam, & leoebo. repel incertus vise, 
Baculo feoili trifte pmleotaas Uer. 
Praeripile lerros, aufersm cielum paler. 
(ED. Et olTn & anuE gelidui invalti tremor. 
Quidquid timehnm facere, fecifle arguot. 
Tori jugalii abuuit Merope nefas, 
Sociata Polybo. fofpes abfolvit miiaus 
Polybus meas. ulerque defendil parens 
Oedem, flupnimque. guis locus culpx etl rupecl 
Mullo ante ThebiE Laiua amilTum gemum, 
BteoIB greITu quam meo leligi loca. 
Falfufne fenlor, an Deua Thebis gravisJ 
Jam iara tcuemui callidi fotlos doli. 
Meutitur ifla priererens fraudi Deos 

faiherl Oh! hateful offsprJna;! but, however, the Parent 
Jocasta is a worse plight than the Son (CEdipus) again 
to be doomed to the frightful resultsof an unlucky womb 
(a gravid uterus), and to have a son, who approaches 
sexually the very parts whence be dates his own oirth, and 
who has throivn back impious offsprine out of his own 
mother's womb I and this mode of procedure is scarcely the 
one which prevails even amongst the wild beasts, a man 
who begets children thai are brothers lo himself! Oh! whal a 
complicalion of calamities— amorepuizlingenignia than that 
propounded by the Sphinx herself and which he (CEdipus) 
so successfully unraveUedl Otil thou, who boldest the 

Lmcs 633—660; . CEDIPUS. 303 

sceptre in thy blood-stained hand! As the unavenged 
Fatner I will ever pursue thee, and with the entire 
Theban city at my back, and Oh I ye Furies, (Erinnys) 
I will engage you in my cause, as the bridesmaids to his 
marriage-Ded 1 I will enlist you to sound your dangerous 
whips— I will upset thy incestuous home and tire out thy 
household gods, with the impious wars, I will bring about 

?Lteocles and Polynices). Thenceforth drive away, oh ! ye 
hebans, without delay, your King as an exile from your 
soil I for whatever country he leaves behind, which has 
been trodden by his impious feet, shall as soon as he 
quits, become prosperous with the flower-producing spring, 
and the grass will grow again in abundance— the vivi- 
fying sky shall give a pure atmosphere for you to breathe 
and luxuriant toliage shall adorn the groves — untimely 
i^eath, Pestilence— Premature Decay— Lingering Disease— 
g^Uoping consumption— inconsolable anguish— and every 
flying that is capable of being associated with them, shall 
^a^iish at once! And he himself (CEdipus) will only be 
^o willing to fly away with a hurried retreat from your 
o^^n dear Thebes I But I will encumber his path with 
^^at difficulties : feeble old age, lassitude, blinciness, and 
"Y& necessity for a daughter to lead him along, and one 
jr*^o will not allow him to destroy himself, and I will keep 
'^">JD in that condition— He shall creep along not knowing 
^^jbere he is going, he shall grope his unpleasant way 
l^oout, relying solely on that indispensable adjunct to 
^^^ble old age, the staff I Oh I ye Thebans, cast him forth 
^Ut of your country! I, his parent, will do my utmost to 
■^Cep him out of Heaven 1 

(ED. A cold shiver runs through my entire frame, down 
to my very bones; here am I accused of the very crimes 
which I have ever been in fear of committing ! Merope, 
who is married to Polybus, indignantly repudiates such 
a crime as having been visited upon ner marriage-bed, 
and Polybus feels secure on the point and absolves my 
hand of any such guilt, both parents being alive sufficiently 
knores he charge of murder and incestuous marriage 1 
Beyond that^ what foundation is there for the charges 
brought against me? They were mourning for the loss 
of L^ius for a long time before I ever trod upon the 
Boeotian soil! Is that old Tiresias acting treacherously, 
or is the God Apollo especially hard upon Thebes? 
But now, I have it plain before my mind who the con- 
federates in this scheme are, Creon and Tiresias! Tiresias 
preferring a line of deceit, is lying to the Gods about 
this matter in order that my sceptre should fall into 
your hands (addressed to Creon). 


VaUs, tibique fwptra defpoadet men, 

CR. Egon' at rororem rcgia cX|>el1i velim? 

Si me tides fncrnta cognati laiia 

Not! continctet [q meo cerium (latu; 

Tamen ipfa me Fortuna Icrrerel, niini* 

SoIIicita feroper. liccat hoc nilo tibi 

Exuerc pondus, tie recedentem opprimaL 

Jam ie laioore lullor poaes loco. 

(ED. Hortaris eliam, rpome depoDsm ul mea 

Tam gTDvU regoa.? cr. Suaileam hoc illU ego, 

In utiumque queis e(l liber clinm nunc flalus. 

Tibi jam necene ell ferre fortun^im tuam. 

(ED. Cerlifnniii eft regnare cupicnli via, 

Laudare modica, & otium ac fomnum loqui, 

Ab ircjuieto Tfpe limulatur quies. 

CR. Porumae me lam lotiga defendit fidei? 

(ED. Aiiilum noccndi pfrfido prseftat fides. 

CK. Solutus ooere regto, regni bonis 

Fnior, domufque civium ccetu vigel; 

Nee ulla vicibus furgii Bllernis ■'—' 

Qua HOD propinqni miinera ad nonroi lares 
Sceptri reilundent; cultusi, opulcntie dapes, 
I>oData muliii gialia noftra Mus. 

Quid tam bealK derfle fortunse r 

(ED. Quod deell. fecund* non habeut unquam taoduin. 

CR. Incogaila igitur ul nocens caufa cadam? 

cED. Num ratio vobis reddilo eft Titse mexi 

Num audita caufa eft nostra Tirefiief limcu 

Sontes videmur 

facilis exemplu 

m? fequor. 

CR. Quid (i inn 

ocens fucn? <^o 

Dobia pro 

Timere rcges. 

R, Qui pavet v 

nos metus, 

Veroa merrtur. 

(ED Quifquii i 

culpa fait. 

DimilTus odit q 

mne, quod dub 

um putat. 

?» J 

CR. Do you mean that 1 should be willing _ 

sister to be expelled from her regai surroundings? As ff 
that fidelity which is ever a sacred bond between those 
of the same blood would not be a sufficient guarantee 
that I might be depended on, to be satisfied with, my 
own station I However, the anxieties and vicissitudes of 
Fortune which attend a kingdom, and which are often- 
times too vexing, would effectually deter me from that 
But it is quite possible for you if it pleases you, to throw 
off such a burden with safety, lest it might prove harmful 
to you, when you had receded from it. Now, you can 
place yourself, in security, in a less aspiring position. 

CED. Do you advise me then that I should shake off 
the burdens of royalty, ot my Q^xi fe«fc 'wW. 

CR. I give such advice lo those with whom it is optional, 
which of the two conditions should be decided upon— It is 
already a matter of necessity for you to bear what 
Fortune has marked out for you. 

rED. The most certain policy for any one desirous of 
reigning is to laud to the skies, the blessings arising out 
of mediocrity, and to dwell (in his mind) on the tranquil 
ease and undisturbed repose enjoyed by those who are 
unburdened with the cares of a kmgdom -assumed sincer- 
ity is often used as a mask for considerable disquiet- 

<ED. Fidelity often affords the perfidious knave a more 
easy way of making himself obnoxious. 

CR, Here I, relieved from regal fardels, enjoy all the 
advantages of royalty, and my house is honored as an 
agreeable rendezvous for the citizens who flock thither; 
nor does a day pass which differs from another-no 
alternation prevails -giits, presents as acknowledgments 
of my nearness of rank as regards the sceptre, abound in 
mv household— elegant furniture, sumptuous apparel and 
a luxurious cuisine 1 And my heartiest welcome is accorded 
to many, with the fullest appreciations, too. on their parti 
What can I imagine to be wanting to such a happy iot 
(as that)? 

i a criminal, for 

(ED. Have not the details of my career through life 
already been made known to you ? And has my cause 
been fully examined into by Tiresias? Vet, I am con- 
clusively made out to be a criminal; mindl you have 
furnished me with an example in yourself, and I am 
ily foHon-iog your lead? 


But, if I am innocenti 

(ED. Kings are apt to fear that doubtful things contain 
widiin them the elements of certainty. 


CR. Sic odia fiuat. (ED, Odia qui Dunium t 
Regnxrc oefcil. regna cuftodit mclos. 
CR. Qai fcepCra duro fxvus jmperio rtgix, 

(ED. Scrvme fontem Cmeo inclurum fpecu : 
Ipfe ad peoates regios referam gradum. 


Excuful CEdipum Chorus, transferendo culpam in mala 

Thebamm fBLi, ()ux ab ipfa inaufpicaUi bove 

Thebanos nfque rexniiiiL 

& caufa perictis, 
Noa haK^ Labdacidas premuDt 
Fain: fed veleres Deflro 
Ine fEquuntur. Ca Galium aernus 
Umbram Sidonio priebuit hofpili, 
Lavilque Dirce Tyrios colonos: 
Ut prmmm raagui natus Agenoris, 

FefTus per orbem furla fequi Javis, 
Sub noilrn pnvidus eonftitit aibore, 
Pnedonem veDEracs fuum; 
Monituque Phcebi, julTus erranti 
Comes ice vaccx, quom non flexeriLt 
Vomer, aut lard! juga curva plaunri, 
Deferait fugas, nomeuque genti 
InaufpicaU dc bove tradidil 
Tempore ex illo nova rnoiinm fempcr 
Protulit tellus, aut aoptis imis 
VpJlibas cditus, anno^ fupra 
Robora libilat, fupraque pinu»!, 
Supra Chaonias celftur abores 
CBcruleum erexil caput, 
Cutn majore fui parte recumberet, 
Aut fosta lellus impio partu 
Effudit arma. 

(ED. Whatever man is guilty of a crime and obtains a 
recognition of innocence suspects (hates) every thing, 
because he thinks every thing doubtful that applies to 
others— in other words, judges every one by himself. 

CR. And thus it is vben, Ihat doubts become so odious. 

Lines 703— 73a] (EDIPUS. 307 

(ED. He who fears the hatred of others, too sensitively, 
knows not the true secret of governing— Fear restricts 
the operations of royalty. 

OR. He who relentlessly wields the sceptre with a 
haxsh use of his power, has reason to fear those that 
fear him— fear recoils upon its author. 

(ED. Confine Creon a prisoner in a stone dungeon 1 I 
will betake myself after this to my regal abode. 


The Chorus finds excuse for CEdipus, by laying the 
blame on the evil destinies of Thebes, which from the 
time of that unlucW heifer Europa, up to the present 
time, have harasse(i them. 

IT is not thou, CExiipus, who art the cause of so many 
calamities; these misfortunes are not singling out the 
descendants of Labdacus only, but it is that everlasting 
anger of the Gods, which is the evil genius that perse- 
cutes usl The Castalian forest first afforded a shelter to 
the Sidonian stranper, and the streams of Dirce watered 
the soil for the Tyrian Colonists; so when first the son 
(Cadmus) of the mighty Agenor, was utterly wearied of 
wandering over the earth in search of his sister Europa, 
who had been seized and run off with by Jupiter, and 
settled down under our hospitable roof-trees, Broken in 
courage, and i^orantly venerating the God that was the 
abductor of his sister, and by the command of Apollo, 
was ordered to become the attendant upon a wan(iering 
heifer, which had never had her nect broken to the 
plough or lashed to the curved yoke of the tardy-paced 
waggon — he then gave up his flying mission, and awarded 
the country, the name of Baeotia, arising out of the cir- 
cumstance of this inauspicious heifer I The oppressed land 
has alwa3rs been brin^n^ forward fresh monsters ever 
since that time, either in me shape of a serpent appearing 
in the low valley, which sent forth its hissings even above 
the a^ed oaks, and stretched out its blue-tinted head 
over the lofty pines and high above the Chaonian Oaks, 
whilst a great portion of its body rested on the CTound ; 
or, the earth, pregnant with an impious foetus has Drought 
forth armed men, and the war-trumpet sounded forth 
from its reflexed windings, and the clarion gave omI \\s 

Populique limci bell* n 
Donee cecidil Casya. juve 
ricnitrixque Tuo redm gremio I 

Modo produi^los vidit 2 

Hoc IranfleriC civile neU 
Ilia Herculex narmt Thebx 
Pntlia fralrara 
Quid Cadmei fata nepotia, 

Fro Diem ram is lexfre no vis, 
Dominumque ciues egere fuuan 
PtBeccps divas monierque fujil I 
Cilua A^seon, agilique magis ' 
Pede per faltus & faxa vagui 
Meluil moias Zephyris plumi 
El, qu* pofait, reria vital : 
Donee placifli fontis in uod* i 
Comuft vidil vultuTque feros, 
Ubi vii^ioeos foveral artus 
Nimium fitvi Diva pudom. 


Unes 733-766J CEDIPUS. 309 

cpr, and the troops of men, bom at the same moment 

oi time, take possession of the plains— a progeny fully 

worthy of the seed whence they sprang; (the serpents 

teeth) passing awav their brief lite time m one day, bom 

^t the coming of Lucifer, and disappearing on the advent 

of Hespems 1 The stranger, Cadmus, is norrified at so 

fflany monsters, and is scared by the warfare conducted 

oy that newly-imported population! until the furious 

young warriors fell, arising out of their intemecine 

slaughter, and that mother, the Earth, saw the nurslings 

^hicn she had only just brought forth, received agam 

into her bosom 1 (Buried.) And oh I that civil strife would 

have ended here I Thebes, the birth-place of Hercules 

has witnessed the battles of the brothers, Eteocles and 

Polynices! What shall we say of the grandson of Cadmus 

(A^otaeon) when the horns of the swift stag surmounted his 

head, and his own dogs hunted in pursuit after their own 

master 1 And the fleet Actaeon flew headlong over woods 

ai^<i mountains, and wandering with its agile strides 

through forests and across rocks, went in dread of the 

P^iT)le feathers waving gently, as the Zephyrs dictated, 

(tHese feathers were used as snares) and avoided the nets 

0* the hunters, which he had himself placed there ; and 

Jt: last, he beheld his homs and wild appearance reflected 

^ the waters of a placid fountain, wnere the Goddess 

^^ajia, with too severe modesty (for being so revengeful 

^^ l)eing seen) had been bathing her Virgin Body I 



^Ixiipus, at length, begins to suspect, lest by chance, it 
might have been Laius, whom he slew, as he was 
2omg to Delphi on one occasion — he inquires of 
Jocasta, conceming the age of Laius, the date of his 
death and other circumstances. 


My mind is now revolving the responsibilities of my 
situation, and I hark Dack to my old fears and 
misgivings! The Gods above and the Gods below 
are fully satisfied that Laius met his death at my criminal 
hands, but my mind, on the contrary, being innocent of 
the charge, repudiates the accusation, and w\\al*\^Vtvo^Tv 


5 quam Deis notus, aegat. 

a Ifnuc per veftigiam, 
CecidilTe oodri Hipilis pulfd obvium 
Dalumque Diti, cum prior juvenem fenex 
Cumi fuperbus pelleret, Thebis procul, 
Fhocan trifidBs regio qua fcindit v'las. 
UDanima conjux, explica eirorem, precor, 
Qu» Tpatia morieiu Lsios viw tuUt. 
Primone in xio viridii, an fra<!la occidit? 
joc. Inter fenem juveQcmque; fed propior fcDi. 
(ED. Frequcnfne lurba regiuro ciqkii lamsf 
JOC. Plures fefelUl error ftocipitis vitej 
Paacos fidelis currlbus junxit labor. 
an. Aliquifne cecidil rcgio fato comes? 
JOC. Unum fidei vinusque confortem addidit. 
rzD. Teneo uDCratem. convenit Dumerus, locus. 
Sed tempus adde. joC Decima jam metitur feges. 


E fene a Merope & CoriatUiis miffo, qni (Edipum de Polybi 
marie edoceat, regetque, ad gubernacuU regni fufcipiaida 

u^nidt tiiCf'it rWA'.'f,,*: fi- r.n-i V^nb t^* Pn^ nV.} I^IJiim- 

elTePolybi Glium: 
'' parentes 



s te populis in regnum tc 
ratnum. quielem Palybus xlemam obtmeC. 
(ED. Ut undique in me (xva Fortuna imiit! 
EdilTere agedum, quo cadat fato parens. 
SEN. Animam Tcnilem mallii exfolvli Tiipor. 
(KD. Genitor fine ulla cede defamflui jacet 


to myself is certainly of more moment , 

Gods seem disposeci to imagine! But my recolleclion 
returns to me, througii some dim impression, that some 
one who once opposed my path, was felled to the earth 
by a blow from my club, and died (was handed over to 
Pluto) from its effects, and this was when a proud old 
man who was driving in his chariot in front of^me, when 
I was quite a. young man, and it was he that blocked mf 
way— it was some distance from Thebes, Just where the 

Phociean territory is divided off into three roads, 
my loving wife, I entreat you, > 

Oh I 

How old' was Lai . 

he a hale man, in the prime of life, and did he droop 

at ali, or appear lo be broken down as to his bodily 


joc. Somewhere between old age and youth, I should 
say, but nearer old age than youth. 

(ED. Did a large retinue of attendants surround his 
royal presence? 

JOC. No! the winding paths of the roads, so apt to 
mislead, caused them to stray— the careful, personal 
attendance onlv reauired the few whose duties apper- 
tained to the chariots supervision! 

CED. Did any of the attendants meet with the same 
fate as the king? 

JOC. Fidelity and affection were his only companions, 

CED. I now know the culprit, the number of persona 
seen by me and the locality indicated exactly tally 1 
But tell me how long ago this was? 

JOC. About ten years— 
their annual crops. 

i have since yielded I 



1 undertake the duties of the government— CEdi pus 
learns that he is not the son of Polybus, at all; there- 
fore, with his too eager curiosity, he finds out who 
were his real parents. 


HE people of Corinth invite you to your father's 
kingdom —Polybus has gone to his eternal rest. 

(ED, How, on all sides, cruel fortune is rushingly fal- 
ling upon me! Come, tell me quickly, man, to what sort 
of death did my parent s ' 


Teflor, lice 

Sed purs mugis meiuenda fnloium manet. 

SEN. Omaem palerna regna dlCcutieiit meluiu. 

tED. Repelain patema rigna, fed mairem horreo. 

SEN. MeluLs pareDlem, qua: luum redilum rxpelent 

SoUicita pendel? (£n. Ipfe me pielas fugnl. 

SEN. Vidnam relinqaes? <ed. Tangis, en, ipfos melns. 

SEN. ABaif, merrus quis premal meiitem Hmor. 

Prxflare lacilam regibus foleu 6dein, 

rsn. CoDnubia matris Delphico admoaim liemo. 

SEN. Timcre vaua defme, & lurpes metu'i 

Depone, Mcrope veia non fuerat parem. 

(ED. Quod fubdilivi praentium uali petiU? 

SEN. Rcgniim. fuperbam libeii adftriiigunt fidem. 

<ED, -Secrtta Iholami, fare, quo cicipias modo. 

SEN. Hx ce parenti parvulom tradunt manus. 

(£D. Tu me pureiiti tradis? al quis me (ibi? 

SEN. Paflor nivofo fub Cithironis juj.o. 

(ED. In ilia lemet neniora quis caCus tulit? 

SEN. lUo Tequehar monle coriiigeros greges. 

(ED. Nunc adice certas corporis nodii Qutai. 

SEN. Forata ftrro gelTeras veili(;ia, 

Tumore naifius nomeo k vitio pedum: 

CED. QuLE fuerit ille, qui meum dono dedit 

CED. My father, then, is lying dead, without any foul 
murder, as the cause; now I possess evidence! I can 
devoutly raise my unsullied hands (unsuspected) towards 
Heaven and not go in fetir of the imputation of crime 
and its consequences— but a portion of my destiny still 
remains to me, as the source of alarm 1 

ICED. I would go to my father's kingdom, but I fear for 
the mother (alluding lo the remaining portion of the 
as tl 

Do yoi 
depends on you 

CED. My great affection for her drives away the very 
thought of returning. 

_ .. Would yoi 
as this? 

ich an extremity 

CED. Why, you are now trenching upon i: 
suscepiibih'ties (my one sore point). 

o. M. Explain, what is this fear sunk down in ^our. J 
soul? I am accustomed to perform my duties with kings -I 
with unalloyed confidence, no fear of betrayal on my parti i 

<ZD. By the decree of the Delphian Oracle. I tremble 
at this prophesied marriage with a mother. 

seek to arrive atr 

o. M. A kingdom. Children serve to ensure more 
devoted loyalty Trotn the subjects. 

lED. Tel! me the mysteries connected with the marriage; 
in what way, you rely upon my being merely an 
adopted son. 

o. M. These very hands of mine delivered you, as a 
little fellow, to your supposed parents. 

(ED. You delivered me to my supposed parental But 
who delivered me inlo your hands? 

O. M. A shepherd on the snowy 

:. I was the keeper of the homed flocks on that 

Now, tell me of any certain marks that you 
Fcmember, on my body. 

You wore the marks, where your feet had been 
pierced, with an iron skewer; the very name you bear, 
CEdipus, was given lo you from the swelling and injury 
done to your feet 

CED. I re<iuire lo know, who he was that subjected my 
body to such treatment? 

o. M. He fed the royal flocks, the chief herdsman— a 
small number of shepherds served under him. 


CED. Mention the names of ihera. 


Corpus, requiro. sen. Regios [mvit greges. 

Minor Tub iUo turtn padorum fuit 

(ED, Eloquere nonieii. SKN. Prima laaguefcil 

Memorio, longo lafTa fublabens fitu. 

<ED. Pwcfne facie nofcere ic valtu virum? 

SEN. FortalTe nofcam. fxpt jam fpatio obrulain 

Levis etoletam meinoriam r«vocal notH. 

(ED. Ad fucra & aras omne compulfum pccus 

Duces fcquintui. ite propere, arceffite, 

Famuli, penes quos Tumma couliHil grr^m. 

SEN. Sive iHa. ruia, five fonuna occulic, 

Latere Temper patere, quod laluil diu. 

Sspe eraenlis Veritas patuit mala. 

(ED. Malum timeri majus his aliquod poted? 

SEN. Magnum eflTe, magna mole quod pelilur, ttiim 

Concurrit illinc puhlica, hinc regis falus, 

Utrioque paria, contine medias manus, 

Ut nil lacelTas, ipfa Te fau expIicaaL 

Noo enpedit concutere fclicem nmum. 

CED. Tuto movelur. qu-dquid extremo in loco efl, 

SEN. Nobiliui aliquid eenere re^li appeti«? 

Ne te pareniis pigeat inventi, »ide. 

<ED. Vcl p(ciiitendi fauguinis quxracn [idem, 

Si Dofle libeat. ecce, graadxvus fcoex, 

Arbilria fub quo regii fueraiit gregis, 

Phorbns. referfne no.nen aul vultum fenisf 

SKH. Arridet animo foima. nee nolui falls, 

Nee rurfus ille vultus ignolua mibi. 

Regnum oblineutc Laio famulus greges 

Agitafti opimos fub Cithxronis ploga? 




o. M. The memory belonging to youth fails in old 
age, as one becomes wearied in other respects, through 
length of time. 

(ID. Do you think that you would know the man by 
his face and general appearance? 

O. M. Perhaps I should know him— oftentimes some 
trivial mark recalls one's dull memory to what one might 
think would be effaced by the hand of time. 

CED. Come, servants I go at once and seek out those 
to whose charge the chief management of the flocks was 
entrusted, and let the head sVie^Vvwd (ainducl the whole 

Linci 815-^46] (EDIPUS. 315 

of the herds driven togedier, to the altar, under the 
pretence of an intended sacrifice. 

0. M. Let that remain hidden, which has been concealed 

'Or so long a time, whether design or accident led to 

sack concealment; for, verv often, the truth has been 

^d bare to the injury of tnose, who have brought Uiat 

truth to light. 

ced. Cannot some greater calamity be feared, than 
"><>se you have been tmnking about 

o. M. You must be aware that a thing is of great 
™^nent which is only arrived at with considerable 
djfficulty. The welfare of the public interests here— 
pc security of the throne there— meet together as things 
"*. common, in feet, identical! No I preserve thou the 
ni^<idle course, let nothing harass you— the Fates will 
^"^^reave soon enough what is to be— at all events it is 
^^t advisable to shake the stability of a fortunate position. 

. ced. When misfortunes are at their very worst some- 
^^tics, they are dealt with more safely; in other words, 
*- tliink my position is most unfortunate, therefore I shall 
^^deavour to make it more certain. 

o. M. Do you desire anything more elevated than a 
«^oyaJ descent? Listen to me you are not about to worry, 
«)ecause you have found a father! 

(ED. But I must and will find out the truth about my 
miserable origin— Look! behold that extremely old man 
with whom the tending of the royal flocks once rested. 
I wonder whether he is able to remember what he once 
knew? It is this Phorbas standing before us— Do you 
remember the name and general appearance of this 
old man? 

o. M. His appearance recurs readily to my memory, 
but he was never sufficiently known to me, to say more, 
but his face now that I take another look, is not unknown 
to me. (Addressing Phorbas) Were you not the shepherd 
that drove the fat flocks on the plains of Cithaeron, 
when Laius held the kingdom? 



CiTHiERON always exuberant with its fresh herbage, a 
series of crops supplies succeeding flocks from the 
summer proauce of its meadows. 


s:x. Nofdfne memei! pMOft. Dubitat anccps memoria. 

(£i>. Haic oliquis a '.e uadilui quondam puerJ 

Efbrc. dubilas? cur genus motst color? 

Qaid verba qoteris? vcrilas odil oioras, 1 

niot. ObduiAa longo temporum liaiflu moves. 

(EO. Fateie. ne te cogal ad Tenim dolor. 

PBOK. Inalile ifli muDus infanlem dcdi. 

Noo potuit ille luce, aoa ctc\o fnii. 

SEN. Procul lit omen, vivit, & vivat precor. 

CED. SaperelTe quoie tiadilum infaDtem nrgas? 

PHOR. Frrmm yer ambos tenoe tranfadlum pedn 

Ligabat sitiu : vulncri innatus lumor 

Pacrile fiFda corpaa urebal lac. 

SES. Quid quairis ultras fata jam acceilunt pnope. 

(ED. Qais fueril infani, sdoce. phok. Piohibel fidii. 

OEU. Hue aliqaU ignem. flamma jaiD eiculiel Adem. 

Per tun cniculas vera quxreati viis 

Igoofce, ([uiero, (i fcrus videoi tibi. 

El impoleDs. pirala rindiifla in maou ell. 

Die vera, quifuaia., quove generatos patrci 

Qua malre genitus? PHOR. Conjuge eft genitus tua. 

so. Dehifce, tellus. (uque lenebianiln peleiis, 

Id Tartaia ima, teiflor umhratum. rape 

Retre reverfas generis ac (lirpis vices. 

Coneerite, cives, faia in infandum caput, 

MaifTate lelis. me pelat ferro parens, 

Me nalus. in me coDJoges aiincnt manus, 

Fratefqae; & aeger populus eieplus rogia 

Jaculetur i^nes. feculi crimen vigor, 

Odium Dconim. juris cuiliam facri; 

Qoa luce primum fpirilua hauli mdei, 

O. M, Do you remember me, Phorbas? 

PH. My treacherous memory keeps me in a slate of 

CF,D. Was there not once a little boy handed over to 
you by some person? Speak. Sirl Why do you hesitate! 
\Vhy do your cheeks change color? (blush) iVhy do you 
seem at such a loss for words? Truth, you know, shuns 
such quibbling evasions. 

PH. You are testing my memory, as to matters that 
have been long hidden in the bosom of Time (a long 

space of years). 

(ED. Tell me, Sir, less some punishment be em] 

to force you lo lel\ the UwiH, 


Line* 847-877] CEDIPUS. 317 

PH. I once gave that old man, the care of a feeble 
infant, that did not seem likely to enjoy the air and light 
of heaven for any length of time (tiiat is, half-dead). 

o. M. Let that impression of yours pass for naught! 
He does live! and will continue to live, I humble pray! 

CED. Why did you imply that the infant, which you 
'^ad delivered up, had not survived? 

PH. A thin iron skewer transfixed both his feet, and 
wund them together, and a swelling grew over the seat 
2f the wound and the little boy's body burned with fever 
frojQQ the foul poison engendered by the wound [consti- 
^tional disturbance arising from the wound itself (pain) 
*^ii the poisonous secretions arising from it]. 

o. M. What more do you require beyond this? (ad- 
^^^ssing CEdipus) we are very near the fatal news, now! 

CED. Tell me, who was the infant? 

i^H. The pledge of secrecy forbids this. 

. CED. Bring hither (to attendants) some means of torture 
^^ the shape of fire ! Now I will shake all this nonsense 
JJ>out pledges out of you by applying this fire (whatever 
^*^t was). 

PH. Will the truth be sought for by means so cruel? 
^ thou still in ignorance, I beseech tnee! 

CED. If I seem cruel and unreasonable with you, that 
Vengeance is in your own keeping (that is, it depends 
on yourself answering my question). Tell the truth! 
Who am I? By what fatner was I begotten? Of what 
mother was I bom? 

PH. That son was bom from your wife! 

CED. Oh! Earth, open wide, and thou, Pluto, the ruler 
of the dark kingdom snatch me away to the depths of 
Tartarus ! Oh ! Ruler of the Manes, me who have returned 
to the genitals of my own mother, against the very laws 
of nature! Heap heavy stones upon my impious head! 
Oh! ye citizens— sacrifice me with your darts— let every 
parent— every child— seek me out with the drawn sword, 
as the cause of this pestilence— wives and brothers, direct 
your armed hands against me and let the \ax\^s\C\X!i% 

X ATA fi liceat mihi " 
Fingcre aibitrio raeo. 
Temperera Zephyto levi 
Vefa, ue preCSx gravi 
Spiritu aDlennK tremanl. 
Lents & modice flueos 
Aara, nee vergens latus, 
Ducu mtreptdani ratem. 
Tula me media vehat 
Vila decurrcns via. 
Cnoffmm regem timtn!, 
A (Ira dum demens pelil, 
Artibus fifus novis, 
Cenal & veras aves 
Vincere, ac falfis nimis 
Imperal pennia puer, 
Notnen etipuit frero. 
Callidu^ medium hatx 
Dsdalus librans iler 
Vube Tub media llelil, 
Alilcm eifpeftans fuarn: 
Qualis accipilris minas 
Fugil, & fparfos mem 
Colligii fieius avis: 
DoDee in panto maniu 
Movit implicitas pner, 
Comes audacis v'lx. 

Gods, and the violator of the sacred laws both of the 
Gods and mankind I I was worthy of Death only, from 
the moment I first drew my unfortunate breath— accord 
me now, oh I my parent, thy fullest hatred— now let me 
have the courage to do something which is owing for 
this my crime I Let me go, let me persevere— let me 
seek out my palace with hurried steps, and congratulate 
my parent upon the increase of a family, in the shape 
of children begotten by me, out of her, my own mothcrl 


The Chorus finds fault with exahed ereatness as exposed 
to greater variations of fortune; therefore it inculcates 
the desire for a moderate position— the praises of 
which it chants from the comparison (set up) between 
a ship wafted along by a moderate breeze, and the 
example afforded by the fate of Icarus. 

LET it be our lot to shape our career according to 
our own judgment that we may trim our sails to 
the gende Zephyrs, lest the yards may carry away 
under a loo-stiff breeze; let the wind, gentle and blowing 
■with moderation, speed onwards our craft, with no disasters 
to be dreaded, and let not her broadside heel over to 
leeward under the strong pressure of canvasl Let our 
career in life lead us in the middle coursel He, that 
feared the anger of the Gnossian King (Minos) whilst 
he madly sought his way to the stars, relying upon a. 
novel invention (wings\ endeavouring to outdo the real 
feathered fraternity, and the Boy Icarus relied too much 
on his power of managing those pretended wings, and 
gave his name to a sea m consequence (the Icarian Sea), 
whilst the more skilful Diedalus belancing himself at a 
moderate height, in the middle regions of the air, and 
eagerly expected his brood (one bird only I) to seek his 
protectitig wing (Dasdalus feared that Icarus was in 
oaager and anxiously waited for him to descend just as 
the mother bird fears the swoop of the hawk, and calls 
together with fluttering wings her scattered brood! At 
last Icarus, the companion of Dsdalus in this daring 
aerial journey, duly exerts his entangled hands in the 
seal whatever deviates from the path of rooderaiion, 
rests only on an insecure foundation! But what is this? 
The portals are sounding! {are being opened) one of the 
royal servants enters, shaking his head and looking as 
if his task were a sad one I Tell us, what news have you 
brought ? 

K po(l<(uam fata, & mfaudum geuus 
Depreodll, &c fe fcelere convtifluro (Edipus 
Damnavit i)'fe; rF^iam Lnredus peleos 
lovira properq ttc!la pencltavit gridu; 
Qualii per orva Libj'cus jnfanil leo, 
Fulvam minaci fruate concutiens jubom; 
Vulius [urore lorvus, atque oculi truces, 
Cemitus, & oltum munnur, & gelidus llult 
Sudor per anus, rpumat, & valvil minas, 
Ac mcHus alW nmgnus exundal dolor. 
Secam ipfe Cxva-t giande nefcio quid parat, 
Suifque fatis fimilc. Quid pceons moror? 
(Ail) hoc fceleflum pe6lui am ferro petal, 
Aut fervido atiquis igne vel faxo doniel 
Quie tigrii, aut qufe Cxva. vifceribos meis 

Incurret ales? iptc lu fcderum capux, 
Sacer CithsErou, vel feiaa in me tuis 
Emitte fdvls, mitte vel rabidos canes. 
NuDC reddc Agaven. snime, quid mortmi lla 
Mors ioDOccalem Tola fortume eripjt. 
Ilaec falus, apt at impiam capulo manum, 
Enfemquc ducit, Ilaoc lam magnis brevea 
FiEiiai fcelerlbus folvis! alque uno omDia 
Penfabis tAu? moreris? hoc paIrE fat efl. 
Quid deinde matri! quid male in lucem editis 
Natis! quid ipll, quae tuum magna luil 
Scelus niina, flebili patrix dabis? 
Solvendo non e», Ula qne leges n ' 
Natura ia udo veriit (Edipoda, no 
Commeata partus, fuppliciis eadcm mt 
Noveiut. iterum vivere, atque iterum n 
Liceai; renafci Temper: 


/• f -Dipus at last folly realises in his own mind, Ihe 

ll~V destiny, which had been predicted, and his own 

terrible condition, and is sure that he is guilty of 

the crime with which he had been charged, and tortured 

in his mind, he seeks the palace with hurried steps, and 
enters that abode, which has become hateful to him. JusI 
as the Libyan lion rages along the plains, shaking the 
tawny mane which surrounds his menacing head — so was 
(Edipus— his countenance tierce with pent-up rage— his 
eyes having a malignant glare -he gives forth a desperate 
groaning and makes loud noises, whilst the cold sweat 
breaks out over his whole body— he foams at the mouth 
and indulges in a round of curses -and grief sunk down 
deep in his inner soul is overflowing to a degree, and he 
is then very savage, and is evidently concocting something 
terrible within his own mind, but I know not what, but 
about something on a par with his own terrible destinies I 
Why should I delay my punishment, he exclaimed; let 
me seek out this impious breast of mine with the sword 
or may some one utterly crash me with fiercest fire, or 
hurl me down on the dangerous rock! What tiger will 
spring upon me, or what ravenous bird of prey will peck 
away at my entrails? And thou, ohl accursed Cithieron, 
so capable of affording a place for crimes, (alluding to 
the exploits of the Bacchanals} send forth your wild beasts 
from your forests, or lei loose upon me your rabid dogs 
—Oh! my soul! Now lei Agave appear, why should I 
dread death? Death onlv relieves innocent men of their 
misfortunes! Having spoken these words towards himself 
the Messenger relates how he places his merciless hand 
upon the hiTt of his sword and draws it from its scabbard 
—Shall I atone, he says, my great crime by so short a 
punishment (meaning that the mere killing himself out- 
right, was not a sufficient penalty) and with one blow 
render compensation for ever>; thing? Shall I die thus? 
Is this enough for the father? (his murder). But after 
that, what about the mother? What about the sons born 
to see the light of day, under such evil auspices? (Incest). 
What shall I award myself, for the weeping country, 
which is suffering through my crimes, from overwhelming 
ruin? I alone, am not equal to the task of expiation. 
That nature, which reverses her established laws, in the 

Eerson of an CEdipus only, she having permitted to be 
roughl about impious conceptions hitherto unknown, 
that same nature must be visited by something novel as 
regards its punishment! It is to be born again and to 
die again, and to be born again and again, so that I 
might suffer as often, so many fresh punishments — let me 
as a miserable wretch employ my ingenuity I (I did so 
succe.ssfully with the Sphinx.) What cannot be effecied 
at separate times, must be done at once, completely— in 
order to constitute a lasting infliction, a long protracted 
form of chronic death must be chosen, one fcaX V'Si. 



Supplicia penclas. atere ingenio mifcr. 
Quod Ctepe fieri non potefl. fiat diu. 
Mois etigalur longa, qua^ralur via, 
Qua nee fq^nUis mixlus, & vivis inmen 
Exemlui erres. morere, fed cilra pitrem. 
CunAnris, anime? fubilus en vullus graval 
Ppofufiis imber, ac ligat flem geoas. 
El flerc fatis eft? hadleaiu fuudent levem 
Oculi Uquorem. fedibus pulfi fuis 
Lacrimm fequaolur. lii morilates ftalim 
Fodianlur oculi. dixit, atquc ita fuiil. 
ArdeDl minacei igne Imculeulo getue; 
Oculique vix fe fedihus reiinent Tuis. 
Violentus, audax vultas, iratus, ferox, 
Tantnin eruenlis. Gemuit, h dirum fremctin 
Manus in ors toifil. nl conlrB truces 
Oculi flelcrunt, & Tuam inleoti mamim 
Ultro iDrequuDlur. Tulueri occuirucit fuo. 
Scmlnlur avidus manibus uncis lutnius. 
Radice ab itna funditus vuiras limul 
Evolvil orbes. hserct in vacuo iiianu&; 
Et lixa penilus unguibus laeetat cavos 
Alte receHus luminum, St ioanei finus; 
SjEvitque frudra, plutque, quam fat eft, furii; 
Tantutn eft petidum lucis, attullil uapul, 
Cavlfque luftraus orbidus cceli plagat, 
Nodlem expcritur. quidqaid cfforfis male 
Depeodet oculi:>, rumpil; Si viiflot Deas 
CoDckmst Dinner: FArcile, heu, patriic, precor: 
lam jufta feci, debitas pceuas tuli. 
InvcQls thalamis digna nox tandem meis, 
Rigat ora fcedus imber, & lacerum capul 
Largum revulHs faDguioem venis vomit. 


Chorus ifte ex difcipliiia Sloicomm (qui omnia, 

Deum ipfuin rubjiciuni inevitaljilibus falisj 

encufnri Qidipum vulu 

me to wander wilh those that are buried out of th* 

world, as it were, at the same time one that will shU' 

me out Irom all the surroundings of the living! But, oh! 

mv soul! Why do I delay? Let me die! but not witii 

blow, its my father, I.aius, didi Behold then, hii 

tenance (continues the Messenger) grows suddenly 

:ast, a. deluge of leats ensues, anoT he bathes his 

lj.= „,-,!.! fEDIPUS. 533 

fheeli vrith his weeping! (He says) Is it sufficient for , 
rae lo weep merely? Thus far, let these e)es pour forth 
'neir watery tears— let them, torn from their resting-places 
snclteis) follow the tearsi He then said.— I.ei these eyes, 
nhich have played their part in my impious marriage, be 
iJug oui forthwith I His threatening visage is buminff 
with savage wrath, and his eyes are nearly starting out of 
(lis head— he becomes violent — his look is most deter- 

mined. He is at the very height of pent-up rage, and 
his ferocity is only on a par with some blood-thirsty 
executioner! bm one bent on plucking out his own eyesl 

--■ groaned. Ah! and a dreadful groan it was! He 
turned his hands towards his face, and his eyes, as your 
Kaze met them, were fixed and cruelty was marked upon 
'hem— and being stretched outwards a little, they easily 
followed the hand, which he had introduced, and they 
'hen appear, at the wound, which he had made in order 
'9 get ai them— he, then, anxiously and critically explores 
his eyes with bent fingers, and at the same moment, 
almost, he rolls out the two eyes, thoroughly torn away 
from their deepest attachments— he ihen plants his fingers 
'o the hollow recesses before occupied by the eyea them- 
^Ives, (the vacated orbits). He then rages in a most im- 

l>oten( manner, and shows more anger perhaps, than there 
*as any occasion for. So great is his fear of any thin^ 

'te light, that he then raises his head, and with his 
'joiiow sockets, appeared as if he were gazing up into 
!^e regions of the sky, to make sure that there was no 
K^ht remaining I He then tears away any loose mem- 
brane or attachments hanging down from the parts whence 
^e had dug out the ey^s, and as a boastful conqueror. 
^<J addresses all the Gods: Alas! my country, I pray, I 
'lave now fulfilled the decrees— I nave undergone the 
punishment which was my due— Eternal night has at 
'^figth been arrived atl- Messenger says, a foul discharge 
r*n down over his face, and from his disfigured orbits 
's^ued a copious flow of blood, arising from the ruptured 


The Chorus is rather inclined to be lenient with (Edipus, , 
but they argue according lo the tenets of the Stoic 
Philosophers, who subject every thing, even the Gods 
themselves, to the overruling will of the inevitable F'ates. 

WE are ruled by the Fates: yield therefore in good 
part, to your destinies— not the most watchful 
care can disarrange the threads of the spindle, 
once the distaff is m play I Whatever oiir mortii 

^ ■ ■ c 

■Men on 


MuWre rati Hamina fun. 
Quidquid paiimur moanle genus, 
Quidquid fftcimiis, venil ex alio: 
Setvatqne fuM decrela colllii 
Lochelis, dura revolutn manu. 
Omnia ceito iramile vaduDt : 
Primusque dies dnilt rvlrentum. 
Nod ilia Deo verliffe licet, 
Quie neiia Tuis currunl caufls. 
It cuique ratu.1, prece non ulla 
Mobilis, ordo multis iprum 
MetuilTe nacet muM ad ramm 
VcticK fuum, diim fata timent. 
Sonuere fores, atque ijife fuuni, 
Dure non nllo, niolitnr iter 
Lu minis orbuii. 


Jocafta fe inlerfidt Qidipus e 



liabcl, peraiflum c(l. jufla perfolvi 
Juvant lenebiw. qiils Deus laodem mi hi 
Placitlus atra nube perfuadit caput? 
Quis fcelera donnt? coufcium evafi diem. 
Nil, parricida, dexterxE debes tuie. 
Lux tB refugit. vultus CEdipodem hie dccel. 
CHOR. En, ecce, rapido fxva profiluTt gradu 
Joca{1a vecois; qualis attonila & furens 
Cadmca mater abllulit nato caput, 
Senfitve raptum. Dubilat, afRidtum alloqui 
Cupit, pavelque. jam malis ceffit pudor, 
El hxret ore prime vox. joc. Quid le voccm? 
Nalumne? dubilasJ natus es. natum pndet. 
Invite loquere nale, quo aveitis caput, 
Vacuofque vultus? CED. Quis frui & lenebris v 
Quis reddit oculosJ matrix, beu, malris foaas. 
Perdidimus nperam. cringredi ta amplius 

race goes through — whatever we do or undcnoki 
conies as a decree from on high, and Lachesif 
department ft is, rifjidly upholds (he decrees as i 

by the distaff, wound by unrelenting fingers. Al 

go on in a pre-ordained path, and the first day w 
us, as to the last (the horoscope, the casting of na 
It is not in the power of Jupiter himself to reV' 
decrees, which, once wounA louud, T\m ou uMQteri 

(EDIPUS. 325 

I0 iheir appointed end, and this established course goes 
on with every one, and is not to be set aside by prayers 
of anv sort— with many too, it is not desirable that tney 
shouia fear too much, for some arrive at their destiny, 
jhilsi they are still ^oing in fear of tlieir ultimate fate, 
The diMjrs are soundmg (are opened) and CEdipus gropes . 
■lis way along, deprived of sight— without any guide. 



-'*>casta kills herself: (Edipus, made bhnd by his ownl 
hands, goes away into exile. 

is well! the thing has been thoroughly done, I have 
_ rendered just atonement as far as the father is con- 
ly., cemed. Darkness is now a source of consolation. 
"^ai God, at last, has been so beneficent as to obscure 
j^y i-ision by shedding this impenetrable cloud around 
i^y head? \Vhat God is it that rewards crime in this 
[jT^nner? Here! I have been enabled to escape from 
n^ noxious li^ht of day, and I, a parricide, owe nothing 
j5*^v !o my right hand! light has fled from me for ever, 
j, 'ti methinks that this condition of the countenance is 
■''^St fit for an tEdipus! 

I CH. Look 1 Look ! Jocasta, presenting a frightful visage, is 
jC^lrsting in at a rapid pace, quite demented, exactly like 
^*^e Cadmean mother, (AgaveJ thunderstruck and raging, 
^hen she had taken offlhe head ofher son Pentheus (in the 
'lidst of the revels) and with the same expression of 
'Countenance too, which Agave presented, when she 
I'ecognized, what she had captured (out of the scramble 
amongst the Bacchanals) so Jocasta is bewildered ! She 
'wishes to say something to afflicted CEdipus 1 She dares 
tiotl But at length her diffidence gives in, confrondng 
her misfortunes, and she tries to speak, but the words 
cling to her mouth, as she makes a supreme effort. 

joc. What shall I call thee? Son? thou, thou hesitates! ! 
Thou art my son although it may shock thee to be tliat 
" ' Speak! Unwilling SonI Why dost thou avert thy 
and thy disfigured face? 

CED. Who is now forbidding me to enjoy my darkness? 
Who, at this moment is Cpraclically) restoivtve ton Si^V"*. 
(M&imlJy he means'. Ah! the sound of a momex s vovtet 

^ Thou 





Haud eft. nefandos dividat vatlum mare, _.._ 

Dirimatque tellua abdjta: St quifquis fub hoc 

Id alia verfut lideia, nc folem avium 

DepcDdil orbis, altenim et nobis ferat. 

JoC. Fali ilia, culpa eft. nemo At falo nocenl. 

(ED. Jam parce verbis, nutcr, & parce luribus. lOSe 

Per has reliquios corporis tnioci precor. 

Per iiiaurpicatum ranguinis pignus mei, 

Per omne nuftri nominis fas & vkChs. 

jcic. Quilt, aaime, lorpes? facia cur fcelenim dare 

Poaias recufaa? oniDe CDDfurum peril, itu; 

Incefta, per te juris bumani decus. 

Morerc, ac nclBftum fpiritum fcrro etige. 

Nod II ipfe mundiim coDcitans DivQiu falur 

Corurca (xva tela jaculMur moiiu, 

Unqunm repenilam fceleribus pornas pares tojo 

Malet Defanda. mors placer, moilis via 

QuEcratur, agedum, coDimo^la tnnlri maiium. 

Si pnn-icida es. reflat hoc operi ultimum. 

Raplalur. enfis. hoc jacrt fcrro meus 

Conjux. quid ilium uomine hauil vero vocos? (OJJ 

Socer ell. utrumne peAori inligRm meo 

Telum? an patent! condituiu jugulo imprimam? 

Eligere nefcis valnus. hunc, -dcxtra, hunc pcle 

t'lenini capacem, qui virum & natum tulil. 

CKOR. Jacet peremla. vulneri imtnoritur manus; ia|e 

Femimque Tecum nimiui efecit cnior. 

(ED. Falidice le, te. pnefidem veri Deum, 

Compcllo. roluDi debui falis ]>3lrem. 

Bis parridda, ptufque quiiin timui noceus. 

Malrem peremi. fcelerc confei!la ell meo. lOfj 

O Phtebe mendaK, fata fuptravi impia. 

Pavilante grelTu fequere follaces vias, 

.Sufpeufa plnnlis et^reus vefligia. 

Cieaiii treracnle dBxtcm Doflem rege. 

I, gradere prafccp;, lubrlcoi ponens gradus. I05O 

a mother's! In hearing that voice, I have lost the benefit 
arising out of my lost vision -it is not in the nature of 
things that our path should ever be again in the same 
direction— let the vast ocean divide us, Both criminals as 
we arel And let the hidden earth separate us (the other 
hemisphere, which is hidden from us), and whatever thai 
orb is which hangs down beneath us. which turns itself 
towards other stars, and possesses altogether another 
sun inaccessible by us -let such an orb receive one of 
ust (The Ancients supposed that the other side of the 
earth was furnished with a sun and stars of its own,) 

JOC. Ours is the fault of destinyl No one is rightly 
regarded criminal, who has beew m&&ft sn t") 4e»Mi^, 

Lines 1015— 1050] CRDIPUS. 327 

<:ed. Now, mother, spare thy speech, and at the same 

time have mercy on my ears I I implore thee by what 

remains of my mutilated body— by the inauspicious 

evidence of my own blood (his own children by Jocasta) 

^y the every "right" and "wrong" of our names (con- 

sanguineously and matrimonially) Mother and Son, or 

Husband ana Wife! 

joc. Ohl my soul! Why am I so obtuse? Why, as 
^y companion in crime, do I deny myself condign 
P^anishnient?— every economy of nature is subverted and 
^^stroyed— and the honor of all human laws has been 
^^"traged by me— an incest! Let me die and take away 
^i^Ji the sword my own wicked life, or will not the father 
^^ the Gods, who disturbs the heavens with his thunder- 
^S^lts, hurl down upon me those glittering flashes, with 
*^^^ avenging hand! Shall I, as an impious mother, ever 
^^^er adequate atonement for my crime— death pleases 
J*^3^ inclination and the mode of that death must be sought 
'^x*! Come, CEdipus, lend assistance to thy mother -if 
*^C3u art already a parricide let this last operation devolve 
^O. mel Let a sword be brought! Why! my husband 
^i^d by this very sword. 

<ED. Why dost thou call him, though, by that wrong 
^^me? Thou shouldst say "Father-in-law!" 

^ joc. Which shall I do? Insert the weapon into my 
^reast, or shall I press it down into my open throat? 

CED. Thou knowest not, how to choose a spot ! Take 
this sword and seek out with it thy capacious womb 
which has given birth to such an offspring as Husband 
and Son! 

CH. She is lying, expiring from a wound inflicted 
by her own hand, and the olood flowed so copiously, 
that it forced the sword out with its violence. 

CED. Oh! thou, who art the presiding deity over the 
truthfulness of the Gods, I invoke thee— I owed retribu- 
tion to the Fates for a father— I am twice a parricide! I 
am a greater criminal than I feared 1 was, 1 have killed 
a motner— she is certainly killed through my crimes! 
Oh! mendacious Apollo! I have exceeded thy cruel 
decrees — let me follow my treacherous, rough, precipitous 
path, with steps full of apprehensions, pursuing with my 
uncertain tread the doubtnil tracks in my way! Let me 
regulate my long dark night (blindness) with my trembling 
right hand, leaning on a stick, the blind man's compa- 
nion! Let me advance headlong, making my s»\\ppex^ 
progress— let we go— flee— get away I Let me p^Mse 

I, prafuge, vsde. fillc, ae in mii<rem tncidus. 
Quicungue feOi corpow & morbo graves 
Semianima tnibitis pedlota, (en fugio. 
Relevate cnlla, mitior call flalus 
Poll lerga fequitur. quifquis cxilem Jacens 
Animam relenlal, vividos hauftua levis 
Coticipiat. lie, ferlc depofitis opem. 
Morlifera raccum vilin lermrum exlraho. 
ViolcDta filH, & horridus morbi iremor, 
Maciefque, & atra pedis, & rabidus dolor 
Mecum ile, mecani. ducibus his uti libet. 

though, lest I should fall upon my mother! (her dead 
body). Whoever ye are, oh] ye plague-ridden Thebans, 
weary in body or broken down by disease, drawing vour 
breatn with ditlicultv (chest not fully expanded Trom" sheer 
debility and languid circulation), behold I I am going 1 I 
am fleeingl Raise your drooping necksl a bettered state 
of the atmosphere (pestilence-freed) will follow, when 
ray back is turned upon you and whoever is Iving stricken 
down and is only lust holding on to life by a slender 
thread will then mhale the pure air again and become 
refreshed with a new lease of life (may nave a prolonged 
existence), and all of you, render assistance to any whose 
cases are despaired oft I shall drag the death-produciog 
evils of this world about with me— violent strokes of fate 
— the dreadful, trembling weakness brought on by disease, 
emaciation ! And let for ever the cruel pestilence and 
maddening grief go with me, and let it be my lot, having 
them with me, to use them as my guides! 

T R O A D E S. 


CHOftfs TroiU; 




A R G I' M E M T L' M. 

Grsci, cxcifo jim Ilio, mlituni in patriam cogituilei contnrio 
venlo detiaebaiitiir. Apparens no^u Achillis umbra foWere cos 
pofTe DCgBl, nill fibi dcbilis inreriij Toiidlala Potytena, cajus 
QUptiarum piEcteitu int<rfe<fluj ed. Non fert Attain emooii fibi 
amalam PolyMnun irmflari. Qua de re orto cum I'yrrho juigio, 
intervenit confullus Calchas, qui omniDo immalindam prouimriat, 
unaque necandum Aftyaaafta, quern a maCre abfcoudilum abdudt 
Ulyffcs, & de Sara porta dejicit. Polysenam ab Helena nufpice, 
ritu culluque (poufx dedu^am ad paffis luiuulum, Pytrhas maifliL 


Vj/uicuNijLTE regno fidU, & magna polcni 
Dominunr aula, nee leves meluil Deos, 
Animumque rebus credulum litis dedil. 
Me videal, ft le, Troja. non unquam tulil 
DocumcDta Fors niajora, qnam fragitt loco 


Tepidum mbeiili 'I'igrin immifcel ficio; 
Et qux vagtw viciua profpiciena Scylhas 
Ripam eoMrili PoDtiaun viJuis Cerit. 
Exclf» ferro ell Pe^unum. incubuii. &bi. 

lines I-X4] 


j^HORus OF Trojans. 


Old man. 


A STY an ax. 


Polyxena, mute personage. 


^He Greeks, Tro>; having been destroyed, thinking of 

J"etuming to their native country, were detained by 

adverse winds. The Shade of Achilles appearing in the 

flight, refuses to allow them to set sail, unless Polyxena, 

is sacrificed to his Manes, having been slain under the 

pretext of Nuptials being performed between him and 

t*olyxena; Agamemnon who was in love with her himself 

'Would not allow her to be sacrificed; whereupon a 

C|uarrel took place between him and P)rrrhus. Calchas, 

yvho was consulted, became umpire, and he pronounced 

in favor of her being sacrificed without reserve, and 

that Astyanajc should he killed at the same time, whom 

Ulysses found hidden away by his mother, and who 

taking possession of him, threw him from the Scaean 

gate (one of the gates of Troy). Pyrrhus then sacrificed 

Polyxena, who was conducted to the tomb of Achilles 

his father; having had her escorted thither by Helena, 

and dressed in bridal attire, and with all the rites and 

ceremonies appertaining to marriage being duly 

carried out. 



WHOEVER reposes confidence in the security of his 
Kingdom, and rules all powerful in his magni- 
ficent palace, and has never gone in dread of the 
frivolous deities, but has given up his trusting mind 
without reserve to the happy circumstances around him; 
visible evidence is given, let him look on thee and me. 
Oh! Troy I never has fickle fortune furnished so many 
striking proofs as to the flimsy foundation, on which the 
high ana mighty on this earth do rest— the very prop, 
torn from its basis, of mighty Asia has fallen, raised to 
what it originally was by the assiduous labor of the gods 
themselves. To whose aid. Rhesus, the king of Thracia, 
came, and those who satisfy their drinking wanX^ iiom 


En alta muri decani coogelli jacent 
TEifli.t itduflis. regiam flninms wnbiuDtj 
Omuirqae lute fiimBt AfTanci domm. 
Non prutiibcC avidas flammn viftorU nuuiusi 
Dirijiilur aideus Ttoja. nee ccclum pitct 
Uadanle fumo. nube ceu denfa obritus, 
Aler favillB fquatlet Dines dies. 
.Stat avidus ine TJflor, & lentum Ilium 
Melitur oculiE, ac decern tandem ferus 
JgDofcit annis horret aRli^iini quoque; 
ViAamque quamvis yideat, baud credit fibi 
roluilTe vinci. fpolia populntor tnpil 
Datdania. prardam mille con capiunt ratei. 
Teftor Dcarum Duineii adverrum mihi, 
Patrixque cineres, teque reAorem Phrygum, 
Qucm Troji toto condilum rcEDO legit, 
Tuofque manes, qua ftelll llaDte Ilion, 
Et vos meorum liberum magni greges, 
Umbne m in ores, quidquid adverfi accidit, 
Qutccunque Phtcbaa ore lymphnio futenii, 
Credi Deo velanle, pcxdiiil mala, 
Prior Hecuba Tidi gravida, nee tacui DielUE, 
Et vana vales ante CalTandram fui. 
Non cautus ignes Ilbacui^ ant Ilhaci comes 
No^mus in vos rparfit, aut failax Sinon. 
Meui ignis ille eft. facibus ardetis meis. 
Scd quid ruinas iirbis cverfie gemis 
Vivai feoeAus? refpice infellx ad boa 
Lnflus recentes. TrojOi jam vetus eft matoin. 
Vidi exfecrandym legisc atdis nefos, 
Ipfafque ad aras majui adiDiRum fcelui 
AJBcis armis: cum tetox Txva manu 
Coma refleflens regium loria caput. 
Alio nefandum vulneri fcmim nbdidil; 
Quod penicus a^um cum rccepilTet libens, 
Ends feuili liccus e jugulo rediiL 

the frozen Tanais (The Don) which opens into the sea 
with its seven roouihs; and those who are the first to 
enjoy the luminous arrivaJ of coming day in the far 
East! (because Phoebus rises there) and where the warm 
Tigris mixes with the red-tinled sea (on account of Aurora 
or the rising sun casting a reddish hue), and Penthesilea, 
queen of the Amazons, who in her character as neigh- 
bour, looks down upon the wandering Scythians and 
makes her power felt on the banks ofthe Euxine with 
her battalions of armed virgins. Perganios has fallen by 
the ruthless sword of the enem}^— it has tumbled to 
pieces. Behold 1 the lofty decorations of the p^ace,— 
walls lie heaped together ia a comwon ruin, with the 

Li-" .s-s=] TROADES. 

buildings burnt, from basement to roof— every house, far 
and wide, in the city of Assaracus (Ilium) is sending up 
clouds of smoke ; the flames, however, do not arrest the 
pillaging hands of the conqueror; burning Troy, falls a 
prey, also, to the looters, the serene sky is invisible from 
the volumes of smoke, and the sombre daylight, beset, a 

it were, with one dense cloud, grows murky with the 
"" e conqueror, in his raging anger, stands 
with measuring eyes, Ilmm falling slowly 

but surely, and in his ignorant cruelty, forgets that this has 
been going on for ten years; even he seems shocked at 
what his anger has wrought upon afflicted Troy— and 
although he sees that it is conquered— he can scarcely 
think It possible to have been conquered; the Dardanian 
ravager seizes upon the spoils, and a thousand ships 
do not suffice to contain them. 1 call to witness the 
deity amongst the gods, that is my enemy, and oh! my 
country's ashes 1 I call upon thee, the Phrygian ruler, 
whom Troy covers up hidden from the entire kingdom, 
and thy Manes, who when thou didst stand, Troy stood, 
and ye, the numberless members of my family, and 
ye the Manes of less degree. Whatever adversity has 
befallen and whatever misfortunes Cassandra (Phosbas) in 
her rage has -predicted with her angry lips, the God 
Apollo, meanwhile, having forbidden that she should 
be believed in, 1 Hecuba, when I first became pregnant, 
foresaw what was to come, nor have I at any time 
pretended to conceal ray fears, and thus, I was, tne idle 
tooiish prophet, before Cassandral Nol it is not the 
cautious Ulysses, nor the nocturnal companion of Ulysses, 
(Diomedes) who has scattered those flames broadcast 
upon thee, nor the treacherous Sinon (the Greek who 
introduced the wooden Horse). Nol this is my especial 
firel Thou art burning now from my torches, (When 
Hecuba was passing; through utero-geslation, she 
dreamt she would bring forth a hurnmg torch, so 
she did, in the shape of Paris). But, thou, ol old 
age, why groanest thou over the ruins of the over- 
thrown city? Ye that are sulferers, look upon all these 
recent sources of lamentation; Troy is now an ancient 
grievance, a thing of the past. I have witnessed that 
execrable crime the slaughter of the king (Priam), and a 
greater crime committed even than when Ajax approached 
to the very aJtars armed as he was, and defiled Cassandra 
in the temple, before the shrine of Minerva, and that 
was when Pyrrhus savagely bent back the king's head, 
with the old man's locks" twisted up in his cruel hand, and 
buried the sword deep down in the wound, which U\e. 
old man received without a murmur ; and tihea 'ib& ^a.v^<K 


Plftcare quem non potuit n cwJe cHera 
Mortilis xy\ cordiiiem eitremum premens? 
Superique teHes feeleria* & quondsm facnun 
Reeni J^cntii? Ille tot rcguoi parens 
Catet fepulcro Priamui, & flummn indiget 
Aidtnte Traja. non Uunea faperls fut efl. 
Domioum, ecce, Friami Dinibus tc natis legem 
Isortitur uma. pneda quem vilis fequat? 
Hie Heifloris conjugia delpondet Gbi; 
Hie optai Helen! conjuEem; hie Anienoris; 
Nee deeft tuos, CalTaadra, qui thalamos petal. 
Mca fort timelur. fola fum Danaii roelus. 
Lamenta celTnnt? turbs, caplivic, tnea, 
Ferite palinis pefloia, & plouAms date, 
Et jufta Tcojx facile, jamdadum fonet 
Fnlalis Ide judicis dirt dontut. 


■, lleiftotis 3c rtiimi 


J rude Tulgus, lacrimifijuc 
LuRete jubes. hoc continuis 
Fgimus annis, ex quo tetigil 
Phrjrgius Gratis hofpcs Aiiiydas, 
Secuilque fretnm pious matri 
Sacra Cybelle. 
Decies nivihua canuii Ide:, 
Ide nonria oudnla logis; 
Hi Sigeis trepidus campia 
Uecunias fecuit melTor aiillnB; 
Ut nulla die! 

Sed □ 

cBufa : 

1 10 ad planiftus, 
Mireramque leva, regina, lunn: 
Vulgus dominam vile fequcmi 
Noa indocilei lugere famus. 

deed was completely effected, the sword relumed from 
the woimd scarcely tinged with blood! What savaga is 
there but Pytrhus, who would not restrain himself, engaged 
in such a cruel act of slaiighter, from pressing down Tiis 
sword as far as it would go into the body of a man of | 
extreme old age? and yet the Gods above were witnesses 
of that abominable wickedness I Priam, himself the sire 
of so many kings, is actually without a tomb, and whilst 
Troy itself is burning at every turn, he is denied the 

flames himself! (the funeral pile and sepulture). Not, how- 
ever, is this enough for the revengeful godsl Beholdl 
the future lord ana master, whilst the urn is casting the 
lots, each man is selecting his prize from amongst the 
daughters of Priam, and the other women belonging to 
the royal family! Whose booty shall 1 be? a sorry one I 
This one promises himself the wife of Hector, that one 
the wife of Helenus, the other one is to be Antenor's, 
nor will there be long wanting, a wooer for theel Cas- 
sandra! for thy hand in marriage, my destiny is held in 
dread! 1 am only an object of (ear with the Greeks! Will 
lamentations ever cease r Oh my followers — oh! my captive 
companions, beat thy breasts with thy palms, and give 
way to thy bewailines, and at least do that last act of 
justice to Troy,— condolence! Let Ida, the home of that 
cruel judpe (Paris) and long ago an instrument in the 
hands of Fate, now resound m response to thy cries! 


The Chorus of Trojans bewail with Hecuba the destruc- 
tion of their country and the death of Hector and 



Hou invitest to tears no raw recruits in the art of 
weeping, none to whom that is a new sort of thing! 
Why, we have been engaged in weeping during 
many continuous years of misery, from the time, when 
first the Phrygian stranger visited the Grecian Amyclae 
and the craft built of the pine, cut from Mount Ida. 
sacred to Cybele, our Magna Mater cut its way through 
the sea. Ida has been covered with its white mantle of 
snow ten times, and the forests of Ida have been cut 
down, till they are quite bare of trees, to supply fuel for 
OUT funeral piles; and the timid husbandman, fearing the 
enemy might come down upon him whilst at work at 
his harvest operations, has reaped his tenth year's corn 
from the Sigican plainsl So that no time has ever been 
free from our troubles, but a fresh cause now exists. 
Give yourselves up to your waiUngs and raise. Oh I 
Queen! thy miserable hand (after trie fashion of the 
Prieficae, who were hired to assist at the funerals of the 
ancients, putting on a professional style of mourning, raising 
the hand in a peculiar manner) and we, the wretched 
herd of mourners wil! imitate thee, we are not altogeth«- 
dull students in the art of moLuning. 



SENEC.VS TRjVGEDIES. (u.b !,_,.♦ 

HEC. FiJi cafus nodrl eomi'ts, 

SdWiW crinem. jtet colla fliiant 

Mo^ia capilli tepido Troj« H 

Pulvere turpci. paret exeitoi 

Turba lacerlos. vede remtira 

Subt\riDgc fmus, uieroque tenus 

Pateanl nrtus. cut conjugia 

Peflom velaa, caplive pudtir? Ifi 

Cingal tunicas palla folotas. 

Vacet ad crebri verbera planflus 

FnribuDiia manus. placet hie habitus, 

Placet, agnolco Tioada nutum, 

Ilenim ludlus ledeuDt veteres. ^ 

Soliiura flendi viocite motem. 

HeAorn flcmus. 

CHOR. Solvimns omUM 

Lacenim mutto funere crinem. 

Coma demilTa ell libera uodo; nOi 

Sparrilque ciais fervidus ora. 

HEC Complete hibdub. hoc ex Troja 

SumplitTe licei. cadat ex humeris 

VeHis aperlis: imumque legBt 

SuffuUtt latns. iam nuda vocant tO}, 

Peftora deitros. nunc nunc vire* 

Exprome, dolor, tiuis. 

Rha-lca fonent lilota [ilanflu. 

Habitaiifqite cavii moDtibus Echo 

N»ti, uC Tolita eft, extrema brevit IW 

Verba retatllat: lotoE rcddsl 

TrojlB gemitus. audiat onmis 

Pontus, ft zellier. fsevite, maaus, 

Pulfu vsno lundice peflus. 

Non fum folito coDlenla fono. ItC 

Heflora flemas. 

CHOH. 'I'ibi noilra ferit denim lacertos, 

Huroerofque fcrit tibi faOEUiiieos. 

Tibi noftra caput dextera pulfaL 

Tibi maleniis ubera palmis ao 

Lanjata jacent. flnil, & mulln 

Soiiguiac manat, iiuamemique tuo 

Fuaere feci, rupla cicatrix, 

Colnmen patria;, mora falonim, 

Tu ptieridium Phiygibui feClis, li; 

Tu mums ems; humerirquc luis 

HEC. Oh! faithfu! fellow-siilTerers in our affliction, let 
down your hair, let yotir locks fall upon your shouiders, 
let ihem even he soiled wilh the dust of Troyl Let the 
ihroDE of women appear with their arms bared (token 
of iribulationl; bind up thy dress, which is now hanging 
down with a belt fastened to it. Let your lower limlw 

Lines 33-..S] TROADES. 

be uncoi'ered as far as the lower part of the abdomen 
(the pubic region, in which the uterus lies). For what 
husbands are ye now conceahng your bosoms I Oh I the 
modesty of a captive even I Let the Jong robe encircle 
your loose undergarments, yoiu- unrestrainable hands will 
then be at liberty for the frequent manual indications 
of your grief (beating the breasts and other movements). 
Ah I this dress will do (seeing one of them carrying out 
instructions), this pleases me exactly! 1 shall recognijie 
now the Trojan women (by these symbols of grief). Then 
the old style of crying is renewed, put aside the accus- 
, lomed fashion of weeping, we must adopt a fresh kind of 
lamentations. We are now weeping for "Hector," 

CHOR. We all let down our dishevelled locks, with so 
much death around us— the hair is now lowered, freed from 
the knot which gatlieted it up before, and the ashes of 
burning Troy, still hot, are even sprinkled over our 
faces. (The hair, as they went along, filliping it up on 
account of its length.) 

HEC. Fill your hands with the ashes, for the conquerors 
will think they have a right to take thtm even I Let thy 
earmenis fall from thy bared shoulders and cover the 
lower part of thy side, supported in their position by a 
belt, and now the naked breasts invite visitations (beat- 
ings) from thy right hands! Now I Nowl let thy grief 
manifest itself by exerting thy energies— let the Rhcetean 
shores resound with thy cries, not even does that nymph 
Echo send back the voice as she used to do, they seem 
to fall off short, with the last words, when the voice 
drops! But she, nevertheless, will now send back (in 
full power) the universal groanings of oppressed TroyI — 
Every sea— every sky— (country) will hear us. Impart 
vigorous energy to thy hand and beat thy breasts with 
firm blows — I am not content with ordinary sounds, sound 
more loudlyl we are weeping for Hectorl 

CHOR. Our right hands are now beating our arms (the 
open palm of each hand striking with some force the supi- 
nator or external side of the fore arm opposite to iti; we 
are beating our shoulders till they bleed; our right hands 
strike blows too on our heads and faces; our full breasts 
are torn by the wounds inflicted by our maternal palms 
(suckling mothers), they flow and rim with much blood; 
we have done everything out of condolence for thy 
death— old cicatrices have even been opened up and bleed 
afreshl Oh! thou (quondam) prop of our counttv- QW 
thou stronghold 0/ the Phrygians wearied out mfe 'ia 

■ 338 


5iledil ilia decern fulln per aanos: 

T«um cecidiL futnmufque dies 

He^oris idem pitrixque fuit. 

HKC. V'ertite jilaadlus. Priuno veltros 

Funilite Retus. Cstis Heiftar hnbct. 

CKOR. Accipe, rcflor PhrygiaE, planflus: 

Aecipe flelus, bis capte feuex. 

Nil Troi* femel le trge lalit. 

Bis pulfala Dariliaa Grajo 

Manii ferro; hifque pharetras 

Tank Herculeas. pod elatos 

Hecubx pailus, rcgumque gregem, 

PodreiDa paler funera dudisi 

Mognoque Jovi vidlima cicrus 

Sigea premia litora Uuneus. 

Hi^. Alio lacrimas HeAiic vefttas. 

Nod elt Priami miferaDda mri 

Mori, Iliadcs. Felii Prianiiu, 

Dicite cunfbe. liber Manes 

Vadil ad imoi: ncc fcrel unquam 

Vidla Grajum cervice jugum. 

Non ille duos vidit Alridaa, 

Nec falUcem cernit UlyfTem, 

Noil Atgolici [iTceda trlumphi, 

Suhjeila feret calla Iropicis. 

Noa afluetas ad fceplra manUE 

FoU terga dabit; curmrque fcquens 

Agamcmnonios, aurea ^extrs 

Vincula genaos, Ixlia Ret 

Pompa Mycenis. CHO&. Felix PriontU, 

Diciinus omnes. fecum excedens 

Sua reena lulil. nunc Hlj/fii 


Nemons tiitii 

lalerque pi 

ITeAora quxrlL Felix Priamn 

Fclin, quifquii bello moriens 

Omnia Tecum coDfumpl 



procrastinations of Fate— ihou wast our wall of defence, 
and Troy has stood propped up by thv shoulders for ten 
long years, and it has fallen with ttiee I and thus the last 
day of Hector was the same last day for his country! 

CHOR. Hear, oh! quondam ruler of Phryaia, our cries, 
receive our lamentations ; thou, old man, hast been a double 
captive (from thy country's service, secondly by death). 
Troy never suffered once, wiitn thoat •sasi king— the 

„-,6j) TROADES. 

3.19 I 

Dardanian walls have twice been carried by the Grecian 
sword— twice have they had to sustain the brunt of the 
Herculean arrows; and after the sons of the king and 
the offspring of Hecuba had been carried out for sepul- 
ture, thou, oh! father, closest in as the last of the royal 
deaUis, and as a sacrifice to Jupiter Herceus thou wast 
killed in front of the altar; thy miserable body is now 
only pressed down by the Sigean soil (Priam was simply 
put under the ground) and not consumed by any fire 
according to custom I 

H£C. Now direct thy lamentadons towards another 
theme, it must not be now, oh Priam, we are miserable, on 
account of thy loss— thou must, all ye assembled Trojans, 
now say— Happy Priam I he is now free and joins the 
Manes {formerly a prisoner, now free) nor will Troyl now 
see the Grecian Yoke, as the badge of subjugadon, around 
his conquered neckl He does not now behold the two 
Atridae, nor does he see the treacherous Ulysses, nor will 
he suffer the indignity of having his neck labelled as a 
trophy of victory and carried along with the other spoils 
to add to the Grecian triumph I and he wi!l not have to 
put his hands behind him, in token of submission, those 
nands that have wielded the Trojan sceptre— he will not 
have to follow the chariot of Agamemnon, wearing the 
golden manacles on his right nand, that he may be 
exhibited ^vith all the elation of pompous display to gratify 
the people of Mycense (the city of Agamemnon) I 

CHOR. Happy Priaml let us all singl— He has left his 
misfortunes benmd and taken away his kingdom along with 
him— he is now wandering in safety amongst the Manes, 
in the groves of Elysium! and happy, whilst he is seeking 
for Hector amongst the pious spirits he finds therel 
Happy Priam! Happy is every warrior dying on the 
battle-field, who sees everything around him carried away 
with himself Ctaking his kmgdom with himjt 





Narral TallhybJus, sppaniilTi: AchUlis lunbram, uprobnUiqnefl 
ingialituiline, podolaflc, nl Polyxcna, cujus nupiiamm prUexB 
ipfe JQlerfeAus efl, ad tumuluin fuum pro iuferis maAa- 
retur, nlias GrGBcos non habituros veutuin ad reditum, 

TAL. Vj/ltAM ioQga Danais Tenijier in ponu mota, 

Sen petere bellum, pelere feu pairiam volunt. 

CMOR. Quic caufa mtibuB faciat Ik Daaib moratn, 

Eflare; reduces quia Deus cludat vias. 

TAL Pavel animus, artui homdus qualTat trtmoi. 

Majora vrrU mODllni vii cspiant fiilem. 

Vidi ipfe, vidi. fumma jam Tilan juga 

StringcbBt: onus viecrni noflcm dies: 

Cum Aibilo ca^o terra niugilu fremeos 

Concuffa, lolos tiaiit ei imo fiuus. 

Movere iilvae capita, & eicelfum nemua 

Fragore vaRo tonuil, & lucus facer. 

Idsea ruptis fuia ceciitenint jugis. 

Nee Tola lellns Ireniuit: & poDtus fuum 

AdefTe Achillen fenfit, ac Uravil vada. 

Turn fcifTa vallii aperit immenfcs fpccui; 

Et hiatus Erebi pervjum ad fupeioi i:er 

Tellure fraifia prEEbet. ac tumulum levat. 

Euicuit iogens umbra ThelTalici duels, 

Threida quali» aima proludens tuis 

Jam, TiDJa, fatli sttavli: aut Neptunium 

Caoa nileotem perculil juveoem coma: 

Aut cum inter acies Marie vjolenla fuien;, 

Cotporibui omucs clufil; & quBcrens iter 

Tardus cruento Xonthus eiravil vadu: 

Aut cum fuperba viiflor in curru (letit, 

Egilque babenas, Herftorem & Trojam trabeas; 



Talthybius relates that the Ghost of Achilles has appeared, 
and reproves the Greeks for their ingratituae. and 
demanded that Polyxena, under the pretext of mar- 
riage with whom, he was slain, stioiJd be sacrificed al 
his tomb, as a propitiation to the infernal gods, other- 
wise the Greeks would not have the wind rendered 
fxvorable fot theii leiuxti. 




DW lonR is this delay? does the Greek meati to re- 
main for ever in harbor! What does he want to 
do?— to seek lor another war, or relurn lo hiscountry ! 

CHOR. What is the reason, which occasions this delay 
in the departure of the ships and the detention of the 
Greeks; tell us, what deity stops the way of their return? 

TAL. My mind is growing fearfu]— a dreadful trembling 
seizes my entire frame— wonderful things, so much , 
more wonderful than what are known to be true; the 
sun was just showing himself above the mountain-tops, 
and the dawn of day had chased away the night— 
"when suddenly the earth was shaken by some internal 
shock; rumblmg with obscure roaring sounds, which 
evidenllv derived all their powers from beneath the 
earth— ine forest trees shook their lofty branches, and 
the siately woods thundered forth with a tremendous 
crash, as well as did the grove sacred to Cybele— the 
rocks of Ida fell down from the mountain side, nor did 
the earth alone tremble, but the sea perceived that its 
own Achilles was approaching, and pacified its waves in 
recognition. Then the valley rent in twain, opened out 
to the view an immense cavern, and the earth's surface 
being thus broken through, this opening out of Erebus 
alTordcd an easy approach towards those hVing on the 
earth above, and the stone, which covered over the re- 
mains of Achilles became lifted up (the tomb). The 
huge ghost of Achilles, the Thessalian general, then stood 
forward, and as a prelude to the recilai of his victories. 
said how he had suodued the Threician auxiliaries, such 
as thou art, Oh I Troy, handed over to thy destinies, or 
he remarked how he had struck down the handsome son 
of Neptune. Cycnus, with his white locks (afterwards 
turned into a swan), or when raging amongst the hostile 
haliations in violent combat, he actually choked up the 
rivers with the bodies he had slain and the Rently-flowing 
Xanthus seeking its level, wandered out of its usual chan- 
nels, with its streams reddened with the blood of his 
enemies, or when as a proud conqueror he stood up in 
his war-chariot handling his proud reins and dragging in 
his train Hector and with him Troy itselfl Angry 
sounds fill the shore at every turn. Go I go forth, ne 
says, desist from any further honors to my Manes that 
arc my due and get ready for starting over our country's 
seas, weigh the anchors of thy ungrateful crafts— Gteeca 
ihftll not suffer from the anger of AcMles foi a. ^\^\ 


Anferte honores. folvite ingrafas rates 
Per noltra ituri maria, aon pirvo luit 
Irai Achillis Grcds. at rnigno luct. 
Derpoafa nofiris cineribus Polxxenii 
I'yrrhi mann mafleCar, & [omulunt liget 
Uxc fatus alia voce, dimlfit diem, 
RepeCenfque Dicem, merTus mgenteni rpccu 

Tranquina petiigi. re 
PUcidumcjiie fluflu n 
Tnlonum ah at to cet 



1 Pytiho jurgia fuptr Polyiena coropefcit Calclia! — ■ 


[Scyros, fretumque Letbos jEgacom fecans] 
lllo remoto, duhia quo cadcret, ftetiL 
Velis licet, quod petitur, ac proprrcs dare; 
Sero es dalUTUS. jam fuum cuncli duces 
Tulere pretium. qua; minor merces potefl 

Tntiix dari viriuii? an Is meruit purum, 
Qui, fugere bellum julTui, & tonga fedens 
MvoTo fenefta dcgere, ac Pylii feaii 
TranfceDilere annus, eioeus malris dolos, 
Falfafque veftes, faltux eft annii virum? 
Inhorpitali Telephus regno impotem 
Dum Myllx ferocis introilus negat, 
Rudem cniore regno deitram imbuil, 
Fortemque eandem fenlit ft mi tern nutnum. 
Ceciilere Thebic. Tidit Eetion capi 
Sua regna vlifhis. c1ade fubverfn eft pari 
Impofita celfo parva LjrnelTos jugo; 
Captaque tellui nobilU BrifcEde, 
Et, ciufa lilis regibus, Chryre jacet; 

_., but it shall suffer grievously for a grave onel 

Let Polyxena be sacrificed io mv ashes by Fyrrhus, and 
Icl her he rigid in the arms of death, at my tomb (cada- 
veric rigidity). Having spoken thus in a thundering voice, 
he left" the light of day, down he entered the immense 
cavern, and the earth closed up; and the untroubled sea 
a perfect calm— \iie ■wmda left off their t ' 

luuuicu ixa J 
leir hftiaWr. 1 


'>us howlings. and the placid ocean only whispered will 
'he gentiest of ripples and the chorus of Sea-Gods (Tri 
'ons) sang from out of the depths of the blue, blue se; 
^ joyous marriage anthem {epilhalamium). 


Caichas settles the strife between Agamemnon a 
Pyrrhus respecting Polyxena, 

^^t T J HiLST just about to return, thou art settine thy ^ 

^Uy rejoicing sails, to ply the ocean waves— Achilles 

.^^ ' is no more; ne by whose hand alone, Troy has 

*^*een overthrown. What adds to our delay? (at last, Trov 

^^ras beginning to crumble raied to the ground, but Achtl- 

■^s consoling himself for a short time, had tarried at 

^Scyros and I-esbos, which divides the JRgxvin sea) he. 

fceing at a distance, Troy remained doubtful when she 

"Vrould ultimately fall. It is now in thy power, and hasten 

To set sail, the thing which thou hast been seeking for. 

It is quite right that thou shouldst wish and even hasten 

Xo give, what is sought for, in honor of Achilles, but thou 

art now too late to give any of the spoils, every general 

amongst U3 has already borne away his prize, mdeed, 

what less recognition could there be for such valor (as 

ye have displayed), ButI alasl does not Achilles deserve 

a little, he, who was distinctly ordered to avoid war. and 

by keeping quiet, was promised a life extending to extreme 

old age, and even to exceed the length of years allotted 

to the old King of Pylos (Neslot), biit he threw aside his 

mother's artful contrivances (woman's clothes) and false 

altire, and did he not proclaim himself to be the man 

for arms and warfare? And when that insolent Telephus, 

king of an inhospitable kingdom, denied him a passage. 

through that wild country Mysia, Achilles imbued h; 
" 1 with lh< ■''■"■' ■ • ■ ■ ■ 

and that gave him an insight into tne strength of his 

uperienced hand with Itie blood of that royal obstacle 
Ihai - ' -' - ' 

that time .\chilles v 

as well as the mildness and genUeness, with which he 
could use it, when required of him I He showed his 
mildness of heart afterwards, by curing the wound of 
Telephus, (he had learned medicine and surgery from 
Chiron the Centaur)— Thebes fell by his hands—Eelion 

[father of Andromache, having been vanquished saw that 
lis Kingdom had fallen from him— the litde city of 
Lyrnessus met with « s/raijar overthrow and was sviVi«0.ft^ 


El DObi fsnu Tenedos; ft tpue ptleat 

FiEinmda pingai Thncios DUlrit grcgca, 

Syros, ttetumqae Lesbos ^gxam fecans,, 

Et facTB Phcebo Cilia, quidt qaas ollnit 

Vemis Caycus gnrgitem atloIcDs wjais? 

Hac taala clades gealium ac liitiWs pavot, 

SparfK tot urbes, tuibinis vadi modo, 

Alterias effet gloria ac fummnm decus: 

Iter efl Achillis. fic meus venit pater, 

Et tanta gcffit bella, duin bellum paiat 

Vt alia fileam merila, non unus Tatii 

Heflor fuinel? Ilinm vicit pater, 

Vol dirnilUs. inditas laiides jovat, 

Et clan magoi fsifla geaitoris fegni. 

Jacuit percmptiu He£lor ante ocolos patris, 

Patruique Memuon, cajus ob ludlum partus 

Pallente mfEftuin prolulit vnlta diem, 

Suiquc vi^or operii exemplam boirait; 

Didicitque Achilles, & Dea oalos toori. 

Tum Ta^Ta Amaioa ultimus cecidit tiroor. 

Debn Acbilli, merita li digD« xftimas, 

E^ Mycenii Tirginem alque Argis petat 

Dobitalur etiainf placita nunc fubito improbai? 

rriamique nBlam Pelei nato ferum 

Mallare credis? at taam Datam parens 

HelcDEC immolalli. folila jam & fafbi expelo 

AGAM. Juvenile vitium eR, regcre non pgffe impelurn. 

Stalls alios fervor bit: prims rapil, 

Pyrthum palemus. fpiritus quondani tniCM, 

Minafqae Cumidi lentus i¥lacidx tuli. 

Qqo plma pofns, plura palienter feras. 

Qu[d caede dira nobilem clati ducis 

Afpei^i umbram? nofcere hoc primnm decet, 

Quid facere viflor debeat, viflus pad. 

to his exaUed power and that noble country with the 
captured dauu;hltr of Brises, Btiseis or Hippodamia, and 
Chryse, daughter of Chryses, who was the cause of the 
dispute between the Kings, Agamemnon and Achilles, 
lay at his feet, and Tcnedos or well-known reputation (it 
was here the Greeks concealed themselves to induce the 
Trojans to think they had departed before they had 
finished the siege, and the fertile Syros, which fattened 
the Thracian herds with its luxuriant pastures, and Les- 
bos which divides the -■Egean Sea (here Achilles fell in 
love with Apriates, and this love-making episode retarded 
his arrival at the seat of war — See Lme— " repensans.") 
And Cilia (Troados) sacred to Apollo, and what shall I 
add to these conquests. Oh the regions which the Cayctis 
(a river of Mysia with \t^ iwm^ 'bb.\kis'i \la.^<afta witti— its 

sprinc-tide streams— Such wholesale slaughter of hostile 
peoples and such terror, as ihey all felt— So roany cities 
scattered, as it were, as if by means of some enormous 
whirJwindl Should all this glory and estraordinary renown 
be placed to the credit of another? This then is the 
Itinerary of Achilles, thus did my father come upon the 
scene and wage so many small wars, whilst tie was 

frepating for the great war, the War\ (Trojan) and if 
were mclined to be silent, as to his other claims, was 
not the overthrow of Hector enough to confirm my 
statements? My father conquered Troy — ye others have 
broken it up — it is gratifying to chant his glorious praises 
and to blazon forth the illustrious deeds of so noble a 
father: Hector lay slain before the very eyes of his father 
(Priam) as also did Memnon before his uncle's (Uncle 
on the father's side) whose parent presented a pallid 
visage on account of his intense grief, for many a sorrowful 
day, and the Conqueror himself was horrified at the 
spectacle, which he had been the means of brimiing 
aoout, and Achilles learned then, that the sons of God- 
desses even could die! (Memnon was the son of Aurora) 
^Then the savage Amazon Queen, Penlhesilea, the last 
object of danger, fell by the sword of Achilles! Ye are 
all indebted to Achilles, if ve take his deeds and services 
at a proper valuation, altnough he did single out the 
virgins at Mycenae and Argosl Why then is there any 
hesitation? Why do ye condemn, suddenly without think- 
ing of the decrees which have gone forth? (The sacrifice 
ofPolyxena.) Is it because ye think it so cruel to sa- 
crifice a daughter of Priam for the sake of the son of 
Peleus? but thou, as a parent haat sacrificed thy own 
daughter for Helen's benefit, before I (that is, in order 
to obtain favorable winds to rescue Helen; thou sacri- 
ficedst Iphigenia; in order to obtain the same for the 
Greeks I propose to sacrifice, Polyxenal (to the Manes 
of AchiUesf) 

ACAM. It is one of the great faults of youth, not to be 
able to curb its impetuosity, but this hot-headedness of inci- 
pient manhood has characterized others besides thyself— 
the old paternal spirit and fierce haughtiness seem revived 
in thee, Pyrrhusf for I have quite submissively put up 
with the savage threats of the inflated Achilles (the ^acidae, 
descended from .^laais of whom Achilles was). The more 
thou provest thyself capable of doing, the more thou wilt 
be able to bear with patience— Why dost thou desire to 
tarnish the fair fame of so illustrious a general as Priam, 
( -with the cruel slaughter of his daughter^ \\. \s i\.^\ \n 
admit at once hovr tar a conqueror ought IQ go,\\o'H 


.W6 SENECA'S TRAGEDIES. [una rf,- 

VioIenU nemo imperia coDtinuit diu: 

Modemla durent. quoque Fortuna alliiu 

Evejiit ic Icvavil humanas opes. 

Hoc fe mngis fuppriniere felicem deceL, 

Vnriafquc cnfus Iremere, metueotem Decs 

Nimium favenles. msgDa momeulo obnii 

Vbcendo didlci. Trojii nos tumidoi Hat 

Nimium rc feroces? ftsmiu hoc Danni loco, 

Uiide ilia ceci<til. faleor, aliqaanilo impotens 

Regnu ac fuperbus, nltius memet tuli; 

SeA fregil illos fpirilus h«c, qute date 

roluilTel alii, caufa, Fortaace favor. 

To me ruperbnm, Prlsme, ta timidum facU. 

Ego efte fcepu-a, nifi vano pulcm 

Fulgore rciflum nomcn, & falfo comam 

Vinclo i)eceiitem? cnriis hccc ripiel brevis; 

Nee milte forfan ratibus, aut atini^j decern. 

Non omnibus Foituna lam lenta. immincL 

Equidem falebor (pace dixilTe hoc tua, 

A/giva IBllui, liceal) affligi PhryBss 

Vincique Tolui. rueie, & squari folo, 

Eliain arcuifTcm. fed regi frenii ncquii 

El ira & aniens hollis, & viifloria 

Commiira noifli. quidquid indignum aut !emm 

Cniquam vidcri potuit, hoc fecit dolor, 

Tenebrxque, per quai ipfe fe irrllal furor, 

Glodiufque felix, cujus infefli femel 

Vecurs libido eli. qutdquid everfx potefl 

SuperefTc Trojae. maneat, etaflum faii* 

Fcmamni, & ultra eft. regia ul virgo occidal, I 

Tnmuloque donura delur, & cineres riget, 

Et faclnus atroK ciedii ut ihalomos vocem, 

Naa paliar. in mc culpa cunAorum redil. 

Qui Don velat peccare, cum poffit, jubd. 

PYRRH. Nnllumne Achillis pnemium niaies frreul? 

AOAU. Ferenl; k ilium laudibus eunfli cancnl; 

Magnamque teme nomen ignoix audienl. 

far, at the same time, the conquered party, ou^ht to be 
made to suffer. No one goes on for long with violent 
measures, whilst the moderate exercise of power lasts — 
sometimes, mere chance has called forth and magnified 
human endeavours, far higher than there was any right 
to expect I It is more becoming in a successful man, to 
impose some restraint upon himself, and lo go in fear of 
the fluctuations of fortune, rather dreading the deities 
than otherwise, when they might appear too kindl— I 
have learned in my experience, as a conqueror, that great 
events can be brought about most unexpectedly, m a 
moment, in factl Does out Ttojan success render us 


pufTed up, and too severely inclined? As Greeks, we are 

remaining in this place, where Troy has fallen. I confess 
freely I am sometimes austere in my rule and inspired 
with proud ideas I But the accidental circumstance of 
power, the gift of fortune, has curbed that spirit, for that 
fortune might have given the same thing to another I 
Thou, ohl Priam I When I think of thy fate, it makes 
me proud, one minute, and distrustful of what may happen 
the next! Can I suppose any thing but that a sceptre 
is only an empty name, a thing_ varnished over with 
unmeaning splenaor, and the setting off a head with a 

Rretenlious diadem (crown) which outside is all joy and 
appiness, whilst it contains inside, all the elements of 
bitterness and misery — A small accident will snatch it 
away— it would not require, perhaps, a thousand war- 
ships and a ten years' campaign to effect this, for Fortune 
does not hover over the heads of mankind at all times, 
at such a slow pace ; although I am bound to acknowledge, 
I may be permitted to observe, ohl my Grecian father- 
land, for thy peace of mind, it was I who wished that the 
Phrygians snould be conquered, utterly fall and be levelled 
to the ground, and I ever contended against them most 
determinedly, and one's anger is unwilling to be under 
qualifying restraint, then there was the raging enemy to 
reckon with, and one culminating achievement was the 
memorable night attack (the admission of the horse) and 
whatever could by any process of reasoning be deemed 
unworthy of our dignity or cruel as the invaders— our 
grievance {the abduction of Helen) accounts for all this! 
and the darkness, which of itself, goads you on to still 
further rage, and the victorious sword, which when it has 
once been stained with blood acquires a mad thirst for 
more; but whatever now remains of overthrown Troy, by 
al! means let it so remain! enough punishmentl has been 
exacted, and beyond what Troy has already suffered 
why should a royal maiden fall a sacrifice and be served 
up as a donation to a miserable tomb, to be made stiff 
in death to propitiate the Manes, and how can I construe 
a black crime of murder into a marriage ceremony? I 
will not permit it, the justly merited obloquy of every- 
body would recoil upon me I He who does not forbid 
a crime when he has it in his power to do so, practically 
only orders it lo be committed I 

PVR. Dost thou mean to argue^ that the Manes of 
Achilles are to receive no testimonial of any kind? 

AO. All men offer what they choose, and oil men ma-Y 
sing of him to songs of praise— all the Vnown ic^o"c& cS, 

■ 348 

Qaod 11 levilur fkngaine infufo cinis, 

Opima Phiygii colU csdontur giegie, 

Ffuiitque nulli flebilis mmri cruor. 

Quis \(ie mas eCi, quando in inferias homo eft 

Impenfua ho 

Odiutnque patri, qnem coU pceoft jabes, 

PVKkH. O lumide, rcrum dum recundaram Ilnlui 

Exlollit animos; limide, cum incre)iuit n 

Regum tyranne, jamne Ha 

Amoce (ubilo pectus, ac \ 

Solusne lolies Tpolia it nobis feres? 

Hac dextra Acbilli viflimani reddam fuom: 

Quam Ti ne^as retinerqae, majorem dabo, 

Dignamque, quam det Pyrrhus. & n' ' 

A cicde noftra rcgia ceflal inanus, 

Pacemque porciC PrJamus. \aw. Haud eqaiden 

Hoc eue Pyrrhi miudmuin in bello decux, 

Seeto peremptus enfe quad Priamus jacet, 

Supplcx pnieraus. pvkrh. Supplicw noftrl pnlris, 

Hoftefque eordem novimus. Priamus lamen 

Prsefeos logavil. hi gravi pavidus mrtn 

Ncc ad rogandum fortis, Ajaci precet 

Ichacoque maudas, clufus, aique hoftem tremeiis. 

AGAM. At noD timebal lunc tuus, fateor, patens, 

Interque cxdes Grxcia^ atque ullas rales, 

SegnU joccbai, belli & armorum iiomemor, 

Levi canaram verbecans pledtro chelym. 

PVRIiH. Tunc magDUS Hedlor, arma coolemnens lua, 

Cantus Achitlis timuJI: Be lunto in metu 

Navalibus pax alta ThclTalicil fuit. 

AGAM. Nenipe iirdem in illis ThelTalis navalibus 

Pax alia rurfus Hefloris patri fuit. 

FYKKH. Eft regis alti, fpiritum regi dare. 


K appe 

^L pond 


the earth will in process of time, hear of his ^cal fame, but 
if his Manes can be appeased in any war, by the simple 
letting of blood, why, tne priraest of the'Phrygiao herds 
can be slaughtered for the occasion— but let no blood 
be spilled to invoke the tears of a mourning mother! 
By-the-bye. what new custom is this, when a living man 
is to be considered an indispensable sacrifice to the 
Manes of a dead one? dismiss therefore all thoughts 
from thy mind, as to this invidious and repulsive saenfic« 
10 thy father, whom in fact thou art adjudging to be 
appeased by the death of a royal Virgin I 

Oh ihou puffed up man, as lone as tliy surroundings 
pander to thy proud spirit, but, ohl ihou craven one, 
when fear finds its way into thy heart {proud in pros- 
perity, cast down in 5ui\cts\i'>jY OViV *.oii very tyrant ' 


amongst Kings, art thou suddenly assuming a state of 
mind fired by amorous longings and for some fresh 
Venus, Polyxena, as thou fortnerly didst with Chryse and 
Cassandra? Or dost thou alone lay claim to the prizes 
so many times taken from our family (Briseis), from a 
father who was living, and denying Polyxena to the Manes 
of my dead father? With this nght hand I will render 
to Achilles the sacrifice which is his due, which if thou 
refuses! and keepest back, I will give him a greater one 
(thyself) and one which Pyrrhus would give worthy of 
the cause, and my hand has rested too long already from 
the shedding of royal blood and Priam deserves a com- 
panion {Priam's case requires the death of something as 
a companion to be slain by my handj. 

AG. Indeed I do not deny that the achievement of 
Pyrrhus was the most glorious deed done during the 
whole of the war, when Priam lay killed by thy cruel 
sword, when he presented himself as a paternal suppliant 
(said ironically). 

PVR. We have known him in both capacities, as the sup- 
pliant, of my father, and at the same time, the enemy— my 
father spared the suppliant. I slew the eoem^. At all 
eients Priam always had the courage to appear in person 
as a suppliant— thou, subdued by thy intense fear, and 
not havmg the courage to ask for thyself, remained shut 
up in thy tent and trembled as if thou wert afraid to 
face the enemy, and entrusted thy requests to Ulysses 
and Ajax. 

AG. I am ready to acknowledge that thy father went in 
no sort of fear, even while slaughter was going on at 
an alarming rate, amongst the Greeks, ana their ships 
were being Dumt wholesale— He could afford to be quite 
indifferent and quite oblivious of such things as war and 
armaments, striking with the delicate plectrum (quill or 
bow) his harmonious lute. 

PVR. Then the mighty Hector, who looked upon thy 
arms with contempt, was inspired with fear, at the strains, 
even of Achilles, and a peaceful feeling prevailed amongst 
the Thessalian war-ships, owing to the great fear which 

again the cause of the profound peace amongst those 
Thessalian war-ships? 

PYR. It is the part of one exalted king, to spare another 
king, aa my father did Priam. 


AGAM. Cur dentin regi fpirilnm cripuil lua? 

FVRKU. Mortem mifericors ficpe poo vila dabil. 

ADAM. Al nunc mifericors virgines bnfto petU. 

FYKKH. Jamne imtnolaci virginei cre<Iis arfas^ 

AGAM, Pticfene pntriam lib^is Tcgem dcccl. 

pyKRK, Lex nulla, capta patcil, >nt pCEnam impe<lit. 

ACAM. Quod nan vetat lex, hoc vetat fieri puJor. 

PVRRH. Quodcunque libuil taeere vidlori, licet. 

ACAM. MiDimuin decet libere, cui mulnim ticet. 

FVRRII. HU ifta jaiflas, quos decern annorum gravj 

Regno fubaiflas Pyrrhus exCotvit iugo> 

ACAM, Ho9 Scycus aoimos! fvrrh, Scclcre qtuc fralrum c 

AGAM. Incluta Ruinn. PVUtH. Nempe cognati maris. 

Atrei & Thyeda; nobilem novi dorauni. 

AGAM, Ex vir^jitiis concepte funivo flupto, 

El ex Achille nate, fed noadum viro. 

pyREH. Illo ex Achille, genete qui mundiun Cua 

Sparfus per omnem coslitnm regnum leuel, 

TTiclide irquor, umbras j^aco, CCTlum Jove. 

AliAM. lllo ex Achille, qui manu Poiidis jacet, 

PVRRK. Quem nee Deorom cominus quifquam pctiiL 

AGAM, CoQipefceie equidem verba, & audacem laaltt 

Polernm domare: fed meus eiptis quoque 

Scil pnrcere enfis. potiui inlerpres Demo 

Calchas vocetur. fata fi pofcuDt, dnbo. 

Tu, qui Pelafgs viacla folvini nUi, 

AG. Why did it please thee then to take away the life 

of that king with thy murderous right hand? 

PYR- Often times a man is doing an act of piety, when 
he grants a man death (in taking away his life). 

AG, And now as a merciful man I suppose ihoti art _ _ 
the look out for virgins for sacrifices (said in bitiertst 

FVR. And hast thou come at last, to think it wicked 
for virgins to be sacrificed? 

AG. It becomes a king to think more of his country 
than even his own sons and daughters. 

i captive, or prevents the pum'sh- 
' not forbid, shame somettiiies 

Lin« 331-356] TROADES. T.S ^ 

PYR. It is permissible that a conqueror should do what 
it pleases him to do. 

AG. The man to whom great power is accorded, should 
be pleased to exercise it as little as possible. 

PYR. Thou art throwing these remarks at those who 
have put up with thy own rule for these ten years, and 
I, Pyn-hus, amongst the number, have groaned under 
thy yoke. 

AG. Did that ignoble country Scyros inoculate thee 
with this frame of mind? 

J»YR. Yes, where the country was not tainted with the 
crimes of the brothers, Atreus and Thyestes. 

AG. Thou meanest, where thou wast shut in by the 


]PYR. Yes I that is true, as a blood relation of Thetis 
ClTietis was the mother of my father), but I have learned, 
^vertheless, all about the noble dynasty of Atreus and 

AG. And thyself conceived through the illicit violation 
of a virgin's modesty^ and a son of that Achilles who had 
not as yet revealed his sex^ as a man. (Deidamia, daughter 
of Lvcomedes, king of Scyrus, bore a son, Pjrrhus, to 
AchiUes, who was disguisea at her father's court in female 
apparel and went by the name of Pyrrha.) 

PYR. Yes, from that Achilles who, on account of his 
consanguinity, is interspersed with the race of Gods who 
nile every lungdom, in the world. Thetis who rules the 
sea, iEacus the infernal regions, and Jupiter, the heavens ! 

AG. From the warlike Achilles who fell by the hand of 
that effeminate Paris (said in contempt). 

PYR. Whom not one of the gods ever sought to en- 
counter, face to face. 

AG. I could certainly make thy language a little more 
tolerable, and might visit thy audacity with punishment, 
but mv sword knows also how to spare even my prison- 
ers. 1 would rather that thou, Calchas, who hast let 
loose the chains, that have held back the Grecian fleets 
and have put a stop to this protracted war, who revealest 
the wonders of the heavens, with thy mystic aits, to ^Y^otcv 



Monfque bellis, arle qui rcferas polum, 

Cui vircemm fecrelo, cui mundi fiftgor, 

Et HcUb longa femitBia fiamma CrBliens 

Doul figna fati, cujus ingcDli mihi 3G0 

Meicrde conftimt ora, quid jubeai Deus 

EflAre, Calcha, aofque con HI in ttge. 

CAI.. D&at fua Donais, quo foleat pretio, viun. 

^MnfUiida virgo ell ThElTali buflo ducis; 

„Sed quo jugari Theffals eulw folcnl, 365 

^lonidcfve, vel Mycenxx ourus. 

„PytThus parenti coaiugetn tradal fuo. 

„Sic rite dabitur. naa tameu noltras Icnet 

i„Hecc uua puppes caufa. nobilioc lao, 

„Pol)Tieiie, cruore debetur cruor, 370 

^Quem fata quceruni ; lurre de fuQuaa cadat 

^riami nepoi Heftoreui, & letum oppeuu. 

„Tum mille veils impleat daffis freta. 


Chorus e malieribus Trojanis, tun tncute, quun coqiore captis, 

quo Athillis animani apparuiffe neget, ex Epicuri renlenlia, 

quae nee Sloicorum mullo fanior, ftulte & {at 

femcl de lolo Clioro mDUeam) impieaDi- 

mam cutii corpore iuterire alTeril' 


a limidos fabula decipit, 
Umbras corporibus vivere conditisf 
Cum coDJui oculis impofuit manum, 
Supremuique dies folibus obdilit, 
El triftts ciDeret uma coi-rcuit: 
Non piodeil animam tiadere maeri, 
Sed renal mifsris vivere longius? 
An loti moiimur? nulloque pars mnnet 
Noftri; cum profugo fpiritus lialilu 
ImmiiLtus uebuljs ceffit in aero, 
El nudum leligil fubdita fax lalus? 

the secrets hitlden in the entrails of animals when inspected 
by thee, to whom the thunders of the sky serve as a 
guide and "that elongated star" (comet) which drags its 
path along with a long flaniina tail— ail those give ihee a 
sure interpretation of the will of the Fates and whose 
utterances afford me valuable consolation. Oh I CalchasI 
what does the deity coniraand thee to say? guide me vrilh 
thy counseil 

CAL. The Fates are affording a passage to the Greeks, 
on the terms laid dovfu, as fee's we aacuatomed to do, and 

• 3)?— jSll 



■by which tliou must abide. A virgin, Polyxena, must be 
sacrificed at the lomb of the Thessalian general, Achilles, 
bill dressed in the same kind of marriage clothes as the 
'rhessalian women are in the habit of wearing at their 
nuptials, with the women of Ionia, or the maidens of 
MycetiEB in attendance. PjTrhus will hand over the bride 
to his father, so that the ceremony may be conducted 
with all the proper riles, not, however, is this the only 
impediment which is delaininp the ships— blood more 
noDle than thine, Polyxena, is demanded also— the male 
offspring of Hector is the one whom the Fates require— 
let the grandson of Priam (Hector's son), Astyanan, be let 
to fall from the highest tower, and meet his death. Then 
shall the fleet crowd the sea, with its thousand full-set sails! 


The Chorus of the Trojan women, who are captives 
apparently, as much in the mind as they are m the 
body, deny that Achilles appeared as a spirit, and 
this they assume from the doctrine of Epicurus which 
is not much sounder than that of the Stoics, who 
frivolously and (as I at once pronounce is the gist of 
the whole chorus) impiously assert that the soiu dies 
for ever with the body ! 

Is it true, or does a trumped up story mislead and 
deceive the timid portion of mankind — that the souls 
of men continue to live after their bodies have been 
disposed of either by burial or cremation, and when the 
wife performs her last act towards her deceased spouse, 
gendy pressing his eyelids with her fingers (tnis was always 
done amongst the ancients by the nearest relative) and 
the last day of mortal existence has effectually shut out 
life and li^ht, and the tristful urn retains the ashes of 
the dead— IS it of no use to hand over the soul to the 
funeral pile, but does it remain to the credit of its mise- 
rable possessor, and maintain a protrar.icd existence here 
after? Or do we die body and soul entirely, when we 
leave this earth! And does no part of us remain? When 
life with its fleeting breath passes away, into the air, and 
becomes mixed with the clouds whilst the torch placed 
beneath the naked carcass reaches its victim, and it is 
consumed! Whatever the rising or the setting sun has 
any cognizance of, or, whatever object the Ocean washes 
wiUi its blue waves at its recurring flowing or ebbing, 

npaciotis time seizes with the rapitfity of Peaasvis \v\w\s&^ 
the winged horse sprung from tne blood ot M.e4iisa^ vr 


Quidquid Sol Orlens, quidquid & Occidens 
Novil; cwruUis Oeeimus frciii 
Quidquid vel veoiens vel fagiens Uvat, 
Mtas Pegafeo corripiet Eindu. 
Quo bis fcniL volant fidera lucbiue, 
Quo curfu properal feculn volverc 
Aflronim dominus, qua properat moda 
Obtiquis Hecate currere llexibus; 
Hoc omati pctimus fata: nee ampHua, 
Juiutos Superis qui letigit lacus, 
Ufqunni ell. ut caliilU fumus ab ignibus, 
VuiefcU fpatium per breve fordlduii; 
Ut Qubes gravidas, quu modo vidimus, 
ArAoi lioreB dbjicil impetus; 
Sic hie, quo regimur. fpiritus effluet. 
Port mortem nihil eft, ipfaque mora nihil, 
Velocis fpatii meta novilTima. 
Spem ponaot ividi; ToUicili metum. 
Quicrii, quo JBceoi poll obitum locoP 
Quo DOQ nala jnceut. 
Tempus nos avidnm devorat, & chsos. 
Mors indiiidua ell noxia coqiori. 
Nee parceos aoimfe. Txnara, & afjiero 
Regnum fub domino, limen & obfidens 
Cuftot non (acili Cerberus oHio, 

Et par follicilo' fobula fomnio. 



ANDR. V^uiD mtefto, Phryglte, lurba Inci 
Miferumque lunfte peflui eirufo geois 
Flclu rigalif! IcvJa pcrpefTa: fumut 
Si lleoda patimur. Ilium vubis modo, 
Milii cecidit oUm, cum fenu curru tDcito 

whatever revolution the siens of the Zodiac (twelve signs) 
are moving— in whatever direclion, the Ruler of the entire 
starrj- world (Phcebus) hurries on ihe course of time, and 
in whatever way Hecaie speeds her way with her oblique 
n-j'ndings, we are aU fallowing the Fates, in this, the same 
way', nor is there any fe\n£TOWftW''.alV.vca,-«lwi readies 


these Sh-gian lakes, which claim oathful allegiance from 
the GodsT When he quils the regions above, the living 
world, it is ever the same— as the dirty smoke from the 
kindled fires ascetids and vanishes alter its very short 
journey, and as the fury of Arctic Boreas drives before 
it and dissipates the clouds heavily charged with rain, 
so the spirit, which animates our bodies and reeulates 
the term of existence, will pass away; after death there is 
nothing— death itself is nothing, only the most recent 
arrival or goal reached, in the velocity of space 1 I-et 
ihe avaricious ones discard their hopes (who would expect 
happiness after death) and let the anxious ones set aside 
their fears (who would fear punishment after death). Dost 
ihou betray any curiosity to know where thou wouldst 
rest after death? Where do those rest that have not 
come into existence at all? Rapacious time swallows us 
up, and we merge into chaosl Death is the inseparable 
bugbear of the body, nor docs it spare liie soul any 
more than it does tliat bodyl The storv of Tsnarus, 
the descent lo the infernal regions, and the kingdom 
under that relentless ruler (Piuto), and about the dog 
Cerberus which blocks the way and guards that not 
very easy approach— all this is nonsense! empty stories, 
idle talk— and only on a par with the terrors revealed 
during a frightful nigbtmarel 


The wife of Hector having taken alarm at a vision in 
her dream, hides away her son in his father's tomb. 
Ulysses in his cleverness discovering where he was, 
drags him forth lo meet his death, as soon as he is 
removed from his place of concealment. 



lY do ye, ohl Trojan women, my sorrowing sub- 
jects, rend ihy locks, and beating thy forlorn 
bosoms, inunclate thy cheeks with thy profuse 
ig. We have suffered only liphi troubles as yet, if we 
ily restrain our grief from injuring ourselves through 

its excess— Up to the present time, Troy has only 
from thee, and quite lateiy fell from me in a sittivtat ■«a.'j, 
when the fierce congueror, seized my Hector, fe \m3T?A5 
bein^ urged on lo full speed, and the axle o\ the c,'ha.T\QV 




Mea membra raperct, & gravi gemerel fono 

Pelincus axis pondera Ilpfiioreo treiviens. 

Tunc obnlla alque cvcrfn, quodeunquE ttceidit, 

ToTpeus msUs rigenfcjue, Hue fcnfu fero. 

Jam erepla Daaais conjugem fequerer meum, 

NiG bic tenercL hie meoii animus domat, 

Morique prohibet cogiC hie nliquid Deo> 

Adbuc rogaie. tempiu lerQiDDce addidit. 

Hie mihi midorum maximum frui5tuDi abftolil, 

Nihil timere. profpeiis rebus locus 

Ereptua amDis: dira, qua vcnianl, habeut. 

Mirerrimmi cfl timere, cum fperes nihil. 

SEN. Quis [e repens commovit nfHitflam metm? 

ANDR. Exorilur aliquod mnjus e magna malum. 

Nondum mentis Ilii fatum ftelll. 

SEN. Et quas reperiet, ut »elil. clodea Deua? 

ANDR. Slygis profunda: claudra, & ubfcuri fpecus 

LoiaDlur : ,&, ae defiC evcifis metus, 

HoUes ab uno condili DiLe exeunt. 

Sulifne relro pervium ell Danals iterP 

Cerle scqua mots eft. lucbat alque agitat Phrygas 

Communis i<le loiror, hie proprie meum 

Exterret animum noi^is hoirendie fopor. 

SEN. Quse vifa potlent, efler in medium, metus. 

ANDK, Partes fere nox alma Uanfierat duu, 

Clarumque feptem vertfmnt ndlie jugum: 

Ignota latiileni venit affliiftic quies, 

Bi:evirque fefTii fonmus obrepfit genis; 

Si fomnus ille e(t menlis ellaniUe llupor: 

Cum Tubilo noflros lleiflor ante ocntos ftelEl: 

Non qualis ultra l>elk in Argjvos fcieus, 

Grnjaa petelint fncibus Idicis rales; 

Nee cxde raulln qualis in Donnos fureni 

Vera ex Achille fpolia fimiilalo lulit. 

Non ille vulius flaoimeum intcndeni jubar, 



of Achilles creaking with a tremendous sotind, as^ 1' 
trembled with the weight of Hector, as he was bcin? 
dragged round the walls! Then down-lrodden— overcome 
—I bore whatever came next, with my senses compleldl' 

fone, benumbed and petrified by my calamilies, and then 
felt, as if I could have followed in^ Hector, as a volim- 
tary captive to the Greeks, unless this little son had not 
held me hack— it was he who calmed down my demented' 
feelings and forbade me to die, and it is he, who now 
forces me to ask something from the unwilling gods- 
time has added to my misery— he il is, who has relieved 
me of a ^eat portion of my misfortunes- enabled meic 
fear nothing, although every thing around is void of at, 
auspicious oullooV— tt»\t\?,* Me ^leaAM, (tom whatevet 

source they flow, but it is painfully wretched to have to 
fear, when one is not able to hold out the encouragement 
of any hope lo oneselfl 

o. M. What fear creeping upon thee, has moved thee 

thus, in thy affliction? 

ANDR. Some greater calamity is likely to arise out of 
the one, which is already grievous enough, not yet has 
the fate of Troy been done with! 

o. M. And what deity, even if he wills to do so, will 
find out what that calamity is (o be? 

ANDK. The entrances to the Stygian depths and the dark 
caves of Pluto's kingdom are now open, and lest any fear 
should not be felt by the conquered ones, as to their fate, 
enemies hidden down in the lowest depths of Hell, make 
their appearance, and walk the earth and is there no 
retrogression left for any one, only for the Greeks. Death 
is certainly an established fact for all and one universal 
terror invades and troubles every Trojan alike, (the 
appearance of Achilles) but my sleep of last nighl, horrible 
to relate, frightens ray mind m a peculiar way (her fright- 
ful dream.) 

O. M. 

put me 

What visions have inspired thee with such alarm, 
in possession of their nature. 

ANDR. The night, that tender mother, had just completed 
her second vigil! (The Greeks divided the nights into three 
vigils— the Romans into four— and our nautical reckoning, 
first, middle and morning watches, traces its origin to 
the Greeks) and the seven constellations of Arctic Boreas 
had not yet reversed the brilliant chariot (Callisto and 
Areas), at last, sleep, which is such a stranger to the 
wretched, supervened, and a short slumber visited my 
weary eyelids; wheol suddenly, Hector stood before my 
e^-es (in my sleep), not, however, as he was waging war 
with the Greeks with such determination, and went so 
eagerly in search for the Grecian ships, with burning 
torches from the forests of Ida, nor such as he was when 
raging against the Greeks, he took veritable spoils [namely 
liis life, from the sham Achilles (Patrodus) accoutred with 
the arms of Achilles, whom he tried to resemble— Hector 
slew him], and not with that countenance which looked 
like a flashing meteor, but a weary and cast-dowTv ex- 
pression and worn out with weeping, bul sVtW \\V.e Til's 
own dear Hector— his bead though covered wifti s\o\*tTi\'s 



Sed fefTos ac dejeftus, & fletu gravis, 
Similirque nonro, rquutliiU obtcAus coma. 
luvnt lameti vldine. turn quafTaiu caput, 
Dirpclle fomno!, inqilit, & natum cripe, 
O Ada cODJux. lateal. haec uni efl ratus. 
Omilie flelus. Troja quod cecidit, c'lnis? 

QuDcunqu^ nuHix parvulam (lirpetn domiu. 
M[h[ gelidus horror ac tremor fomnum exculit, 
Oculofque nuuc hue pavida, nunc illuc ferens, 
Oblila iiati, mifera quxCivi Heiflorcm. 
Fallaa per ipfoi umbra cnmplexus abtL 
O Date, magai ccrta progenies patrit, 
Spea una Phrygibus; unica afOi^Ue domui, 
VFlerirquc foboles fauguinis nimium iticlili, 
Nlioiumquc patri fmilis: bos vu[[us meiu 
Habebat HeAor. talis JnL-efTu fuit, 
Habituque talis, lie tulil fortei maaut. 
Sic cellus humeris, fronle Tie torva minax, 
Cervice fufam diffipans lata comiun, 
O nate, fero Phrygibus, al matii cllo, 
Eriloe lempui illud, ac felix dies, 
Quo Troicl defenlor & Tiodea foil, 
kecidiva ponas Pergama, & fparfb! fuga 
Gives reducas? oomeu & patriic fuum, 
Phrfgibufque reddas? Sed mci Caii memor, 
Tam magua timeo rota- quod caplis Cul efl, 
Vivatnu^. heu me, quia locus jidus meo 
Eril limorif quave te fede occutamJ 
An ilia pollens opjbus & maris Deflm, 
Gentes per omnes clara, & invidix capax, 
Nunc pnlvii altus. flrata funt flamma omnii, 
Superedque valla ei urbe ne lantum ijuidcm 
Quo latest iufans. qnem locum fraudj legam! 
En lutnulus ingens coujugts cari facer, 
Vercndus holli ; mole quem immenfa pareni 
Opibtifque magnis ftruiil, in luiflui fuos 
Res uon Bvanis. oplime credam patri. 
Sudor per arlus frlgittuB totus cadit. 
Omen tremifco mifcra feralis loci. 
SEN. llxc caufa multos una ab iolerilu arcuit, 

locks; ohi it did delight me, whatever his condili 
to see him; then nodding his head, he said: Rouse thyself 
from thy sleepy mood, and witliout delay, seize upon oa 
son ana put him in some place of concealment— this il. 
our only safety! Leave offtt!}; weeping. Dost thou grievfl 
because Troy has fallen— I wish that it had fallen througV 
wid tlirough. Hasten, temove \.\vft\iM\t \«¥^es«tvtative of oi " 

Lin« 452-49:^] TROADES. 359 

dynasty, wherever he may be.— A cold chill and shivering 
shook me out of my sleep— one minute. I cast my eyes 
in one place, then shiftea them to anotner; bewildered, 
and forgetting all about my son, I in my misery, craved 
for Hector again, and then the delusive apparition eluded 
my embraces. Oh I my son, the veritable progeny of an 
illustrious father— the one hope is left to the Trojans, and 
the solitary one of our afflicted Dynasty, the offspring of 
an exceedmgly ancient race, and of a wonderfully strong 
resemblance to his father— My Hector possessed thy 
features exactly— thy walk is like his was, and the general 
manner and style, the same as his— and like thee, my 
Hector had a powerful frame, like thee a lofty carriage 
and just the same commanding expression on his deter- 
mined face, and like thee, wearing his hair gracefully hang- 
ing down over his broad shoulders! Oh I my sonl too late 
to be an aid and defence to thy country; and too soon for 
me, as thou art now the source of anxiety and solicitous 
fears! Will ever that time arrive and that lucky day be 
seen when as the avenger and defender of the Trojan 
soil, when thou wilt raise up Pergamus again out of^its 
ruins and summon back its exiled subjects (wherever they 
may be), and restore to the Trojans their country and 
all their ancient renown I But, altnough thoroughly alive 
as to what my own fate will be ultimately, and although 
I dread to wish for too much, and what is thought quite 
sufficient for captives to expect, I must say, let our lives 
be spared to us 1 Ah 1 me 1 what place is to be depended 
upon, to conceal the object of m v anxiety (her son) ? in 
wnat nook shall I hide my son ? that citadel, once so 
proud in its military resources, and the fortifications built 
Dy the Gods (Neptune and Apollo), its renown acknow- 
ledged by every nation, and tne envy of every country, 
is now nothing but dust and ruins, and the ddbris is 
scattered about, the work of the flames I Does there not 
remain indeed a single place in this vast city, which I 
can single out to assist me in my scheme 01 conceal- 
ment? Yes! There is a huge tomb, sacred to the memory 
of our dear Hector, who struck very terror into his ene- 
mies, which his father Priam, who was not a grasping 
monarch, built with great pains, and at an enormous ex- 

Eense, as a monument of his deep sorrow. A cold sweat 
reaks out over my entire body, and in my misery I 
shudder at the bad omen naturally suggested by such a 
mournful place! 

o. M. When it has been given out that people have 
perished, such a reason alone has rescued maxv^ lioxcv 
the fkte of a real burial. 


Credi periilTe. andr. Vix fpei quidquam efl fuper. 
Grave pondas ilium, magna nabilitas, premii. 
SEH. Ne prodal aliquii, udore leftes dolj. 
ANDK. Si quxicl hodlis? SEN. Urbe io cvcrfn periit. 
ANOK. Qi'a pioderit latullTe leditBro in moaus? 
SEN. Victor Teroccs impetas piimos habel. 
ANDK, Qdifl? quod latere fine melu magno nequil? 
SEK. Mifcr occapel pnefidii^ fecurus legal. 
ANDa. Quis te locus, quse regio fedudla, invia 
Talo repouel! quis ierel trepidis opem? 
Quis protegcl? qui fcmptr, etiam nunc luot, 
Heflor, tuece; conjugis luitum pix 
Ser»a, & fideli cincre viflamm encipe. 
Ruccede tumulo, nate. qoid retro fugis, 
Turpefque lalcbnu fpeniis? apiofc" '" 
Pudet limere. fpiritus magnos fugs, 
Animolque vetetes. fume quos cafus dedit 
En inluere, lurba qUK fimus tuptt, 
Tumulus, puer, ca]>tiva ccdendum eft milis. 
Sandlas parentis condlli fedes, nge, 
Aude fubire. fata fi miferos juvonl, 
Habcs falutem. fata li vitam negaul, 
Hab«3 fepulcrum. SEM. Claaflra commiiTuiti legunt. 
Quem DC tuus ptoducat in medium limor, 
Procul hinc recede, tcque diver fun amove. 
ANDB. Levins folet timere, qui propius timet 
Sed, fi placet, referamus hioc alio pedem. 
SEN. Cohibe pnrumper ora, quEftufquc opprime. 
GrcITua nefandos dux Cephallenum admovel. 
ANDK. Dehirce lelluE, tuque conjui ullimD 
Specu revulfam fciude lellurem, & Stygii 
Sinu protundo conde depofitum meura, 
H Adeft llyOes ; & qaidem dubio gradu 

^H Vullaque. nedlit pedlore aftui callidos. 

me scarcely any hope, except 

ANDR. There appears 1' 
this plan. 

Lest atiy one should make the discovery, remove 
all traces of the deception. 

ANDR. If an enemy should search for my son. 

O. M. Then say, he perished amidst the ruins of Troy. 

ANDR. Of what use will it tie to have him in concealment, 
if he is only likely to fall into the hands of our enemies? 

It is only in their first transports of anger, that 
conquerors are cruel. 

• 49J— S'«l 


^B ANDR. What was that thou didst say? that one could J 
H^main hidden without great causes for alarm I 

^f o. M. The wretched outcast, as a candidate for conceal- 4 
ment, puts tip with the best thing he can get; whilst he 1 
who has any cause for fear of being discovered, ■ — 
select at will his own place. 

ANUR. Ohl what place of security will receive Ihee, my 
soni What secluded inaccessible spot* Who will protect 
usr Oh! Hector, who always defended thy country— now 
take care of thy own son, lake him into thy watchful keep- 
ing, this secret of thy affectionate wife, and receive him 
to make him safe by the side of thy remains! Come, get 
into the tomb, my son, why dost thou start back and 
shun the odious darkness? I recognise thy noble strain. 
Thou art ashamed to show fear, out banish thy proud 
spirit, and ihink no more of thy former lot, but take 
what chance has given us. Look around, see the company 
we constitute just above the tomb, the son, and the cap- 
tive mother, we must yield to our misfortunes; come, 
have the courage to enter this sanctified resting-place, if 
the Fates are inclined to be merciful to the miserable we 
shall be safe, if the Fates deny thee thy life, here is a 
sepulchre ready for thee I 

o. M. The interior of the tomb now hides what we 
have committed to it, to the discovery of whom, no fears 
of thine should contribute. Move from here to some 
distance, get away in some sort of disguise! 

ANDR. One is apt to have one's fears lessened, if one 
is near at hand to the object of our anxiety, but if thou 
thinkest it a more prudent plan I will betake myself to 
some other locality. 

o. M. Speak low for just a little time, and don't look as if 
thou hadst been weeping; check thy moaning, the general 
of the Cephallenes (the Cephallenes were a contingent 
of the Grecian forces), Ulysses, is wending his dreaded 
way towards us. 

ANDR, Ob! Earth! gape open, and thou. Hector, my 
husband, make thy exit, from the lowermost cave of hell, 
and can'C for thvself a road through the divided Earth 
and hide in the deep bed of the Stys, what I have here 
deposited for safety (our son). Ulysses is comm?., at\i 
indeed, jiidging hy his walk and expression ons,ce,\i'i"\s 
planning in his mind some cunning, crafty wuiV- 



VI. DurSE minifter Tortis, hoc primum pcto. 
Itt ore quamvii veiba diciuitur mm, 
Non efTe credits noflra. Gmjorain onmima 
Procerumqae voi eft, pelEre quos ferns domoi 
Hei^orea foboles prohibeL hnac fata eipctunt, 
SoUicitB. DunaOB pacii incerli fides 
Semper lenebit, femper a lergo limor 
Rcfpicere cogel, arma nee poni finet, 
Dum Phrygibus uiiniQS nstua cvrrfit dabit, 
Andromachii. andr. Vefler augur lioc Calchns c 
Ul.. Et fi laceret augur bxc Calchas, tamea 
Diccbal HeAoT, cujus & flirpem horreo, 
Cenerofa in onus ferainn eifurgunt fuoi. 
Sic il)r magni parvus armenli comes, 
Frimirque uaiiduiD cornibus findens cutem, 
Cervice fubilo celfus, & fronle siiIuue^ 
Gregem palernum ducic, ac pecori imperat, 
Qux tenera ca:fo virga de Irunco (letit, 
Par ipfa malri lerapore exiguo fubit, 
Utnbrafque lerris reddit, & ctrlo nemux. 
fiic male reliiflus igne de magna cinis 
Viies lefumit. rd qaidem injuftas dolor 
Renim xdimator: fi tamen tecum exigas, 
Vcniam dabis, quod bella pod hiemes decern, 
Tolidemqne melTeB jam feuex miles timet, 
Aliafque clades nirfus, ac nuaquoro bene 
Trojam jacentem. magna res Dauaos movet, 
Fulurus Hciflor. libera Grajos melu. 
Hiec una naves caufa deduiftas lenel; 
Heic clnffis Iiscret. neve ctudclcm putes. 
Quod Ibite julTu« Hetftoris natum pelam : 
Piliffem Oreilem. palcre, quod vi<ftor lulil. 
ANDR. L'linam quidem effes, natc, malerua in m. 
NolTcmque, quia te cafus eteptum railii 


UL. As the representative of a difficult task I ask before- 
hand, that I may be distinctly understood, that although 
what I say may be spoken by myself, personally I am 
the representative voice of entire Greece, and those kings 
and princes and those senior in military command. My 
■ duty, then, is to look out for any of the children of Hcc- 

^k tor, which hinder them from returning to their homes 

^M already left behind too long. This the Fates absolutely 

^M demand, an anxious dread of doubtful peace will always 

^V possess the minds of the Greeks, fear will always lead 

^K them to entertain a retrospective dotibt as lo the dura- 

H bility of their successes. Therefore, Andromache, whilst a 

^B son of the house of Priam lives, he will animate the 

^^^ spirit of the Troj;ins, and thus would not permit of our 
^^^R vffls being laid aside'. 


And if Calchas, our oracle, could be perfectly silent 
on these matters, the very existence of a Heclor has spoken 
sufticieolly to the same effect (this speakinji is figurative 
only), whose race I dread even now, for his lofty Iraits of 
character are bound to show themselves in his offspring, 
just in the same way, that the striplinif from out of the 
mighty herd (the youiie bull-calf) the sltin of whose fore- 
head the rudimentary horns have not yet broken through, 
but which stripling in a short time, shows himself 
with stalwart shoulders, and with his determined aspect 
assumes the patriarchal protection of tlie herd and the 
rest of the dock dares not to say "Nay" — [commands 
the herd)— in the same way, too, that the lender iwig, 
which was once a part of some felled tree, comes to 
be the counterpart of its parent, in a short time, and 
throws its extended shade on the earth around, and as a 
proud representative of the forest seeks its way aspiringly 
upwards towards the skiesi And thus it would be a 
dangerous outloolc, if a single cinder were left lo 
resume the power and kindle afresh the dimensions of 
another conflagration I Grief and fear are often limes 
(he competent appraisers of real facts and possibilities I 
but if our exigencies point to such a view of the case, 
and if thou dost rightly consider all these things, thou 
wilt pardon me, when I frankly tell thee as an old soldier, 
I dread, after having gone through a military campaign, 
during ten winters and ten summers, a renewal of hostilities, 
a fresh accession of slaughter, and whilst for some time, 
Troy has been lying restful and quiet, for some grand 
event to startle the Greeks, and some future Hector to 
appear on the scene I Nol I sav, rid the Greeks of such 
an apprehension as this, and that is one of the re:tsons, 
which is now hindering our ships from starling away, 
ond thus, forsooth, the fleet is kept lingering herel And 
therefore thou must not deem me cruel, because, acting 
according to my mission, I ask for this son of Hector's. 
1 should under similar circumstances have demanded 
Orestes even from his own father Agamemnon— there- 
fore bear patiently what the conqueror has decreedl 

ANDROMACHE (trying te fui Ufyssfs off the sceiU). 

I wish, indeed. Oh! my son, I would thou wast still a nurs- 
ling in thy mother's arms, and I could have been told what 
calamitous fate would hold thee in captivity, when thou 
Wert taken from me, or lo what region of the earth even; 
and if my bre.-iii were pierced with aU the eoTOVmei 



Ul)i nalus eft! ANOR. l^bi HeOor! ul.i cun^ 
Ubi PriiDius? uniun qngcris. ego qiizro diiii 
JTL. Coafla iliccG, fpoiite quad fnri abDuis. 
AHDK. Tula eft. petire qua poieft, dtbct, eu 
VI. Magnifica verba mors prope admola er~ 
ANUK. Si vis, I'lylTe, cof^ere j4 ndromachui 
Vilam minnre. uom moct votum eti mihi. 
17L. Vecbeiibui. igni, morle, crucialu, cloqui 
Quodciinque celas, ndiget iDvilam dolor, 

NccefTitm plus polTc, qusm pielas, foleL 

ANIIR. Propune flammas, vulnera, & diras ti 

Doloris arlei, & fumcm, & fevam fitLiD, 

Vnriafque pcflpa undique, S ferroni ioditnro 

Vifccrlbns uftis. caicens CKci luctn. 

El quidquid oudct Tiiilor irnlus, lumens; 

Animora nullos maler admiltil milus 

ITL. Hlulta eft fides, celare qooJ protlas ftatit 

Ilic iirfe, quo uunc contumax perftas, amor, 

Confulere parvis liberie Danaoi monet. 

Poft nrma lam lnnginqua, poll niiuos deccni. 

Minus limemn quos facii Calclias melus, 

Si miUi tinwrcm. Bella Telemacho poias. 

darts of the enem^, or tf my ha.nds v 
tight with the cutting chains {cutting 
tightness), or if both my sides were 



__. Away with such dissemljling talk; it is not an easy 
thinfj lo deceive an Ulysses, for I have worsted many a 
tritky matron, and for that matter. Goddesses even, tnat 
have been bent on cajoling me, therefore be persuaded 
Ijy me. do abandon at once those futile attempts t Where 
is thy son— Astyanax? 

ANDR. Thou mightest with equal reason, ask me. Where 
is Hector? Where is Priam? Where are all the Trojans? 
Thou art simply asking about one out of that number; 
I am doing the same thing, as regards ali of them. 

VL. When the screw is applied thou wilt be compelled 
to speak and disclose what thou art now refusing to do 
volunlafily ! 

ANDR. That woman, who can, who ought and*who wishes 
lo die is quite safe (whatever thy threats may imply). 

L-L. When death comes quite close lo thee, it will 
shake lo the winds all this grandiloquent verbiagel 

ANDR. If ihou desirest, Ulysses, to coerce Andromache 
wilh threats, and to threaten her life, have I not said, it 
is a wish of mine to die. 

UL. The pain arising from stripes, the cautery, tortures, 
and certain death to follow on, in case of refusal, will force 
thee, however unwilling, to speak out. whatever ihou art 
wishing to keep back, and drag out from the very depths 
of thy soul thy hidden secrets. Compulsion is apt to be 
far more efBcacious than any pious resolves! 

ANDR. Threaten me with the flames, wounds and all the 
horrible inventions of diabolical cruelty; starvation, unen- 
durable thirst, every species of loathsome pestilence 
surrounding me at all sides, and the red-hot swords 
piercing my burning entrails, the deadly gloom of the 
dark dungeon, and wh.itever else an angry conqueror, 
swelling with rage, could inflict upon me,— as a courageous 
mother, I do not recognize any fear! 

lion of thine, in which thou art so persistent, 
contumacious, urges the Greeks more and more, to attach 
importance to the existence of those little children— After 
ten years of war, at such a distance from one's own 
country, I should fear less the apprehensions which Calchas 
has adduced, if I feared for myself only, but thou art 
only paving ihe way for a continuation of the viai, \.q \ift 
carried oaoy my son Telemachus. 



ANDB. luvitn Viyfli gaudium bc Danais dubo. 

Dantlum eft fatere, quos premii luAu'^, dolor. 

Gnudde, Atridcc; tuijue IxtilicB, ut foles, 

Kefer Pclafgis. Herftoris proles obiit. 

UL. Et elTe venim hoc qua piobais Dannis fuie} 

ANDR. Ita quod minari mnifmuin vidlor poWft, 

Contingat, & me fata malnro caUu 

Faciliquc folvaat, ac meo caodaot folo, 

Et patrla telliu Hedlorem levtter picmat; 

Ul luce caret, ut inter eiftinflos jacel, 

Datufque tumulo diibita eianimis tulit. 

VL. EnpleU fata ftirpe fuhlala Hcfloris, 

SoUdamque pacem lietus ad Uanaoi feiam, 

Quid Bfiis, I'lyffcf DuoaidiB credent tibif 

Tu cui? ]iarenli (iagit lUi qmfquam hoc parens, 

Nee abcminiLDdx mortis aurpicium pavrt? 

Aufpicia metuunt, qui nihil majus timetit. 

Fidem alligavtt jurejurando fuam. 

Si pejerut, timcre quid gravias poteft? 

Nunc advoca aftus, onime; nuoc fraudes, Jolos, 

Fit tolum Ulylfem. verilai tiunquam perit. 

Sciuiare miurcro. mceret, illacrimat, gemit, 

Et h»c a iliac aniios grelTus rcfcil, 

Miirafque voces aure foUicita excipjt 

Mat:is hiEc timet, quim mrreL ingenio ell Opus. 

Alios parenles alloqui in luflu decet; 

Tibi gratuiaudum eR, mifera, quod nato cares, 

Quern mora manebat faeva, pixcipilem datum 

E turre, laplls foln quic rouiis mnnct. 

AMDK. Me liqait auioiu^, membra qualiuolur, labint, 

Torpelque vinflus frigido ranguis gelu. 

UL En iremnit. hac, fcic parte qutetcnda eft tnibl 

Matrem timor dele « It, iterabo metum. 

lie, ite, celeres, (raude matema alxtilum 

Hoflem Pelafgi nomluis, penem ultimnm, 

Ubicunque lalitai, eruiam in medium date. 

ANDR. I will give news to Ulysses and Ihe Orccks- I 
must make up my mind^Confess, ohl my ansuishcd soul, 
what ihy grief has kept back! Rejoice, ohTye Greeks', 
and thou, Ulysses, as thou art their custoniorr mouth- 

Sece, leli it to ihc Pelasgi [the Greeks)— the offspriDg of 
cctor is dead I 

ANDR, In this way, as great an evi! as any conqueror 
could possibly threaten may happen, and the Fates may 
release me from off this mOTXaX covWi^ sa sai-j 'bsA;9q«>s1<{ 

L..=, s,,--;,,) TROADES. 36jl 

<3eath, and bury me in my own native soil, lest I should 
l.'e carried away as a cat)tive, and my native earth will press 
lifrhtly on Hector, whilst my son is dead (deprived of 
lifihtj and lies amongst the abodes of the departed, and 
^■ho. being handed over to the tomb, has only offered 
■what was due from sad mortality 1 

t;i^ The Fates are now satisfied; the race of Hector I 
being extinct: I shall only be too glad to hold out to the 
Greeks, the prospects of a substantia! peace {to himself). 
What art thou now proposing, Ulysses? Dost thou believe 
the parent? But could any parent dissemble in this 
manner? and does not she tear the presages of a death, 
ereatly to be dreaded? — People usually fear these presages 
(omens) when they fear nothing else, and she has bound 
heiMlf by the sacred obligations of an oath— If she is 
perjuring herself, what more dreadful consequences could 
a woman fear? Now Jet me, my good genius, so advise 
me, use all my powers of stratagem ! Now let me have 
recourse to deception and trickery, to arrive at the truth, 
for my own purpose, and Set iJlysses be the very con- 
centration of Ulysses— the truth never can be anything 
but the truth! Let me watch that mother closely! She 
p-ieves, she weeps— she steps here, and she steps there, 
ID a very confused and anxious manner, and she pricks 
up her ears as one is speaking, so as not to lose a single 
word one utters, and my impression is, she is more under 
the influence of fear than of grief^there is need therefore 
for all my ingenuity; it will be desirable to pretend, and 
to speak of other parents as it were, in a similar condition 
of grief I (Aloud) Well, oh I miserable Andromache 1 1 think I 
must congratulate thee! Why dost thou seem to want 
ihy son so much, for whom such a cruel death was waiting, 
as to be thrown headlong from a tower, the only tower 
which is now left to the walls of Troy! 

ANDR. My courage has forsaken me, my limbs shake willi 
dread, they sink from under me. and my circulation is 
torpid with the inward cold which freezes up my blood, 

L'L, (Aside) Ah! she is frightened! I must persevere with 
mv plan, laying stress upon this— this part of the enquiry 
— t'~ear has Deirayed the mother, I have forced her hand. 
I will try again working upon her fears. (Aloud) Go! 
Go! Attendants hasten thy steps, hand me over, and 
bring to view, when he has been ferreted out from where 
he is being hidden, the enemy of the Grecian cause— our 
last trouble has been secreted by his mother's am&ctV 
Well done! Here be isl persevere, make hasle \iTvt\¥, 


SENECA'S TRAGEDIES. [Lin« 6i,-6p, 

Bene efl. leoetnr, peryc, fellina, allrnhe. 

Quid rcf|)icls, trepidaique? jam cetle peril. 

ANDK. Utinam timcrem! folilu^ ex longo eft mclni. 

DedlTcit i.Dimus ffro, quod didlcit diu. 

UL. LuRrale quoniam debilum muris pner 

Sacrum anteieffit; nee polcft valcm fequi 

Meliore fato raplus; hoc Calchaa aii 

Modo piori pair? redituras isles, 

Si pincet undaa Heiftoris fparfi ciais, 

Ac tumulu.i imo tolus aequelut folo. 

Nunc ille quaajam dcbium elTugit Decem, 

Eiit admoTenda fedibus facris manus. 

ANDB. Quid Bgimus? animum diflrahit gemiiius timor: 

lIiDC i]atu<;, illinc canjugis can cinii. 

Pars utra viucel? lellor immiles Deos, 

Deofque veros, canjugis manes mei, 

Non aliud, Hedlor, in meo nnio mihi 

Plicere, quitni te. vival, ul poffil tuoi 

Refeire vultus. promtus Lumulo cinis 

MergetuT? oflti fluiftibus fpari;i fiiuun 

Disjeifla vartii? potius hie mortem opiietat 

Poteris nefanda: dedilum maler neci 

VidereP poteiis celfa per (allTgia 

Miftum rotnrif polero. perpeliar. feram, 

Dum non mens pofl fata viifloris manu 

Jaifleliir Ileiflor. hie funm ptennm polefl 

: iliun 

a JOB 

e extiahas. 

iDgniU, dubiluf HcAur 

Erras. utrioque efl Heflor. hie fenfus polcn^ * 

Forran futunu ullor exfliD^i y.nul-i. 

Utrique pare! non polell. quidnam facisP 

Serva c duobui, anime, quem Danni timenL 

i;t. Relponfa peragaai. fundilus bulla ecuam. 

ANDK. Qua veudidiftis? UL. Pergnm, & e rummo , 

Traham fepulcra.. andk. C<ciilum appello fidem, 

Fidemque Achillis. Pyrrhc, gcniloris lui 

MunU5 tuere. VL. Tumulus bic campo ilatim 


him here! (Ulysses is saying al! this, watching the face 
Andromache; ihen addressing her} Why dost thou Icxk 
behind thee? Why dosi thou tremble so?— surely, i* « 
true thy son has perished? 

AN'DR I wish I could fear— mjr ordinary reason ^ 
fear is far away; the mind dismisses from itself, in 
course of time, what may have possessed it even O^tr 
the longest period 1 

I'L. Since thy son has anticipated the expiatory sacrift* 
due lo Ihe walls l,Ae lower), nor can any one who A« 
I>een taken away by in beViei VaXc lOinw ^iw decree* « 

Lines 633 — 670] 


any prophet; Calchas says, the ships will be allowed to 
return, it expiation be afforded in tne following manner: 
if the ashes of Hector, that are scattered about, oe thrown 
into the sea, and the entire tomb levelled to the ground, 
from the very depths of it the Fates will then be aj> 
peased. Now since thy son has eluded the kind of death 
marked out for him, our operations shall forthwith be 
directed to the demolition of the sacred tomb where 
Hector rests! 

ANDR. What shall I do? A two-fold fear distracts my 

mind. Here is the son — there are the ashes of my dear 

JHector: which alternative shall influence me the more?— I 

call to witness the cruel gods— the just gods— and the Manes 

of my husband— There is nothing, Hector, in my son that 

pleases me more than thyself, let him live that he may 

x-eproduce thy looks; but what then, shall thy ashes be 

x-emoved from the tomb, and sunk amongst me waves? 

Shall I let thy bones be cast into the vasty deep? No, 

son must undergo death, rather! But can I, the 

iserable mother see my son given up to such an impious 

eath as the one in store for him? Can I see him 

hirled in the air and sent headlong from a lofty tower? 

es! I can bear it— I will bear it— I will suffer for it 

creafter, so that my dear Hector after death be not 

<pssed about as a. sport bv the hands of a conqueror! 

his son may feel his punisnment; Oh! ungrateful Andro- 

ache that I am! Why do I hesitate thus? Whilst thy 

ector is where he is! I am only rambling now, why! 

Hector is on each side of me 1 The son is living— a 

cDwer! and perhaps may live to be the future avenger 

'f his dead father. I cannot be the means of sparmg 

t>o>th, what then am I the more inclined to do? Let me 

^^serve that one, 01 my soul, which the Greeks fear the 


XJL. Let us strictly follow out the oracular decree— let 
^s thoroughly clear out the tomb! 

-ANDR. What 1 take possession of what thou hast sold I 

^Xjl. We shall push on with our task, and drag forth 
^e contents of tne sepulchre from its lowermost strata! 

ANDR. I appeal to the honor of the Gods— and the 
Kood faith of Achilles. Oh! Pyrrhus, throw protection 
^^er the gifts of thy father. 

, VTL. The tomb shall be immediately distribuled onci 
^e entire surface of the adjoining plain. 


k'S TRAGEDffiS. [U»» 

TolD jocebit. ANDR. Fueral hoc prnTfus aefos 
Donaia inaufum. templa vioUflU, Dcos 
Eliun farentes. bulla traufierU furar. 
RertlUm, iaermet oflirrain BTmatis manus. 
Dnbil ir> vires, qiialis Argali'cas rcroi 
TunoBs AmnioD (Iravit; aut qualis Deo 
PetculTn MKiias, enlheo filvat gnulu 
AnnaU tliyrfo terrel, alque expen fui 
Vnlnus dedit, nee fenlit; in medios niani, 
Tumuloquc ciaeris focU defenfo cadum. 
UL. Ccffuisf & VM llebllis clamor roovet, 
FuTorque calTus femincc! jufla ocius 
Peragile. ANDB. Me, me ftemite heic feiro ptius. 
Kepelloi! heu mel rumpe futorum morai. 
Molire terms, Heftor, ul Utyffcm domes. 
Vel umbra falis eft. arma coDcunlt manu. 
Jaculnlur ignes. cernitis, Danai, Heiftorem? 
An foln video? UI. Funditus cumfto. enie. 
ANDR. Quid agis! ruina moler & Datum & virum 
FroAerais una. forfitan Danaos precc 
Placare poterii. coudilum elidet ftatim 
Inuaane bufli pondus. inlereat mirer 
Ubicunque polius, ne paler Dalam obniat, 
Premalijue patrem natus. ad genua accido 
Supplex, UlylTe, quamque nullius pedei 
Novere dcxlntin, pedibui admoveo tuis. 
Mifeiere matris, & preces placidus pias 
Palicnrque recipe; ouoque le celfun) ailiu* 
Superi levarun^ mitim lapros preme. 
Mifero ditur quodcunque, foillinie datur. 
Sic te tevifat conjugii faniflse lonis. 
Anuorque, dum te recipil, eitendat Too* 
Laiina! fie te ju»eni» ciciplal tuus, 
Et vota vinceoi veilra felici indole, 
iElalc ttvura tranfeendai, ineenio pab*in! 

ANDK, Hitheno, such an impious deed has never been 
attempted hy the Greeks; thou hast violated the sanctity of 
the temple, insulting the gods who have ever been ravorable 
to thy cause, and thy madness has not even permitted 
thee to respect the sacred tomb of the departed! I will 
resist thee— I will oppose with all my weaponless strength 
thy armed force; my anger will afford me artificial power, 
and in the same way that the ferocious Amazon, Pen- 
thesilea, routed the Argolic battalions, or, in the ssme 
manner, that the Maenad (Agave), urged on by the inspi- 
rations of the God (Bacchus), terrified the entire forest. 
as she madly rushed on, armed with her thyrsus, and not 
being in her right mind at the time, inflicted wounds 
right and left upon evcrj qm *e tTvco>iti\Med, and then 

Lines 671-705] TROADES. 37^ 

forgot all about what she had done, when the paroxysm 
of her excitement was over I I will rush into tny midst, 
and as the tutelary companion of the venerated ashes 
yonder, I will fall m the defence of that tombl 

ULYSSES Oo those who have been told off to 
destroy the tomb). 

Now, then, why art thou thus delaying the operations? 
and does a weeping noise like that, work upon thy sym- 
pathies, and the foolish ravings of a woman affect thee? 
Go on quickly with my orders. 

ANDR. Stab me 1 oh, stab me first with thy sword I am I 
really defeated? Ah I me 1 Hector I set at naught and break 
through this delay of the Fates 1 Attempt a visit to this 
earth, that thou mayst check this Ulysses^ thy Ghost will 
be enough! Hear! Hector is now rattlmg nis weapons 
in his hands, and is scattering abroad his torches £^ain 
(seeking to fire the ships). Do ye not see Hector, on ye 
Greeks! am I the only one, who sees him? (This said 
during an attack of hysterical delirium.) 

ULYSSES (to attendants). 

Bring forth every thing, from the lowest foundations. 

ANDROMACHE {addressing herself). 

What am I doing? I, a mother, scattering pell-mell, in 
one common ruin a son and a husband 1 Perhaps I can 
pacify the Greeks with entreaties ; the immense weight of 
that tomb will kill that hidden treasure, my son— oe it 
how it may, he will have to perish, but which shall I 
rather choose? Shall the father be caused to crush the 
son, or the son to fall upon the ashes of the father? I 
approach thee, Ulysses, as a suppliant, at thy feet, I have 
never ere this shown obeisance to mortal man. Ulysses 1 
pity a mother! patiently and mercifully listen to her pious 
supplications! Although as the Gods above have raised 
thee still higher, already exalted (as thou wert) visit (on 
that account) with greater kindness, those that are fallen 
low! Whatsoever is granted to the miserable by thee, is 
a score in thy favor as a claimant at the hands of fate I 
Thus when thou joyfully shalt revisit the couch of thy 
pure and expectant wife Penelope, longing for thy return, 
may thy father Laertes, when he receives thee, feel that 
years are being added to his life, and in \\ke maiiTvei , 
(touched by such prosperity) may tiiy son greel xhe^aiA 


Miferere matrii. ucicutn affliiflii: mihi 

Salamcn hoc cH. ul. Exhibe iiiiluin, & r 

ANDR. Hue e lalebris proce<te luis, 

Fie bile matris furtum roiferff. 

Hie puer, hie cit terror, I'lyffe, 

Millc cirinis. Submitte muius, 

Dominique pedes fupplicc deilra 

Slmtus adora; nee lurpe putn, 

Qujdquid mifetos Foriuim jubet 

Pone ex. aoimo reges atavos, 

Magnique fenis joia per omnei 

Inclila terras, encidat He^ar. 

Gere captivum; poHtoque genu, 

Si lua Doadmii funcra fentis, 

MalrU fletus imiUre lum. 

Vidil pucri regii Ucrimu 

Et Troja prior, parvufque minits 

Tnicis Alcidz fleiit Priam us. 

Ille, ille ferox, cujui vadis 

Viribui omXKs ccilere fere, 

Qui perfraAo limine Dilii 

Cacum retro paleftcil iter. 

Holt is parvi viAus lacrimii, 

SufcipEj dixit, reAar, habeuos, 

Falrioque fede celius folio, 

Sed fceplra Gde meliore teoe. 

Hoc fuit illo vidtore capi. 

Difeile miles Herculis ires. 

An fola pkcenL Herculis arma> 

Jaeel ante pedes con minor illo 

Supplice fupplex, vitamque pel it. 

Regnum TroJE, quocUDque volet, 

Foituoa ferat. 


nifccl Andiomaehc, UlylTeic 


surpass thi 

doing of thy ollspnnu , 

^randsire in venerable age and equal 

i^ine aspirations as to the i 

(Telemachus). may he exceed 

age and equal his father la If 

oi \\eai\ an6 ni\&i\ 

Lines 706-741] TROADES. 373 

UL. Bring out thy son, and then begin with thy en- 

ANDR. Come hither from thy hiding-place, oh! thou piti- 
able stolen secret of a wretched mother! Here, Ulysses! is 
niy son— here is the way back for thy thousand ships! Join 
thy hands, Astyanax, and prostrated, look up ooeisantly 
to thy Master; do not regard as ignominious what the 
Fates have ordained for us miserable mortals ! Put away 
from thy thoughts all reminiscences about grandsire kings, 
and the glorious surroundings of thy illustrious grand- 
father Priam, renowned throughout every land, and let 
thy father Hector die out of thv recollection. Put on 
the captive— and with thy bendea knee, and if not as yet 
thou understandest what thy death is to be, imitate the 
weeping of thy afflicted mother! Troy of old, has witnessed 
the tears of a boy king, and that little boy. Priam it was, 
calmed down the anger of the fierce Alciaes (Hercules). 
He! he, that formidable conqueror to whose strength 
every wild beast— every monster, every thing savage or 
non-numan yielded ! and forced his way into the dark realms 
of Pluto and found his way back, being fairly melted by 
the tears of his tiny enemy; he exclaimed: Take up, my 
Httle boy, as ruler, the reins of government, and sit exalted 
on thy father's throne I but wield the sceptre with stricter 
fidelity and justice!— And it was well for nim, that he had 
been the captive of so noble a conqueror ! Profit then, 
Ulysses, by tnis gentle specimen of anger, on the part of 
a Hercules. Are the arms of a Hercules the only ones that 
can afford to be lenient? Not a less humble suppliant 
than the boy Priam, is the suppliant lying at thy feet, and 
he is merely asking for his life! (Not to retain the 
kingdom.) The Fates will hold in their hands the kingdom 
of Troy, in any and every way, they may wish to ordain I 


Andromache mingles curses and threats with her suppli- 
cations entreatmg Ulysses, but not prevaihng upon nim. 


THE anguish of a terrified mother does indeed exercise 
a certain effect on me, but the Grecian mothers' 
grief would tend far more in that direction for iK^ 
amount of sorrow that would accrue to them, \l vYvaX \io^ 
ryere allowed to grow up I 



ANDR. Ad hu Tuinos urbis In cincrcm imas 

Hie »citabilf hie m&Dus Trojnm erigenl? 

Nullas hobet fpes Troja, fi tales haliel. 

Non Tic ji.cemiu Troiit, ut cuiquam melus 

Fi>fTima9 eHe, fpiritas £enitoi focil? 

Sed QCnipe traiitus. ipfe pod Trojam patcV 

Pofuilfet Bnimos, magna quoi fradgunt mnla. 

Si ptena peiitur, qu« peii gravior potellf 

Famulare collo noliili fabeal jagum. 

Servire liceaL aliquis hoc rtgi negal? 

ciL. NoQ hoc UlyOes, fed negal Ciuchas Hbi. 

ANDR. mnchinatoT fraudi), o fcelenim aitifen, 

Vlnute cujns bellica nemo occidit, 

Dolis & aftu maleRcx mentis jacent 

EtLam Pelafgi; vaiem & infoWes Deos 

Piaetendii? hoc ell pefloris lai, 

Nodlume miles, fortis iu pneri Decern. 

Jam folui audes aliquid, & daro (tie. 

ul_ Vinus Ulyffis Dnnnidii nota ell faliii, 

Niinifque Fhrygibus. non vacst vnnii dieni 

Conterere verbis, nnchoras clafTis legit, 

ANDR. Brevem moram largire, dum ofliciu 

Npto fupremum reildo, & amplexu ultimo 

Avidos dolores fatio. tIL. Mirereri lui 
Utinam liceret! quod lamen folum licet, 
Tempus morainque dabimut. iLrbitrio luo 
Implere lacrimis. ftetus airumnas levaL 
ANDR, O dulce pignusl o dccus lapfie dot 
Summumque Troja: fiinus! o DannQm lim 
Genitricii o fpc* lana! cui demen) ego 
Landei parentis bellicos, annai avi 
Medios prccabar: Tuta dellituit Deus. 
IlinM noD Iu fteplra regali poteiu 
GeHabis nulaj jura Dec populis dabii, 


AKDR. Would that bo7 raise again, as if by nuiRtCL tii 
ruins of a city which has already been converted into ashes 
Would those'little hands live to rebuild proud Troy ! Doc* 
Troy hold out no prospects of peace to the Greeks if ihC^ 
only possesses such an obstacle as this ? We Trojans 
not so situated, alas! that we can possibly be an object 
of fear or apprehension 1 Does a father, as a matter of 
course, transmit lo his son, his own disposition and 
martial qualities? But taking for granted about the drag- 
ging of Hector round the walls of Troy, did that father, 
after Troy's hopes were gone, show such a stubbornness 
of disposition, which if he did, the great loisfortunes 
whii^h Defell him utterly stamped out. If any punishineDl 
is demanded, surely not\e needs lo be v^l in retiuisin'on. 
Now lei my son wear \he sXa^vt's "idt-t ^wivAYiaiaSd* 

l^xncs 742-775] TROADES. 375 

»^cck— let him be condemned to life-long servitude! Could 
o.iiy one deny this to the boy king? 

UL Ulysses does not deny thee this, but Calchas does. 

ANDR. Oh I thou artful concocter of deceit, oh thou 
:Cabricator of premeditated wickedness, by whose pretended 
^imilitary prowess, no one yet was ever defeated, even the 
Creeks are at the mercy of thy trickery and the cunning 
Tx)m of thy evil genius, and then thou pretendest and layest 
^ide everythinjg, at the door of Calchas and the ^ods 
"^vho are quite mnocent of thy vile machinations 1 This is 
Yiothing more than the wickedness &nsinff out of thy own 
^cked heart— thou nocturnal soldier I [Tnis is said m the 
<)eepest contempt, alluding to the undignified vocation 
of the night companion so-called, as compared with the 
nobler one of the regular soldier (see line 38), the duties 
of the former being to sneak about at night under the 
guise of exploration, and stealing anything they could 
find ; for example, stealing the tents of Rhesus and Pal- 
ladius.] Thou art brave enough as regards the slaughter 
of my littie boy, by this time thou art able to do any- 
thing without a companion and in the broad of dayl 

UL. The valor of Ul3rsses is already known to the Greeks 
and too much so to the Trojans, to their cost I Really 
I cannot spend the day in bandying words, the fleet is 
now ready to weigh anchor 1 

ANDR. Grant a litde time, whilst I as a parent, acquit 
myself of my final duties to a son, and reward my longing 
grief with a last affectionate embrace. 

UL. I wish that I could pity thee— I will, however, grant 
thee the time and delay for which thou askest, which 
is perhaps permissible under the circumstances, to ex- 
haust thyself with tears at thy discretion— weeping, we 
all know, tends to alleviate grief. 

ANDR. Oh I my sweet reminder of former days, oh I the 
representative glory of a fallen dynasty I and the consum- 
ing death of noble Troy I Oh! thou cause of so much 
alarm to the Greeks! Ohl the frail aspirations of a 
loving mother! for whose sake I have sighed in my 
madness, for the warlike renown of thy father to be re- 
newed in thee, and for the middle age of thy grandfather 
—that is, the prosperity, wealth and power in the Royal 
Palaces of Trqv— thou wilt never administer \awsi \.o vVv^ 
people, nor wilt thou ever bend the conquettA tv^.V\qxv5. 

Muri Yidebont. dl. Rumpe jun fl< 
Magnlu libi ipfe non facit finem 
AHfiR. Lucritnii, tJlylTe, parva, qui 
Concede, parvos ul mm condiiin 
Vi*enlb oeulcs. occidis paiviu qu 
Sed jam llmendus. Troja le exfpet 
I, Tade libdT. llberos Troas vide. 
AST. Miferere, maler. andr. Quid 
MsDUfquc matris? calTn prxfidia oi 
Fremilu leonjs qualis audilo tener 
Timidum juveDcus applicat mntri I 
At ille txym matre fummota lea, 1 
Pnedim romtmin morfibus vadii d 
Frangitj vehiiqne: talis e nodro da 
Te rapiet hoRis. ofcula, & flelus, p^ 
Licerorque crioes eicipe, & plenut 
Occarre palri. pauca malenuE tamei 
Perfer qiierelie verba: Si mann ha' 
Curas priore«, nee writ flammis ui 
Servire Grajo pialens Andromachen 
Crndelis He<flor> lenlus &. fegnis y 
Rediit Acliiltei. fume nunc tterum 
El fume lacrimns, quidquid t mifci 
FuDcre reli^um efl fume, que red 
Ofcula piuenti, lualris banc fola^i 

to thy 5-olce— thou wilt never i 
I Mi the tail of thy war-chariot 


Htti rT«-B>0 TROADES. .^77 

and armed.) Nor wilt thou, before the altars, with nimble 
steps, keeping quick time, with the enlivening strains 
from the curved trumpet, assist at the worshippina in the 
Phrygian temples and joining at the ancient Phrygian 
dances ! (The dances in the temple of Cybele were more 
exciting than the Doric, Ionic, or Lydian, and partook 
more of the character of that of the Bacchanals— exciting 
the dancers to warfare and inspiring them with fury.) 
Ohl this hideous form of annihilation more terrible than 
the stings of ordinary death 1 Will the walls of the great 
Hector ever seek again anything more sorrowful than 
this death of my boy? 

' UL. Now, thou parent, break off with ihy weeping, that 
Wpeat grief of thine betrays no symptoms of a cessation. 

ANDR. Ohl Ulysses, a httie more delay to relieve myself 
by weeping, is all 1 ask— Concede me the privilege of closing 
those little orbs with my own hands! (Kxclaiming whilst 
she is doing so;) Indeed, thou art dying very young, 
but thou hastalready made thy mark in inlimidatmg the 
Greeks— thy Troy is waiting for iheel (Those that nave 
been killed in battle,) Gol depart, as a free citizen 
(without the stigma of servitude)— go and join the Trojans 
where they are free also, but tn another world I 

AST. Pity me, dear mother. 

ANOR. Whv dost thou so retain hold of my dress, 
Astyanax, and clasp thy mother's hands so tightly— ihou art 
clinging to a very fraii prop. In the same way, that the 
tender hope of the flock (the young bull) draws his timid 
side towards his mother, when he hears the roaring of the 
lion, but as that lion, the mother being left alone", fright- 
ened away, seizes upon the smaller prey, tears it with 
his tremendous fangs and carries it off. so the cniel 
enemy is snatching thee from my bosom; take to heart, 
these kisses— these tears and these rent and dishevelled 
locks, and meet thy father with a memory full of thy 
mother's love.— However, convey a few words by way of 
a maternal injunction, if the Manes have not anything of 
greater interest to them, and if affection has not been 
utterly dissipated by the flames of the funeral pile, will 
ever Hector be so cruel as to allow his Andromache to 
be handed over as a slave under the Grecian yoke? 
\VTiy. Hector, dost thou rest so dull and unconcerned? 
Achilles appeared, when he was summoned. Take again 
these tocfe, these tears and whatever is \eft lo me uoTa 
the ftmersl remains of my poor Hector— taVel^C5cV.\?,ws, 

E Tocat fedes tubilandB capU 

monWs, & opnu Tcmpe! 
An vlros tellui dare mililiirci 
Ajilior Phthie? mcliorqiie fceW 
Fuitis unneuli lapidofa Trachin^ 
An maris vafti domilrix Inlcos? 
Urliilms cptitum fpnliofa Crcttl 
Parva Gortyoe, (Icrilifque Tricce? 
An frequeos rurcis levihns Molltone, 
Qnsc fab CEtsis tatthtoti, filrii 
Mifil infcAo* Troiir rainU 

Olenos leflis habilaU rnris? 
Virglnis rieuron inimka Divse! 
An maris lali finuofs TriEienf 
PeliDD regnuin Protboi ruperbum, 
Tfriius ccelo gradusJ Kic tecumbcD* 
KIontiK exefi Ipatiorus aa\io 
Jam inicii Chiron piicri magiOer, i 
Tinnulai ple^ro, fericnte c1iDidai,V 
1'iinc qaoque iogcDtrs acuebit IrUl 

The T 

I Gr. 




The Trojans are to be conveyed lo various parts ( 
Greece, just as the>- happen to the lot of the Greel_ , 

amongst whom tney are to be divided, but to what- 
_ -er part of Greece the allotters wish them to be 
taken— some lo Sparta, some to Mvcenas, some lo 
Ithaca, and the country of Helen, Agamemnon and 

HAT place of settlement is indicated as the future 1 
abode of the captives? the mountains of Thessaly^ 
and the shady groves of Tempe I Or will I'hthie ' 
the country of Achilles, and the myrmidons be more 
appropriate for the fighting portion of them (the soldiers 
of Troy) or will the stony frachine be preferred? cele- 
brated for its breed of sturdy cattle or lolcos the country 
of Jason, which overlooks a vast expanse of sea, or 
spacious Crete, with its hundred_ cities, or the insignificant 
little Gortyne, (a town of Crete) or Tricce a town of 
Thessaly with its scanty herbage, or Molhone abounding 
in the graceful holly oak or that city, hidden by the woo<^ 
of Oeta which have furnished the deadly bows more than 
once for the destruction of Troy, or Olenos, a town of 
Elis, boasting of a very limited supply of human habita- 
tions or Fleuron, a city of ^tolia, so hateful to that chaste 
virgin Diana or frcezene, the country of Theseus, present- 
ing a winding coast to the wide sea-board or Pelion, the 
proud kingdom of Prothous, the lowest of the three 
mountains piled up by the Giants (Pelion, Ossa, Olympus) 
here it was, that the huge centaur Chiron, the tutor of 
that boy Achilles would He down in a cave of the di- 
lapidated mountain, (Disintegration) and whilst the plectnim 
tenderly struck drew forth the tinkling harmonies, and it 
was then, in chanting his war songs, as an accompaniment, 
that Achilles first became inspired with his fierce warlike 
prsclivities, or Caiystos, one of the Cyctades, noted for 
Its variegated marbles, or Chalcis, a. ci^ of Eubcea, with 
its rapid llowing Euripus, beating against the shores with 
its boisterous waves, or the Calydnie, easily approached. 
whichever way the wind blew or Gonoessa (in -4ilholite,) 
where thou art never without the wind (land and sea 
breezes) and Knispe where the blustering Boreas, is an 
object of dread, or Peparethus which overlooks the coast 
of Attica, or will some find consolation in Eleusis. with 
its silent sacred riles? whether some would prefer Salam is, 
which is the true city of Ajajt, or Calydon, a city of 
^lolia, celebrated for tlic wild boar sent b^ Yi\ima, t« 
whaiercr lands the TitarQssos waters w\0\ \\a sta^'gi'^ 




Attica pendens Peparethos ora? 
An fttcris gouiieni lacilis Eleulin? 
Numquid Ajacis Salamina veram' 
Aut fera nolam Calydona fan's? 
Quafque profundi I fubitunu xquor 
Segnibus terras TitoielTas undU, 
Beffan & Scarphcn! Pylon an fenilem) 
PhsriQp an Pisam, JovU & coronit 
EUita claram? 

Quolibel trillis miferos procetla 
Mittal, & done! cuicunque terrae: 
Dum luem tanlam Trois alque Achiris 
Qux lulil, Sparte procul abfil: ibfit 
Atgoi, & fsevi Pelopis Mycrnse; 
Necitot pftrva brevlor Zacyolho, 
Et Docens taxis Ithocc doloris. 
Quod manel fatam, dominusque quis Ir, 
Aut quibns tenis, Hecube, videndam 
Ducet^ JQ cujus moriere regno? 


nanibus Achillis rite inferix peragautur, excogitata rati 

IB ul vtRe, ita aiiimo nuptiali afTofla marf^etur Polype 

vid, fupra vers. 360. qua partes danlur Helena:, u 

Polyxenam Uaet inani fpE nopllarum cum Pynho. 

quu ilia primo fimulal, mox AndromacluF jurgio 

excuna dolos fatetur, Sc vcm aperte fuadct. 


HEL. V^irjcUNQl/E hymeo funcflus, illa^lahilin, 
Lamenla, cccdes, fan^inem, gemltus habel, 
En aufpice Helen n dignus. ererfia quoque 
Nocere cogor Phrygibus. ego Pyrrhi torus 
Narrare falfos jubeur; ego cultus dare, 
Hahilufque Grajos. arte capictnr mea, 
Meaque fraude concidel Paiidis foror. 

Streams, as it is about to flow towards the sea; or Bessa 
of Phocis or Scaipe in Eubtea or ancient Pylos, a town 
of Messenia, or Pharis or Pisa, and EHs renowned for 
the temple of Jiipiler Olympus, and the wreaths awarded 
as prizes to conquerors in the Olyiopiati games— wherever 
the sad storms may land the miserable captives, and hand 
them over to whalevei covini.t^ Wtt"?»e^ itt^s^t. LM 

Ljp« s«-S7o] TROADES. 

Sparta be left out of the reckoning, the cily of Heler 
which has brought about so much grief, to I'rojan and 
Grecian alikel Let Ar^os be left out and Mycena; the 
country of that cruel old I'elops; that small mountainous 
region of Ithaca. Neritos which Is smaller than Zacyn- 
thus and Ithaca so dangerous owing lo the sunken rocks 
and varying depths of the water— What fate now n 
worth mentioning. We wonder. Hecuba, lo what lord 
and master thou wilt fall as a prize, or what country will 
hold thee up, as "Hecuba to be seen herel" and lasUy 
in what kingdom thou wilt breathe thy lasll 


POL YXENA (a silent perstmage). 

The plan is being discussed, how the sacrifices to the 
infernal deities and the Manes of Achilles are to be 
conducted, with the nuptial ceremonies prescribed; 
and in what garments, Polvxena, who is to be sacrificed 
under the impression of a real marriage, is to be 
arrayed; what part shall be played by Helen, in order 
that she may cajole Polyxena, with the vain hope of 

I marrying Pyrrhus, in sustaining which part, she at 
first, keeps up the pretence, but after a time dismisses 
her intention of prolonging the deception, when 
owing to some altercation with Andromache, she 
confesses everything and openly recommends the 
fulfilment of the scheme. 

WHATEVER luckless, joyless marriage contains the 
fruitful germs of grief,— deeds of slaughter- reck- 
less shedding of blood, groaning and moaning— 
such a marriage, undoubtedly, is worthy of the support 
and connivance of Helen, and in addition to which view 
of the case, I am called upon to use my damaging 
exertions against the down-fallen Phrygian— I am told off 
to enter into the pros and cons of this sham marriage 
of Pyrrhus and I am selected to pose as dictatrix to the 
bride elect, as to her dress and general get-up, but it 
must be after the Grecian model! Polyxena is to be 
cajoled by my artful contrivances, and this sister of Paris 
is to face' her destruction aided by vile treacheT^\ N4eS.\ 
let her be deceived— I suppose this wiU be liic \iniw.V 



FiJIatur. ipli levins hoc cquidem reor. 

Opurndn mora eft, fine metu mortis mori. 

Quid juiTn ceffas ngtref ad auiflorea redil 

Scelcris condli cu1p&. DardaniE domus 

Geneiofa "irgo, melior affliiflos Deui 

Refpiccre ciepiij leque felict pual 

Dolnte Ihnluno. lale coDJngiuin tilii 

Nou ipfs fofpfs Trojit, non Priamus daret 

Nun le Pdarpe maiinium ecolis dcciu 

Ad raiii^la Icdli jura le);it<ini petil, 

Cui regtia campi lata Theflalici paleot 

Te miEiiiL Tethys, leque lot peli^i Drje, 

PUcidumque numen xqUDrit tuniidi Thetis 

Sunm vocabunt, te dalun Pycrho fccer 

Peleus nuruni vocahit & Nereus nurutn. 

Depone cultui fquuUidos, feftos cape. 

DediCce captom. deprime hocrentes cutnas, 

Crtnemque dofta patere ditliugui mauu. 

I{ic form an te caitu excel fo niagis 

Solio reponcL profuit multiB cnpL 

ANOK. Hoc deerat unva Phtygibua evecris malum, 

Gaudere? flagrant (trala pafrim Pereatna. 

U coDJugale tcnipiu, an qaifquiua aodeat 

Negare! quirgunm dubiu& ad ihalunos eat, 

Quoa HeleDD fuadel? pedia, etitium, lues 

Utriufque populi! cemis hos tumulos dacum? 

El QUda totis olTa quse paffim jicenl 

lohumata campU! hvc hymen fpiHit luiu. 

Tibi fluiii AHe, fluiil Europs cnior; 

Cum dimicantcB lenta ptofpiceres viroi, 

Incerla voti. pei^, Ihalamoi appara. 

Tasdis quid opu^ eftF quidve folsdui face? 

Quid igne? thalamis Tioja pnlueci novis. 

Celebrate Pyrtui, Troades, coniiubia; 

Celebrate digne. plamilus & gemilus fonenl. 

thing I can do for her! As death is the object lo be 
arrived at, then to die without any preliminary fear of 
impending death must be best for nerl Cornel Why 
am I seeming to dally about the task, which is set for me, 
the blame ot this compulsory wickedness on my part will 
assuredly recoil upon its author! (ruming lo Poljmeaa.) 
Here thou art, Polyxena, a noble virgin of pure DardanJan 
descent (Trojan), one of the gods above has begun at last 
to be in a clement mood, and is lookine mercifully on 
the afflicted Trojans, he is laying himself out to arran}^ 
a forltmate marriage for thee— not all Troy itself, in its 
palmiest days, could have devised such a desirable be- 
trothal—not even Priam himself could have done this for 
theeJ For the bridepoom, P'jtxVws the most illustrious 


'Ornament of the Felasgian nation, seeks thy hand in ' 
niamage, according to the solemn institutions appertaining 
to lawful wedlock— he, who claims the extensive dominion 
over the broad lands of Thessalia, in fact, only consider 
lis relations— the mighty Tethys goddess of the sea, and 
"wife of Neptune, and all the rank and file of sea-god- 
desses; ana that amiable deily of the swollen oceanic 
depihs. Thetis, motlier of Achilles and wife of Peleus, 
will look upon thee as her own cliild— Peleus although 
the father of Achilles will be as a falher-in-law to thee, 
tthen thou art married to Pyrrhus, and will look upon thee 
as an actual daughlerin-law 1 And Nereus will regard 
thee in the same relationship— Come, doff thv untidy 
dress and don a gay befitting costume; forget liiat thou 
art only a captive Princess, let thy untrimmed locks fall 
down, and allow them to be maJie smart by some one 
skilled in the art of female hair-dressing. Perhaps this 
accident of Fortune may more than repay thee, in the 
exalted throne which thou wilt share; thou seest, after . 
all, it is sometimes an advantageous thing to be a cap- j 
live, even I 1 

ANDR. The one great misfortune which was wanting to 
the down-fallen Trojans, was to try to experience joy ! 'i roy 
appears strewn upon the ground on every side! Oh 
for the time of marriages to come to us at lastl And 
could any one deny us that? any one hesitating about 
such a trifling matter as marriage, has only to go to 
Helen, and she will soon be persuaded into it! Oh! the 
results of infectious diseases, pestilence, destructive agen- 
cies of every sort, dealt out as a punishment alike to the 
Greek and Trojan 1 Dost thou notice the tombs of the 
various generals who have fallen, and the fieshless bones 
which are to be seen in all the fields round about, every- 
where— un buried 1 Thy marriage brought about all these 
scattered bonesi (Addressing Helen.} The best blood of 
Asia has flowed for thee, and the blood of Europe also! 
When thou canst calmly look upon the two men, Menelaus 
and Paris, contending for the possession of thyself, thou 
cannot be verv certain as to which one thou wouldst 
rather choose' But never mind, persevere ajiyhov 
prepare for this marriage of Pyrrhusl What necessity 
IS there for torches at all. What need is there of the 
nuptial torches? why have the fiery element imported 
into the matter? The flames of burning Troy will give 
their light to these novel nuptials. Celebrate the marriage 
of Pyrrhus. Oh! ye Trojans! by all means— celebrate it 
becomingly 1 Let_ the _ wailing and mourning sout\d qui 
j-pjj^ jj g^y ^ bitter sarcasm.^ 

K becc 


HEU Ratione quamvis careit, & flefli neget 

Mi^nus dolor, Ibciofque nouaiuuiuam fui 

Mtcroris ipfos odtril, caufim Wiqcq 

PulTuin lueri judice intclla ineam, 

Graviora. paTTi. luget AnHroiniicha Heflorera, 

Et Mecuba Priamum; folus occulte Paris 

Liigendus Helena eft. durum & invifnin & grave efi, 

Servilin fcrre. pallor hoc olira jugum 

Auuls decern captiva. proilralum Jliuro eft, 

Verfi peiiales. perdere eft patrlam gtave; 

Gruvius timere. vos leval Lanii mall 

Comilatas. in me viflus & vi^or furiL 

Quam quifque (nmutatn traheres, Inceilo ^U 

Cafa pepeniiil: me meus traiit flatira 

Slue forte dominui. caufk bellotum fui, 

TnWieque Teuctij cladjj. hoc Vcnim puta, 

Sparlana puppis veftra fi fecuiL Siett; 

Sin rapla Phrjrgiit pnEda remigibus fui, -■ 

Deditque (lonum judici vjiflriK Dea: 

Iguofce Fatidi, judicem iralum mea 

Habitun caufa eft. ifta MeQclaum maeent 

Arbiliia. nunc hanc luAibna psulum [uls, 

Andiomacha, oiDifAs llcfle. vix lacrtmas queo 

Retiaeie, akur, Quaalum eft, Helena quod lacrimal, Dl 

Cur lacrimal autem? fare, quos llhacus dolos, 

Qua: fceleta neiftat. utrum ab Idzis jugls 

JaAoDda Virgo e(l? arcis an celfa: edilo 

Miitenda faxo? cum per has uaftum in aiaie 

Voiveuda ru^, latere quas fcilfo levat 

Altum Tadofos Sigeoa fpeflans finus! 

Die, fate, qaidquid fubdola vultu tegls. 

Leviora mala funt cunfla, quam Priami gener 

Hecubieque Fynliu<. (are, quam poeiukm pare*. 

Exprome, & umim boc deme noflrii cladibOE, 

Falli. paralas pcrpeli mortem vides. 

HEL. Utinam juberel me quoque inteipreg Deum 



HEL. Although great grief is sadly wanting in reason- 
ableness and refuses to be diverted from its course, some- 
times it may regard with hatred the very companions, it enlbts 
in its behalf— althouj^h I have undergone greater troubles, 
I can plead my own cause, even before an unrelenting 
tribunal I Does not Andromache bewail her Hector, 
openly and Hecuba her Priam? Is Paris to be grieved 
for, only sleaithily, by Helen ? It is a hard, hateful, and 
terrible lot to put up with slavery! I have suffered the 
captive's yoke for ten years— Troy has been laid low, the 
household gods have been destroyed! Oh I it is a hard 
case 10 have been thy country's ruin, but it is more 
temble still to have to fear it Cuie revenge of a deserted 



husband) having had so many companions in thy troubles, 
has lightened tiie burden for thee, where as with myself 
the conqueror, and the conauered are both leagued in 
their wrath against me I It nas long been a matter of 
uncertainty amongst you all, what fair maiden each man 
would select, but my future lord and master (Menelaus) 
fastened on me without the formula of a lot drawing I I 
have thus been made the cause of war, and of such 
great slaughter to the Trojans; but put the matter in a 
truthful lignt, was it not because thy Trojan vessels sailed 
into the Spartan waters and I was but the spoil kidnap- 
ped by the Phrygian boatmen I Put Paris out of the 
question! Did not the victorious goddess (Venus) present 
me as a Eift to that judge who awarded her the palm 
of beauty r My cause is yet to be tried before an angry 
tribunal, and tne judgment remains within the discretion 
of the judge Menelausl Now, Andromache, shake off 
those tears of thine for a time, and prevail upon Polyxena, 
and reconcile her to this marriage; 1 can only with 
considerable difficulty refrain from tears myselfl What 
great misfortune can it be, for which Helen can shed a 
tear (said sarcastically). | 

ANDR. But what can she have to cry about? Tell me I 
rather what treachery— what wickedness Ulysses is hatch- ' 
ing ? Whether the virgin Polyxena is to be thrown headlong 
from Ida's mountain topj or whether she is to be hurled 
from the lofty walls of a once proud citadel, or whether 
she is to be thrown into the vast sea, over those rugged 
rocks which Sigeon, as it overlooks the waters beneath 
with its fordable bays, throws up from its disintegrated 
sides, the result of gradual separation from the parent 
promontory — (the sea being on each side of this cape, 
has formed these rocks, by perpetually beating on them 
and at length separating them, as described by the Poet), 
This was the place, too, where so many battles were 
fought between the Greeks and Trojans— Tell me ! Speak 
out whatever thou art hiding away in that deceitful face 
of thine— all the misfortunes hitherto are of a light 
character, compared with this son-in-law business on uie 
part of Pyrrhus towards Priam and Hecubal Tell me 
what punishment art thou planning — lell me point blank, 
and remove this one piece of cruelty from the rest of our 
misfortunes, namely the being deceived— Cannot thou 
understand, that those who are prepared for death are 
the best able to bear it? 

HEL. I wish that Calcbas, the interpreter ot fee (jcAs, 
uld order me to cut short the life that is cYrngm^Vci tae. 


Abnimpcre eofe Incis iDvifx mams, 

Vel Achiltis anle hulix, furibuDds nianu 

iJccidere Pyrrhi, fata comilanleiii tuo, 

Falyienc miferanda; qnam tnili I'lb'i, 

Cinetemque Achilles ante ma^ui fuum, 

Caropo maritos nt fit Elyfio, jabet 

AM>K. Vide, ul animus logens Ixtus auLlic^rit necc 

Cultus dccoros legi^ veftis petit, 

Et idmoveri ciinihus psiituc maDum 

Mutiem pntabal illu't, hoc Ihalamos putat. 

Al mifem luflu mater audita flnpirt. 

Lubefaifla mens faccubuit. afiarge. alleva 

Adimiuo, & cadentem mifera 6rma fpiritum. 



a poled. 


QUm efl, quoil Heculiam tacere fetice 
I. rerixil. prima mors inifcros fugit. 
Adhnc Achilles vivat in ptBoas Plir)gumJ 

Adhuc rrbellat! o mnnuni Puridis leTeml 

Cinis ipfe nonnim fanguinem ac tumntus fltit. 

Modo turba felix latera ctngebat mea. 

LalTnbai ia lot orcala, id totum gregem 

Dividers mairem. fola nunc hicc eft faper, 

Votum, comes, letamen, affliflie quies. 

Hkc lotus llecubx fcetus. hac fola vocor 

Jam voce malcr. dura 4 iufelix, age, 

Elabere Baima, denjque hoc unum mihi 

Remitle funu9. irrigat flelus genas, 

Imberque viiflo fiibitus e vuliu eadit, 

Ltelare, gaude, nala. quam vellet tuos 

CaffanoTB thalnniiis, vellet Andromache tuos! 

ANDK. Nos, Hecuba; nos, nos, Hecuba, lugendie Turn 

Quas mota clafCs hue & hue fporfns fereL 

Ilanc cata tellus fedibus pstriis teget. 

imi. Msgis invidebis, li tuam fortein fcias. 

ANDR. An aliqua pcEnae par^ mrx ignota ell mihi? 

HEt_ Verfata domioos unia captlvis dtdit. 

with the aid of the sword, and that I, Oh! Polj-xena, __ 
tiiuch to be pitied could be a companion to ihee, whr 
thoii meetest Ihy fate, and fall too, by the furious hand 
of Pyrrhus before the tomb of Achilles, in the same way, 
that he orders thee to be handed over to be sacrificed to 
his ashes, in order that he, Achilles, may be thy husband in 
the Elysian Paradise I (Campus, the reslmg-place and abode 
of the happy spirits that have quitted the "corpus vile.") 

ANDR. Notice, what an amount of fortitude and e«n 
joy, Polyxena evinced, when she heard of her approa ching 
dealh-fatel She even seems anxious now about the 
becoming style ot \ict tiaijai. vicieia.?, wiM>«veot, and 

^ticDtlf pen 


. aticDtlf permits the hand of (he operator, whilst mani- 
pulating her locks I She thought that the marriape thou 
didst mention meant death, she is now thinking that death 
means marriage— But the miserable mother is stupefied 
with the tristful news she has heard, and with her mind 
cumpletely crushed, has succumbed to the shock— Come 
rouse thyself, be firm and raise thy drooping spirits. 
compose thy mind. On what a slender thread does our 
frail existence hanel It is a thing of secondary moment, 
that Hecuba should be able to make herself contented- 
it is a great thing to say, that she breathes (lives)— she 
has revived I Death, alas, is the first to desert the miser- 
able! (Recovers from her swoon.) 

HF.c. Up to the present time, Achilles has only, whilst 
he was alive, punished the Trojans, now (that he is dead! 
he is beginning to show the warlike spirit again— Oh! 
the hand of Paris, who dealt that blow so lightly 1 1 
His Manes and his tomb, forsooth, are thirsting for all 
our racel It was only, as it were, quite lately, that a 
merry group of my own children were assembled around 
me, and that I was fairly wearied out with receiving the 
kisses of so many, and of playing the loving mother. 
with the entire family circle. Now there is only one left 
besides myself— my every wish— my companion— my com- 
fort — a real solace to me in my affliction— this daughter 
now represents the once large family of Hecuba, and I 
am now onlj^ addressed as mother by this solitary child! 
Be it so, shp thou away from me, Oh I my very life, 
miserable and difficult to escape from! Grant that this 
may be the last finishing stroke of death for me to sufferl 
Pofyxena, tears are escaping from those eyelids of thine, 
and with a sudden rush, ihey fall on thy downcast face! 
Rejoice, rather, in thy happiness, daughter mine, how 
Cassandra would wish for such a marriage- how Andro- 
mache would welcome it! With what joy] 

ANDB. We! Hecuba! We all of us, Hecuba, weep 
sincerely for thee, whom the fleet, when it sails hence, 
will take here— will take there! 

Weill Is there any portion of my punishment 
ich I am not already acquainted? 

t already acquainted? 

HEL. The fatal urn has been brought inlo iet¥i*\t\CiT^, 
and has parcelled out the captives in Vots. 



ANDR. Cni funuU trador, «de. qnem dominum voco! 

HKL. Te forte prim*. Scyrius jnveois tuliL 

AI4DK. Ci<tt.adta fclixl quam faror Torle eiimit, 

Pheebuftjue. hel. Regum hanc maximua redlor leavl. 

KEC. Ellne aliqu[a. Hecubnm qui fuun dici leVn} 

HEL. Ithaco obtigiHi prxda noUoti brevls. 

HEC. QuU Um impotens ac diruB, & iiuqtuE fenu 

Sonitor urnic regibus regei dediCF 

Qais Um fioiHer div'idit cartas Deui? . 

Quii nib iter crude I U, & miferis gravis, 

Eligere dominoi nefcilf 1 fava mann 

Dat iniqua mifcris fUa? quis matrem Hefloris 

Armis Acbillis niifcet! ad UlyiTen vocor. 

Nunc viifla, nunc cnpliva, nunc cunAii mihi 

ObrelTa v id cor cUdibui. domini pudct, 

Non fervitutis. Heaoris fpolium feret, 

Qui tulit Achitlis? Ilerilis, & fsevii fretii 

Iiiclufa tellus non capit turoulos meos. 

Due, Due, Ul^ffTe. nil moror, dominum fequor. 

Me men lequtntur fata, oon pelago quies 

Tmnquilla veniet, Tuviet ventii more, 

Et bella, &. ignis, & mca, & Priimi mala. 

Dumque ill> veaiunt, inierim hoc piEiiEE loco efl: 

Sotiem oceupavi, pnemiutn eripui Ubi. 

" ' 'ncltaco Pyrrhus accuirit gradu, 

Conjunge foceros. perge, nuuflalor fenum; 
£C hie decel te fanguis: abrcptam Irahe. 
Maculate fupcTos cxde runeda DeoB, 
Maculate Manci. quid pteccr vobis? prccor 
His digna facrjs lequoca. hoc claTIi accidnl. 
Tot! Pekrgie, latibus hoc miile accidat, 
MCEE precabor, cum rehar, quidguid rui. 


i has secured thee i 

ANDR. Ohl fortunate Cassandra, that she is exempt, 
whom her reputation as a prophetess and her relations with 
Phoebus, in that particular has made so. 

HEL. The chief ruler of the kings, the King of kings, 
I mzy say has possession of her already (without the lot- 

HEC. Is this the somebody who wishes that Hecuba 
should be called— l:iis \crj o'wtv'-— >,j,aii ^"(i^ ^atiie). 

HEL. Thou hast fallen to the lot of Ulysses, although 
hy no means anxious— for a short lime. 

HEC. Who is that cruel, unjust and unrelenting dis- 
tributor of ihe lots from that iniquitous urn, who has given 
one of royal rank to another of regal degree (King of kmgsj. 
What evil deity has parcelled out ihe captives in this 
manner? What cruel overbeanog judge does not know 
how to select lords and masters for the wretched captive 
recipients with greater show of consistency, but deals oul 
unjust decrees with an unsparing hand? Who could 
have suggested the interminglmg of the mother of Hector 
with the arms of Achilles? and s6 I am called upon 
for Ulysses I (deprecatingly). First as a conquered enemy, 
then as a captive, at last I see myself hemmed in by every 
species of degradation. I am ashamed and dis^sted 
with my master, but not with the actual slavery! He will 
carry away the spoils of Hector as he has already dis- 
posed of those of Achilles (Ast^anax and Polyxena). A 
sterile land shut in by the boisterous waves does not 
meet my ideas of a burial-place. Lead on, lead on, 
Ulysses, 1 wish for no delay ; may, however, my evil star 
follow me, may anything but a tranquil calm hover over 
the surface of the ocean, but rather let the sea rage with 
the fury of the winds, and may wars and conflagrations, 
my misfortunes and those of Priam follow on I Whilst 
these calamities are progressing, this fate of mine has its 
means of inflicting punishment — thou hast been awarded 
to accept me as tny lot, but I have deprived thee of any 
reward arising out of it— (alluding to her want of youth, 
and being otno use, saddled with an old woman). But 
Pyrrhus is now advancing with a hurried step, and savage 
countenance— Oh! Pyrrhus, why hesitate? proceed and 
unshealh thy sword for this breast of mine, and join 
in thy murderous work the father-in-law and mother-in- 
law of thy father Achilles. Go on, I say, thou old man's 
assassin I and this blood of mine, it would become thee 
to take as well, 'fhere, drag away from me, the daugh- 
ter thou art robbing me of. Brand the gods above with 
the odium of this wicked slaughter. Brand the Manes of 
Achilles with the stigma as well 1 What vengeance shall 
I pray may befall thee for this deed I I pray that the 
seas may show themselves ready to render condign 
punishment, (wishing them to encounter storms, ship- 
wreck and all the dangers the sea can bring about). 
May this my curse be visited upon Ihe entire Grecian 
Fleet— those thousand ships I and may the same evils 
befall the identica] vessel in which I shalV becot&c a. 

Semper, ab, femper dolor ell m 
Gaudct in multoB fua fata m[Ui, 
Seque dod folum pUcuifTe pccua;. 
Ferre, qu: ' ' 

Nemo fe cicdel rolferum, licet fil 
Tolle relici 

Rur& qui fciodunt opulenta bubus 
Fsuperi furgent iminii jacenles. 
Eft mifer nemo, oifi compnralus. 
Dulce in immenfli pofilo ruinU i 
NcmmciQ Iielos habuine tuIIui. I 
nie deploral, queritBrque falam, 
Qui fecans fluclum rate rmgulari 
Nudus in portui cecidit peiitoi. { 
j^uior cafum tulit, & procella^^ 
Mille qoi ponio pariler carina* 1 
Obtui vidii, tabulaque lilus j| 

Naufraga fpargi, mate cum coiAfl 
Fluftibus Corus prf.hilwt revertt.1 
Queltus eft Hellen cecidifTe Phin 
Cum gregU cluiflor radiaalc vUlofl 
Aureo frattem fimul & fotoiem ™ 
Suftulit lereo, medioque jaflum ' 
Fecit in pooto. teauit querelas 
El vir, & Pyrihe, mare cum vidcrc 
El nihil pixter maie cum vidermt. 


Lines IOI2— 1043] TROADES. Mil 

IT is a pleasant thing to an individual sorrower to find 
a whole concourse of mourners round about him, and 
it is certainly a great relief to our grieving hearts, that 
an entire nation should cause the very air to echo their 
outbursts of lamentations! Grief and tears are relieved 
of much of their poignancy, when the masses are rehears- 
ing the same kind of sorrow that thou art experiencing 
thyself— (see Lucretius, Lib. ii, Hne i). As a rule, yes, 
as a rule we may safely say that grief possesses this evil 
characteristic^ wishing that others should suffer like thy- 
self, and this, not out of any malicious sentiment, but 
the mere selfishness to enlist fellow-sufferers and (ergo) 
real sympathizers I The creat consummation which grief 
brings about is in the aesire it manifests in visiting so 
many, and that it does not seem contented with the 
punishment of some solitary obiectl Thus no one is 
inclined for rebellion when he has to undergo the lot 
which every one in common is suffering with himself. 
No one need regard himself wretched, if he will only 
take a philosophical view of his situation (literally, al- 
though, there may be some grounds for it, he will ignore 
it), Of course, we must except those who are surrounded 
with every thing that can conduce to their contentment, 
excepting, likewise, those that are blessed with abundance 
of gold (money), also we must exclude from the category, 
those who plough their opulent (fertile) lands, with their 
hundreds of yoked oxenl It is the down-trodden spirit 
of the poor man, which buoys him up, and he rises to 
the occasion — thus no man is really miserable, and it is 
only by comparison that he can be considered so! It 
is gratifying to any man surrounded by overwhelming 
disasters, to see everyone around him in sympathy, pull- 
ing a long face (that no one shows a brignt counten- 
ance). The man who sails across the waves in his solitary 
craft, is desirous of entering the port for which he is 
steering, but his vessel founders, ana he has to swim to- 
wards the shore deprived of every thing he possesses; 
this is the. man that croaks and bewails his terrible fate. 
But another man does not fear a similar disaster when 
it is shared by others, and looks with comparative equa- 
nimity upon the raging storms if he can see a thousand 
ships struggling with the waves and becoming hopelessly 
dismantled, and lining the shore with the proceeds of the 
wrecks! And because they are in a plight similar to his 
own when the north-west wind is blowing great guns and 
is lashing the sea into foam, preventing them from putting 
to sea again provided others are similarly prevented 1 
(The Poet, to my mind, must use the "mare reverti" vtv 
the sense I have put it; here they are beadng ajgaJmsX. ^ 


Unici terrii homines relifli- 
SoIvEt huDc ccetum lacrimofqne noftru 
Sparget hue lUuc ftgilata danit, 
Et luba jum dare vela nauUc, 
Cum [imul ventis propeninle remo 
Pieiiilerint olluiu, fugietque lilu. 
Qnii (Utns mCDtis miferis, ubi omnls 
Terra decrefcet, pelagufque crefceti 

Cclfn cum Iqqgi! Illilllbit Idcf 

Tnm pner matri, grnitri»iue nitto, 
Truja qua jaccst regione monllCMiS 
Dicet, & longe digiio noMbit: 
Ilium eft illic, ubi fumus alle 
Secpit in ccelum, tiebu1:£i]ue turpet. 
Troes hue Tigtio pakiam vMebuat. 




I faU, (kvn, mlferan^o, horridt, 
ijaa'j lata ferum, lata ttiAe bis qainii Iceliu 
Mars vidit anois? quid prius referent gemam? 
Tuofiie potius, an tuos luiflus, onus? 
IIKC. Quofcunque ludlus fleveris, flebis mens. 
Sua quemque tantum, me omnium cLadea premit. 
Milii cun^ perennt, qaiiquis eft, Hecabx eAj mifer. 

lee-shore, and being knocked to pieces against the rocks, 
the sea is rolling in and is so dangerous that they cannot 
tike the sea if they would, the wind blowing dead against 
them, thus they are literally between Scylla arid Charybdis,) 
Phryssus wailed when Helle was lost to him. when the 
ram with the glittering fleece carried both brother and 
sister on his golden back, but the lalter becoming giddy, 
a portion of his burden fell into the sea, (Helle gave the 
name to the sea— Hellespont.) But both Deucalion and 
Pyrrha restrained their complaints when they looked al 
the sea and could see nothing else but that sea and they 
were the onl); beings left on the earth. The fleet driven 
hither and thither will soon break up our large fomily of 
captives, and scatter qui Wais.\i\iSi.4awLtkinB; (the Chorus 

Lines 1044-1065] TROADES. 39.1 

here means, the harmonious s^rmpathies of the many will 
be split up into divided fra^ents^ and lose the solace 
imported by the numbers joming m their lamentations) 
ana the sailors by sound of trumpet receive orders to 
set their sails, and at the same time, that they seize with 
alacrity their oars to assist the breeze to carry them to 
sea, and they will soon leave the shores behmd theml 
But what will the state of mind be, on the part of us 
poor captives I When the land will grow smaller and 
smaller, and there is nothing but the sea around us 
(growing greater and greater). When even lofty Ida will 
be hidden from our sight 1 Then the little son will prattle 
to the mother, and the mother will say to the son, as she 
tries to explain as to the region in which Troy was 
situated. There is Troy, she will say, as she points out 
with her finger to a spot a long way off— thou seest, my 
child, where the smoke is rising up to the sky, and those 
murky clouds,— and in some such way only will the rising 
generations of Trojans be enabled to see their country 



The Messenger informs the mothers, Hecuba and Andro- 
mache, that Astyanax has been hurled from the tower 
and Polyxena slain at the tomb of Achilles. 



h! the dreadful, cruel, lamentable, horrible Fates, 
which befall mankind 1 Whenever has Mars witnessea 
such cruel and disastrous wickedness, as he has seen 
during this ten years' war? But why should I, the simple 
reporter of what I have seen, be the first to bewail it 
openly? Rather, I conceive it should devolve on thee 
Andromache, this demonstration of grief, or thou Hecuba, 
as the senior, mayst prefer to take the initiative in evincing 
thy deep sorrow: 

HEC. Whatever grief thou feelest or hast felt, is equal to 
grieving for us; each one of us has her own grief it is 
true, but the aggregate disasters of all press hard upon 
me individually; all things, as far as I am concerned, 
have ended for my misery, whoever else is miser ab\ft, 
has Hecuba to share her troubles. 


'. MEit5\ata virgo ell. milTus g muris puer. 
Sed uLernuc Iclutn mentc generofa tulit. 
ANDR. Expone ferlem csedis, & duplex nefns 
Profequerc. gaudet magiius xCamnas dolur 
Truflarc totaa. ede, ft enirra omiiia. 
NUNT. En una maeaa lurris e Tioja fuper, 
AlTueta Priamo; cujus e faftigio 
Summirque pintiis arbiter belli feileas 
Rcgcbat acies. lurrc iu hnc binndo linn 
Favens nepotem, cum metu verros giavi 
Danaos fugaret Hcflor & ferro & face, 
Palenia puero UcHi monftrabal fenex. 
IIkc nola quoadam turns, & muri decus, 
Nunc fiBvi caates, undiquc affufa ducum 
Flebifque lurba cingitur. tolum coiC 
Ralibus reliflls valgus, his coilis procul 
Aciem ' palenti 1 iberam pr^bet locu ; 
His alia rupo, cujns e cacumiue 
Erefta fummoi lurba libravit pedes. 
IIuDC pinus, ilium Iannis, hunc fagus getil, 
Et lota populo filva rnfpenro tremit. 
Extrema (nonli\ ill« prxrupti p«til, 
Semiufta at ille (eifia, vel fixum imminem 
Muti cadenlis piel'liL atque aliquis (aefns!) 
Tumulo ferus /pernor Hedloreo MeC 
Pec fpalia late plena fublimi giadu 
Incedit Jthacus, parvulum dextra trahens 
Priacni nepoteni: nee gradu fegni puer 
Ad alta pergit mcenia. ut funnna (lelit 
Pio turre, vnltus hnc & hue acres tulit; 
Inlrepidus animo. qunlis iugentis fern: 
Parvus icntrque fmlus, & nondum polcns 
Sxvire denle, jam [amen tuUit miaas, 
Morfufqae inanes lentat, alque animis tumel: 
Sic ille dcxlra preufus nadill puer 
Ferox, fuperue rooveral vulgiun ac duces, 

UES. The Virgin Polyxena has been sacrificed. The 
boy Aslyanax has been hurled from the lower waif, but 
both suffered their dc.ilhs with dignified courage, 

ANDR. Explain to me the exact order in which these 
deaths took place, give me all the particulars of this 
two-fold wickedness, for my intense grief inclines ine to 
map out with accuracy, the whole nf tny miseries, as 
they show themselves. Speak up and be explanatory even 
to the minutest details about everything. 

MES. There is one particular tower on tlie walls of 
Troy (Sc<jea) which is the only one now standing, and the 
one familiar to Vt\am, toi \x ■«»=, V^^t ■feai, ^I'Siring at its 

highest })oint, and amongst the loftiest battlements, he 
issued his military orders as the commander-in-chief, 
durinfj the war, with regard lo the manteuvring of the 
armies. On that same lower he has been seen rrefjiiently 
and oft, petting in his kind old arms {hiigdng him with 
his affectionate embrace), his Jitlle grandson when he 
would descant on the prowess of his son Hector, and the 
way he had routed the enemy with fire and sword, and 
how the enemy retreated in fear and confusion. The old 
man would then call the attention of the little boy to his 
country's wars. This once famous tower, and dibtmgu ish- 
ing ornament to the walls of Troy, is now nothing but a 
wild-looking rocky elevation, and on all sides is made the 
lounging place of the common people, as well as numbers 
of military captains; and the entire crews of the various 
ships, when on leave, flock thither, and to all of these so 
assembled the hill affords a very full prospect of places 
and spots at a great distance, and to such as these, also, 
the elevated rocky portions, from whose summits the 
spectators standing on tip-toe, obtained still greater facul- 
ties of observation. The lofty pine is climbed up by 
some, another lot perch themselves on the top-most 
branches of the tall laurel trees, whilst another aetach- 
ment make use of the stately beech, and in fact, the whole 
collection of trees trembled again at the weight of those 
suspended amongst those branching growths 1 Some make 
for the extreme end of the rugged mountain top, but it 
offers them at best, only a dilapidated disused guard- 
house, or they crowd on some overhanging rock of the 
tumble-down wall— all of them bent on seemg Astyanax 
thrown from the tower, and there a somebody, shocking 
to relate, sits like a cruel spectator on the very tomb of 
Hector 1 Along a path full of sight-scers on all sides 
marches Ulysses at a solemn pace, leading along the little 
grandson of Priam with his right hand, but mark the boy 
advances towards the lofty turret with by no means a 
laggardly step, and as he stands in front of the elevated 
tower, hither and thither he looks around with a severity 
of countenance amply proclaiming his unflinchingness of 
spirit, much the same as the young and tender cub of the 
ferocious lion that is not yet able lo act as it feels, and 
assist its anger with the use of its fangs, yet, however, it 
rouses itself into fierce attempts and makes vain attacks 
with its dental weapons and is swelUng up meanwhile 
with its pent-up rage— so the little boy Astyanax preserves 
a dignified expression of anger, aa he is being led forth 

kby tne hand of his enemy, and evokes the sympathies of 
the herd of spectators and captains who aie XooVvcv't oft 
e»gerly Irom their variotis coigtis of vaTVlag,c lj.\a.c« tAj 


a llct t turba onmium, 

Qui fletar: ac dum vecba falidici St precei 
Caocipit Ulyffes vUii, & Txvos cict 
Ad facra fupeti>s, fponte dcfiluit Tiu 

Gens juris cJif>eri aufit? uoii liul 
ruerilis aras fanguis arperfit fori 


parva KreRih 

5 leEe^ 


Epulaiida pofuil 

Turauloquf Iradeti hunt. Quo* enim pr;rc(pi locus 

Reliquic artus? olTn diijeftn & gravL 

Elilk cafn, lieiui clnri corporis, 

Et ora, & illai nobitcs patris uotu 

Coufudit imam pcndus ad Iccram dalum. 

SotulB cervix, tilicii impulAi caput 

Ruptum, cerebro penitns exprefib. jacet 

Deforme corpus, andr. Sic quoque ell limilis pntri, 

HUNT. Fncceps ut altis cecidit e murii puer, 

Flevitque AchiTum torbi, quod Tccil, nefas; 

Idem iUc populus sliud nd facinu3 redit, 

Tumul unique Acbillis. hujut extremum latus 

Rhmtea leai verbemut fluiflu vada. 

Averra eingit campus, & cUto levi 

Ereifia medium vallis iacludeni locum 

Crefcil ilieniri more, concurfus Treijuens 

Implcvit omne lltui. hi claHls moras 

Hac mocte folvi lentur. bi ftiqwrn hoflium 

Gaudent recidi. magna ])an vuigi levit 

ridiC fcelus, fpeiflatque: nee Tjaii minus 

Sunm fiequenl.inl funus, & pavidi meta 

r.irlem rueutls ullimam Trojx viJent. 

observation), and even Ulysses hiiiiself seems moved, but 
he is the only one out of that assembled throng who give 
themselves up to tears, who shows no signs of aclual 
weeping, and whilst Ulysses is pulling together some sort 
of speech out of the words supplied by Calchas for the 
occasion, and a few miserable prayers, invoking the rruci 
gods above, to accept the sacrifice, Astyaoax, of his own 
accord, leaped down from the tower towards the earth 
below, that earth once a constituent atom of the king- 
dom of Priam 1 

ANDR. What Colchian (an inhabitant of Colchis, enderred 
famous for the cruellies of Medea; — What wild Scythian ■ 
with no fixed country (thus supposed lawless) would have 
perpetrattd such auocixv^ ^s '"^^ tauavcj oa the 

Lines 1102-1134] TROADES. 397 

borders of the Caspian sea, bereaved of all human laws, 
would have dared to do such a deed? Why! Not even 
the cruel Busiris ever went so far as to shed the blood 
of youths at his impious altars! Nor did even Diomedes 
himself serve up little tender children for his horses to 
be feasted upon! Oh! my Astyanaxl who will inter thy 
remains, and deliver thee over to the tomb? 

MES. What thou meanest, alas! is what the fall from this 
lofty tower has left of his remains ! His bones are dislo- 
cated and crushed by the heavy fall, but there are still 
some indications of nis noble person, but the weight 
of the body coming down with such force to the ground 
has made any identification difficult, as to his face and 
those other noble points, in which he so resembled his 
father; his neck is broken and his skull is fractured by 
the force with which he came in contact with the siliceous 
rocks (flints) the brains have nearly all escaped from the 
cranial cavity, and Astyanax is lying a shapeless mass I 

ANDR. And in this respect, at all events, he may be 
compared with his father. 

MES. When the boy fell headlong from the tower, a 

portion of the Grecian crowd was moved to tears, at the 

crime of which Ulysses was the instrument; then the same 

crowd, which had been weeping, as I have described, 

push on eagerly to witness another abominable execution 

and they reach the tomb of Achilles— the streams around 

the promontory of Rhoeteum, to play upon the extreme 

lefl of this cape, with their gentle wavelets, and the open 

plain is in front of the opposite side whilst the valley 

occupying the intermediate space becomes rising ground, 

increasing the ascent, by a very slight and gradual slope 

till it ultimately acquires the appearance of an ampni- 

theatre— a constant crowd of idlers and loafers are loitering 

about every part of the shore— some of them are of 

opinion that the delay of the fleet must be settled now! 

omers are chuckling over the fact that the last scion of 

the royal enemy, has been disposed of, and a great 

portion of the indiscriminate spectators look on, although 

at the same time, they disapprove of the performance 

of these atrocities! Nor are the Trojans backward in 

their desire to witness the deaths of the victims, but 

gaze with fear and trembling upon the last link of the 

royal dynasty (Polyxena)— when presently those connected 

with the nuptial ceremony advance in front. There goes 

the bridesmaid Helen, hanging down her head m ^adtv^'sa^ 

and the Trojans inwardly pray that HermiOTi^ (^daca^Xet 


Cum fubito thilami more pnecciiuDt faces. 

Il pronubn illic Tyn^aris, ciix(lum caput 

Demina. inli nubat Hermione modo, 

Phryges precnntur. (ic viro lurpb ftio 

RcMlrlalur Helene. leiror oHonUos tenet 

Ulrofque populos, ipfa dejeflos gerit 

Vultm puiiore; fed lamcn fulgent e"1"i 

MagiTqiie folilo fplendel extremus decor. 

Ut effe Phcfbi dulc[us lumea folet 

Jam jam cadentis, aftra cum repetunt vices, 

Fremilurque dubiui noifle vicina dies. 

Siupet omne vulgus; & fere cnofli magis 

I'criluia laud act. ho> mo vet fonn;e decuE, 

Ho3 mollis lelas, has vagm rerun) vices. 

Movel aoiDias omnes foilis, ft lelo obvius, 

Fyrrhum antccedil. omnium meules tremunl: 

Minuilur, oc miferantur. ut pHmum ardui 

Sublime montia leUgit, atqiie alle edlto 

Juveuii patemi veitice in budi llelit, 

Audax virago non lulil rciro gnidum; 

Converfa ad liftum Hat true! vullu ferox. 

Tam fortis animus omnium meatti feril. 

Novumcjue monflrum eft, Pyrrhus nd «pd«tn 'pign 

L't deitra feiruoi penilus eiafla abdidit, 

.Subilus rccepltk morte prorupit cmor 

Per vulnus ingcns, ncc tamen moriens adhuc 

Depoait'aDimog, cecidit, ut Acbilli gravem 

Faclura teiram, piono, k irato impeta. 

Ulcrque flevit ccetus. at timidum Phiyges 

Mifere gemitum. clarius viftor gemil. 

Hie ordo facri. Don (tetit fafiis cruor, 

Humove ftimma lluxit obduxil flntlm, 

Ssevufque lolum rnngulnem lumulus bibit. 

HEC. Ite, ile, Danai; petite jam tali domos, 

Optala veils marla diirufis fecet 

Secure claffis, concidil virgo, ac puer. 

Bellum peranum eft, quo meai lacrimal feram? 

Ubl hBDc anilis e>fi>uam leti moram? 

Nntam, an nepatem; conjugem, an pattinm fleam ^ 

An omnia? an me? fola mora votum mcum. 

Infamibus TioleDta, virgiajbus veais, 



of Helen and Menelaus) should go through a similar 
marriage, and in like manner, that adulterous Helen 
should be delivered over to her own' husband! An 
inward dread possesses the astounded Grecian and Trojan 
crowds! Polyxena, herself, evinces a countenance of 
maidenly modest}-, but her cheeks, however, show a slight 
blush, and her excessive beauty shines forth greater than 
everl Even as theVvft\ilal?^oia'>»,?*i*,ti&\a(n«.i^«aai)le 


-..,s] TROADES. 309 

to behold, when he is beginning to set, and when the 
stars commencing to repeat their course, and the 
uncertain daylight is at length overpowered by the 
advancing night! All the common people are stupefied, 
and nearly all are inclined to praise the being that is 
about to be sacrificed-the beauty of her fiice wins the 
favor of some, her tender age worlcs upon the feeling of 
others, and the changeable character of all things sublu- 
nary operates on the sympathies of others, whilst the 
courageous spirit and the way she meets death enlist the 
sympathies of all— She walks in front of Pyrrhus— the 
nerves of all are in a quiver, the spectators admire as 
■well as pilyl In the meantime, Pyrrhus reaches the 
summit of the mountain, so difficult of ascent, and the 
yoimg man stood on the top of his father's tomb, as high 
as he could, but the courageous girl, with masculine spirit, 
did not start back or flinch one step, and as Pyrrhus 
stands up, with a ferocious expression, Polyxena leans 
forward to receive her death-blow. Then the intrepid 
courage of Polyxena impresses the minds of all, and 
now a novel spectacle presents itselfl The courage of 
I'yrrhus seems to flag, as he faces his work of slaughter, 
but at last, he buries his sword deep down with his right 
hand with a successful thrust, and a sudden rush of 
blood flowed from the enormous wound, which caused 
her death, nor even as she is dying do her spirits desert 
her, she fell as if about to make the ground press down 
heavily on the ashes of Achilles! as with an angered 
look she dropped with her face downwards! Both 
the Grecian and Trojan crowd of spectators wept, but 
the Phrygians gave forth a stifled groan, while the con- 
queror groaneif with satisfaction, ihis is the way the 
sacrifice took plate, and the blood did not rest as in a 
pool, but it soalced deep in the ground, and it was covered 
in a moment, and thus the unrelenting tomb drank in 
the entire blood of its victim! 

HEC. Go! Depart ye Greeks! now seek thy various 
native homesteads, in security, and the fleet with its wide- 
spread sails will plough the wished-for seas— Now the 
Virgin has gone as well as the bov — The war is now 
thoroughly over, but how shall I tear my own grief? 
When as an old woman do I reject with indignation 
any delay in the death which I desire for myself, shall 1 
hve to inotim a daughter, a grandson, a husband or my 
country? Or al! combined? No! my only wish is for 
deadi alone! Oh! Unfeeling Death, thou visilest with 
violence— thou comest with readiness to Wt^^m^ \^^ 
Ydiyxena, everywhere thou seemest active tiVQVi^ •«'\'fe. 



Ubicunque properu, txva: me folun times, 
Vilafiiuf. filodios inter ae tela & («cei 
Quacllta Iota noftc, cupieDtem fugis. 
Nou huflis. nul ruins, non ignis mcos 
Abrumru anui: quoin prope a, Friamo fteliP 
HUNT. Rcpeiite celeri msriin captivae, gntdu. 
Jam vela puppis Iwut, & claTTu movel. 

thy work— But thou seemest reluctant to approach me! 

thou seekest out throughout the long dreary night for 
stray lives — Where swords, darts ana conflagrations arc 
doing their work for ihee, but thou avoidest mc who 
inviteth thy approach ! No enemy, no ruins, no conl)a^;ra- 
tions have kindly snatched away my body! and now 
near I stood to the altar, where Priam fell, yel no 
kindly hand slew me! 

MES. Now, captives, look out to embark on the briny 
deep with ciuickencd steps; the vessels are now loosening 
sails and the foremost ships of the fleet axe already 
under wayl 





NttN Tilts. 


jAfON cum Qxore & liberU poil inlerfcflum Peliam Corinihi t 
lubBt. Ubi cum Creou rex ilium eeDerum legilTet, Medea n^ 
fuos fibi habere a morito, ah rege aliud exfiliam quaaare jubeu 
nia naius die! impelrata mora, Creurx rpoDfce, pall&m & ni "^ 
magicis iafeAa venenU mittit: quibus indulia ignem cor 
palla, mirereque oova nupta, una cum potre in uabe aiudl'iiu 
accurrenle, combufla efl, Medea deQii[Qe iHiis, quos JafoQipi 
rernl, in palris couTpedlu Crucidotis, per ^era aufugiL 

a cieferta fuperos iuferofque Jafonis ultore 


I conjuEales tuque genialis lori 
Lucina cuftos, quique domilorem lit 
Tipbyn navam freuare dacuifti ralem 
El tu profundi fseve dominalor maris 
Clarumque Tilau dividens orbi dieir, 
Tocilifque pncbens confcium facris ji 
Hecnle Iriformis, quofque juravit mih 
Deo& Jafon, quarque Mcdex magis 
Fas eft precnri, noflis Elema: chaos 
Averfa Superis regaa, lilauriope '"»'; 

Lines x — lo] 






Chorus of Corinthians. 



After the slaughter of Pelias, Jason lived as an exile at 
Corinth with his wife and children. But when Creon. 
the king, chose him for a son-in-law, Medea is required 
to be divorced from her husband, and ordered by the 
king to seek another place of exile. Medea, a delay of 
one day havinjg been obtained, sends to Creusa a cloak 
and neckerchief, charged with some magic-produced 
material, which things having been put on by Creusa, 
the doak instantly takes fire, and the new bride is 
cruelly destroyed Dy the flames; and the father, who 
ran to the assistance of his daughter, shares the same 
fate.— Then Medea, (the children she had by Jason 
being killed in the presence of their father) flies away 
through the air. 



Medea, when she finds herself deserted invokes the Gods 
above and the Gods below to visit their vengeance 
on Jason. 

OH I ye Gods, who preside over things conjugal, and 
thou, Lucina, the special guardian of the hymeneal 
bed; and thou, Minerva, who taughtest Tiphys, the 
successful pilot, how to steer his vessel and combat the 
waves, ana manage aright that novel Argonautic craft; 
and thou, Neptune, the stem ruler of the vasty deep; 
and thou, Phoebus, who dividest thy bright day between 
the two sides of our orb: and thou, the three-formed 
Hecate, (Hecate, Diana, Pnoebe,) who givest forth thy 
nocturnal rays in full cognizance of what transpires at 
the secret mystic ceremonies things done secretly by 
night (and the deeds of the necromancer): and oh I 
ye Gods, before whom Jason swore his fidelity to me, 
and ye others, for whose aid it is the more decided 
right of Medea to ask (those who had been vmlKaXfed Vj 
her in magical secrets, and the mystic infernal ceierciOii\^'^\ 



DomiQumque regui tiiftis, & domiaam fide 
Meliore raptain, voce Don faulla precor: 
Adtfte, adefle fcelcrU ultrices Dea^ 
Crinem tokli» fquallidae rcrpentibiu, 
Alram cruentU maaibua amptexx facem, 
Adelle: tbolamis bomdie quoodsm meis 
Quales ftettdis, conjugi letum now, 
Leluni<|ue Toccro & tegiic (lirpi dnle. 
Mibi pejus aliijnid, qaod precer rponfo malum; 
Vivat, per urbes errd ignotu egcni, 
Kxful, pavens, invifus, iiicerti laria: 
Me coDJugem opiet; limeu alieouia eipe&t, 
Jam Dolus hofpei: quoigue noa alind queam 
Pejus precari, liberos llmilis palri, 
Simiierque matri. parU jam, paria oltio eft. 
Peperi. querelai, vetbaque incniTum fero. 
Nod ibo id houes? maoibus exculiam fueij 
CcEloque lucemi fpedtat boc aoftri fator 
Scl geuerist & fpeflatur, & cumi mfidcm 
Per folila puri fpfttia decutrit polif 
Nod redit Id orJus, & remelilur diem? 
Ua, da per aoras cuiribus pattjis vehi. 
Committe habcnas, genitor, & flagroDdbag 
iKuifera loris tribue moderari juga. 
Gem mo CoriDthos litori oppoocDs moras, 
Cremata flominis maria cummitlet duo. 
Hoc reftat unnm: prooubum thalama Teram 
Ut ipfa piaum; podque facriricas precei 
Cscdam dicalis viAimas altaribos. 
Per vifcera ipfa quiEie fupplicio viam, 
Si vivis, aaime: 6 quid aatiqui tibi 
Remaacl vigoris, pelle femiaeos metus, 
Et iohorpilalem Caucafum mente iodue. 
Quodcunque Tidil Phafis aul Foalus ncfu, 
Videbit Illhmos cfTera, ignota, horrida, 
Ttemeiida ccelo patitet BC terris mala, 
McDS iiitus agital; vulnera, & cxdem, & vagam 

and thou, tlie Chaos of Eternal Night,— ye, the 
that are below those which are immeataiely above ihi 
Earth, and the impious progeny of the Iklanes, and ihi, 
ruler of that sad kingdom, (Pluto,) and thou, Proserpina 
who wast carried away by Pluto, but with the faithfu 
observance of his conjugal vows, (which has not fMen id 
my lot,) I pray thee, though with a modified degree o( 
confidence, be present. OhI ye Eumen'ides, the aveng- 
ing goddesses of crimes, with your repulsive locks hanging 
down with the dangling serpents, be present, holding 
the dreaded torch in your blood-thirsty hands— stand ye 
forth, as ye did at m^ marriage ceremony, terrible 10 
behoid, causing dca\\\\oiea.t\v<tv\swf«\'i\sii'j(i-tiftAs^useI 




Deal out destruction to the father-in-law, and the entire 

Corinthian royal race ! And grant to me that the calami- 
ties shall be worse, which I may invoke to befall my hus- 
band! Let him live, let him wander amongst unluiown 
and hostile countries, as a suspected vagrant, as an exile, 
aUv-ays in dread of some terrible disaster, hated by every- 
body, with no fixed home of his own, desertea by his 
I. ares— let him sigh in vain to have me back a^ainl Let 
him have to seek the threshold of a siranger— he is already 
a marked man, too well known as a guest! In addition 
to which, I cannot wish for anything worse for him, than 
that his children, even bom of me, should grow up 
counterparts of himself in perfidy I and like their mother 
in their propensities to poison and to perpetrate the most 
monstrous acts ofcnieltyl Having borne children, therein 
lies my revenge— I have now been talking of my com- 
plaints, but my mere words of remonstrance are late in 
the day, and of not much avail, but I have borne the 
children! Shall I not go into the enemy's camp? Shall 
I put out the marriage torches with my own hands and 
leave them all in darkness? Docs Phcebus, the progeni- 
tor of my race, see all this? And, as he beholds it, will 
he still pursue his way, seated on his flaming chariot, by 
the same undeviating track along the spodess skies, regard- 
less of my misery. \Vhy does he not look horrified, and 
hide his face? Why does he not relum to his starting- 
place, the gorgeous east, and let the day be commenced 
over again (that is, put back the day, as he had done 
before, when Hercules was bom). Grant ine this— allow 
me to be conveyed in the paternal chariot throughout 
the skies. Oh! my father, hand thou the scorching reins 
to me, and let me guide the fiery horses of the sun, and 
Corinih, which is the opposing barrier between the two 
seas (Ionian and Mgean) being burnt up by the flames, 
of which I shall have the full command, the two seas will 
be joined as the result (Corinth being thoroughly destroy- 
ed, the two seas would be united). But there is still one 
thing left for me to carry out, that I myself shall put in 
an appearance at the marriajje with my own hymeneal 
pine torch and, after the preliminary prayers, can myself 
slay the sacrificial victims before the sacred altars! Ohl 
my inward soui! if thou livesl, that is if thou art ahve 
to thy sought-for revenge, seek the road to such revenge, 
by way of their entrails, and if there is any of my ancient 
self left within rac, let me cast aside all womanish fears, 
and assume the disposition of a fierce and cruel Cauca- 
sian; and whatever crimes either the Phasis or Pontus 
(Euxine) has witnessed, lei Corinth see, in very earnest., 
the cruel unlieard of, terrible visitations, \o W \.te;wW\.cft. 

epilhEtlomium prxc 


X\d regum thaknia« namme prorpcn 
Qui ccelum Tuperi, qaique rcguni fretunii 
AdfiDt, cnm popuUs rite faveotibus. 
PiimUJ fceptifeiis coUa Tonnnlibus 
Taurus celfa feral lergorc Candida. 
Lucinain nivei (cminn corporis 
Intentata )ugo placet, &, nfperi 
Martis Congumpa; qun cohihet mnnn)^ 
Qux dU belligeris ftedera genlibus, 
Kt comu retinet divite copiam, 
Donctur icnera milior hollin. 
Et lu, qui facibus legilimis odes, 
Noiftem difcutiCDs aufpice deitera. 
Hue incede gradu marciduj ebrio, 
PrxciDgeni roleo tempora Tinculo. 
Et tu, QU« gcinini previa leinpi>ris 
Tarde Itella redis femper amanlibus': 
Te matres avidie, te ciipiunt nurus 
QuampriinuQi radios rparger« lucidos. 

Vincit virgincus decor 
Loage CecTppias Durni: 
EC quas Taygi^li jugis 

at both by the Heavens and the 
have been duly and thorouehly th 
as we51 as the wounds and 

Lines 48—77] MEDEA. 407 

connected therewith). But in what way do I propose to 
leave mv husband? In the same way as that in which I 
followea him— as a criminal 1 Now let me put an end 
to impotent, sluggish delay— the palace which was obtained 
through the instrumentality of crime must be vacated 
with crime 1 


The Chorus of the Corinthian women chant forth a 
marriage song in praise of the nuptials between 

Jason and Creusa. 

OhI ye Gods above; thou, Jupiter, who nilest the 
heavens, and thou, Neptune, who nilest over the 
vast ocean— be present all 01 you with your encour- 
aging felicitations, at the marriage of the royal person- 
ages, Jason and Creusa, with the populace seconding your 
favourable acknowledgment, witn DecQming ceremonial 
rejoicing and kind words.— Let a prime bull amongst the 
first, with a snow-white hide, raising proudly its lofty head, 
be sacrificed at the altars of the deities, Jupiter and Tuno, 
who wield the sceptre in the kingdom, whence the light- 
nings are sent form, and let a wnite heifer— whose neck 
has never been bent to the yoke,— be offered to gratify 
the eyes of Lucina ; and thou, Concordia, the godoess of 
peace, who restrainest the sanguinary weapons of Mars, 
and who, instead, bestowest tne blessings of amicable 
treaties upon warlike peoples, and who art recognized 
by husbanding in thy norn of plenty the plentiful fruits 
of the earth,— for thee, let a fitting emblem in the shape 
of a sheep, be awarded. (This was sacrificed in an especial 
manner, without blood sprinkled on the altars, as opposed 
to the free shedding of blood, which characterizes the 
operations of war.) And thou, Hymenaeus, who comest 
with thy torches suggestive of thy legitimate functions, 
who drivest away the darkness of nio;ht with the torches 
in thy right hand— come hither, on 1 thou debauched- 
looking God, with thy drunken rollicking gait, wearing 
on thy head the customary chaplet of roses, and thou 
Venus, the constellation, the forerunner of day and night 
(coming at two times), and always returning late for those 
engaged in their love affairs. (That is, the time always 
appearing long, which is looked forward to by ardent 
lovers on the matrimonial list.) The anxious matrons want 
thee,— the brides want thee— the moment thou sheddest 
forth those ra)rs of thine. But really, the beauty of our 
Virgin Creusa surpasses by far that of all the otivet btvdfc^, 
as well as those whom that city, withouX tiae pioXi^cXxoxi 

Exercet ji 

Et quas Aon 
Alpheofque facer UvKt 
Si form& velit afpici, 
Cedent Mlonia duci, 
Proles ful minis improbi, 
Aplat qui juga (igtibus 
Nee non qui tripodai movcl, 
Fraler virginii arpene. 
Cedet caflore cum fuo 
Pollut cDEstibui aptior. 
Sic, (ic, Ccelicolic, prcMr, 
Vincat femioft conjuges, 
Vir longe fuperet viios. 

Hxc cum femiueo conftilit in choro, 
Unlus foftes pncnitet omnibus. 
Sic cum Me peril fidereus decor, 
E[ denri latitant Pldadum grcges, 
Cum Phcebe foHdum lumine aon fuo 
Orbera circnitas cornibus nllieal. 
Oflro fic Dtveus puniceo color 
Perfufus Tubuil: lie nilidum jubar 
PaHor luce nova rofeidua afpicit. 
Ereptu! ihalarois Phafidos bocridis, 
Effrcox (olitus pciftora caajugia 
InvilB Irepidus preDdcre dextem, 
Felix iColism corripe virginem 
NuDC primum foceris, fponfe, valentibus. 
ConcelTo, juvenes, ludite jargia. 
Hine illinc, juvenes, mitiite carmina. 
Kara ed in dominos juHa licentia. 

Candida thjrfigeri proles geoerofa Lysei, 
Multilidam jam Icmpus erat fuccendere pinum. 
Eicule foUmncm digiiui marccntibus ignem, 
Fefta dicax fundat convicia Fefcenninns. 
Solval lurba jocos. Tacilis eal ilia lenebtis, 
Si qua peregrino nubit fugiliva marito. 

of walls on ihe summit of Taygetum, constantly sees 
gaged in manly exercises, and those who lave their 
sons in the Aonian streams, and the sacred Alpheiis; 
if it is desirable to gauge the standard of excellence by 
pretensions of beauiv, decidedly tlie descendant of iu 
Jason, will cany o(f the palm as the successful con 
titor, outstripping that offspring of the harsh Thuads 
Bacchus, who yokes the tigers to his chariots, and Ap 
even, who, mounted on his tripod, deals forth his o 

and the brother of that rougn-and-ready Virgin 

(this refers to her as a huntress only), and FolLmc 
who seems more ax bom^ ■«'\^^ V\s. ^.n^vis, must bate 

Lfne. j8-iisl MEDEA. 409 

pretentions (as a rival) as welJ as his brother Caslorl 
Tbus,— thus, oh I ye Gods above, I vow and maintain, 
that Creusa carries off the prize amongst the maids, and 
Jason, by a long way, ouisnines all the men.— When she 
stands up with the women of this chorus, the face of that 
one, Creusa, surpasses all the others in beauty! As when 
the starry splendors fade away into nothingness when 
bright Phcebus shows his effulgent face, and as with the 
thick cluster of the Pleiades when bright Phcebe has 
approximated her circuitous horns (full moon) and shows 
herself as a solid orb, although the light is not her own I 
Thus it is with Creusa. when her snow-white face becomes 
tinged with the exquisite pink, diffusing itself; and in 
like manner, as the morning shepherd, wet himself with 
the dews of night, beholds the bright face of Aurora 
with a renovated light, as she is fed bv the same dews. 
(The ancients iraapined that the Stellar bodies were 
nourished with moisture, hence the idea— increased bril- 
liancy.) Thoa, Jason, havinjg been snatched away (releas- 
ed) from the horrible marriage bed of Phasian memory, 
accustomed as thou wert to the temper and caprices of 
a fierce wife, and who trembledst even as thou didst caress 
her with thy unwilling right hand, lake to thyself with 
rapture the MoiioD Virgin, and thou, oh thou Bridegroom, 
for the first time in thy life rejoice in having a father- 
in-law ready to receive thee with open arms— and ohl 
ye young men, give yourselves up to jollity, the privilege 
of runnmg down your masters being now accorded to 
you,— and oh! ye, the young of both sexes, chant forth 
your tuneful lays, the men at one time, the women at 
another. (This singing separately was adopted that the 
female voices should not be drowned by those of the 
males.) The rare liberty is now accorded to you, and 
acknowledged as your right, to rail against your masters. 
(This is the custom at the Saturnalia, when masters and 
slaves change places, and say what they like.) 

And ohl ye fortunate noble progeny of the Thyrsus- 
bearin" Lyasus (Bacchus), now is the time to set fire to 
the split pines, and to brandish the solemn marriage 
torches with your fingers, till they are thoroughly fagged 
I (the pines, being slit up with the grain of the wood, 


_f^the bantering Fescennine Verges may freely 

indulge in their licentious jocularities on this festive 
occasion, and the assembled throng are at liberty to 
crack their jokes as much as they likcl But let Medea 
pass away into silent obscurity, she who became a fugitive 
and exile, and married a husband UaveWvn^ alWj'^A to 
ioTcign laadsH 

_ s pepiillt Mfmenxus n 

viK ipfa tanCuiD, vii adhuc, credo miJum. 
H(Bc facere Jafon potuil? erepto patre, 
Patria alque regno, fedibus folam extccis 
Uefererer dunia merita cODlemlit mea, 
Qui (cetere flammos videmt vinci, & mare! 
Adeooe credit omne conrunilum nefasf 
laccrta, vecors, rnenle vefana fcror, 
Pactes in omnes, unde me ulcifci queam? 
Utinam cfTel illi fraterl ell conjux. m hanc 
Femim eiiealur- hoc meis Talis eft malis? 
Si quod Petafgx, fi quod urbes barbariE 
Noverc facinus, quod lute ignoranl manus; 
Nunc eH parBadnm. fceleia te horlenlur lua; 

Et cun^ redeant. inditum Kgni decus 
Rapluni; & oefandBC virginis parvus comes 
Divirus enfe, tunus ingeftum pairi; 
Sparfumque ponto corpos; & Pelix Tenis 
Decofla nhcno niembni. funellum impie 
Quam r^e fudi faDguineml al nullum fcclus 
Irata feci. Ixvit infelii amor. 
Quid tamen JafoD poluit, ajieni arbitrii 
Jurifque faflua? debuit ferro obvium 
Offerre peflus, melius, ah melius, dolor 
Knriofe, loquere. fi potefl, vival meus, 
L't fuit, JaCoo: fm minus, vival tamcn, 
Memorque oonri muneri parcal n 

Natis, & aiAo pi^ore adilrliftam fidem 
Dirimit. petatur folus htc; po^aas tnat, 
Ouss debet, alto cincre cumulabo domum. 
Videbil alrum vorlicem ILiiumis agi 


Medea is in .1 ftirious rage when she hears of tiie inaf' 
riage: the nurse Iciea her best to [wcify her, Lul in 



end,— these marriage chants are still 
ears. I can scarcely accred' 
1 piece of villainy— hardly, as yet, at all e 

I AM at _ 
ringing m my ears. I can scarcely accredit so g 
a piece of villainy— hardly, as yet, at all eventsl is 
Jason capable of doing such things? Snatched away from 

my father, my native country, my kingdom, and thus 
to be left alone forsaken,— in a foreign land I Has that 
ungrateful man learned to despise my meritorious ser- 
vices?— I, who, by my crimes, witnessed his triumph over 
the flames and the sea (by her sorceries over the flames, 
the brazen -footed, fire-vomiting bulls, and over the sea 
by throwing into it the body of her brother Absyrtus)— 
but he is so credulous as to suppose that 1 have ex- 
hausted my category of the evil arts which I can yet 
bring to my aid; In my wavering state of mind,— of 
maddened imagination,^! am goaded on to every kind 
of invention which an insane brain can conceive, as to 
the mode in which I shall be best able to execute my 
revenge. I wish Jason had a brother, — never mind,— he 
has a wife, and upon her the sword shall be visited;— 
but is this enough to satisfy my wrongs? If the Felas- 
gians, or even any Barbarian cities, have oecome acquaint- 
ed with any specimen of crime not known already to 
these practised hands of mine, now is the time to make 
it known to me — let your crimes induce you to ofler 
some sort of guidance, and let all my own deeds return 
to my memory — that glorious distinguishing ornament 
of a proud kingdom, the golden fleece (stolen by Jason, 
aided by my sorceries), and the young companion of a 
cniel virgin, cut up with the edge of the sword, and his 
remains thrust upon the notice of the father (to retard 
pursuit) and his body thrown into the sea, piece by piece 
(to appease Neptune). And the body of the aged Pelias 
boiled in a caldron — how impiously forsooth! And how 
often have I been reckless in the shedding of blood? 
But none of these things, mark, have I done when anger 
was urging me on! Now, my unsuccessful spumed affec- 
tion will add fur>- to my operations! But what could 
Jason do? He has had the sanction and authority of 
another to aid and abet him in doing what he has done. 
Hut ought he not rather to have presented his breast to 
the sword's point, than to have deserted me? But let 
me speak more to tlie purpose, ah, with more modera- 
tion, OhI this angered soul of mtnel If it be possi- 
ble, let Jason remain mine, as he once was; if not— let 
him still live, and be mindful of my past services, and 
my now sparing him. (My vengeance is to let him Iwe W 
know thai be owes bis very existence Xo m^ ^QT\j?iMa.w^*i^ 


412 SENECA'S TRAGEDIES. [Un« „^,t. 

Malea, longas navibua fleflens motas. 

NUTB. Sile, obfccrOj quednfijue fecreto nbdilos 

Muida dolori. gravis quifqais votnera 

Pnlieote & ttquo mutns animo pertulit, 

Rcferre poluiL ira, quK tegitur, nocet. 

ProrelTa perduni odta vindiftx locum 

MED. L«vis efl dolor, qoi capere conlilium poted, 

Et clepere fefc. magna noQ Inlitant niala. 

I.ibet ice contra, nutr. Sifte furialcm impetum, 

Alumna. vU le taciU defendit quits 

MED. Fonum Tories metuiC, ignavos premie. 

HUTK. Tunc eft probanda, li locum virtus habct. 

MED. Nunquaro poteft non eOe virtuti locus. 

NUTR. Spcs nulla mouflrat rebus aflliiflis viam. 

MED. Qui nil potrft fpernre, defperpt nihil. 

NI1TR. Abiere Colchl. conjugis nulla ell tides, 

Nihilque (uperell opibus e tantis tibi. 

Me[>. MnlcD fupcred. heic mare & lerias vidns, 

Feimmque, & Igncs, & Decs, & fulmina. 

NUTR. Rex eft Limcndus. MED. Ren meus Tuemt paler. 

The entire blame is with Creon, who, in his irrestrafn- 
able power, has dissolved my marrige with Jason, and it 
is he, who has separated a mother from her children, 
and ruthlessly disturbed that conjugal fidelity, by which 
we were both bound by the stnctest pledges I No, he 
alone shall be sought out for this, he shall suffer ihat 

Eunishment which he so richly desen-es— I will reduce 
is palace to a heap of cinders, and the promontory of 
Malea, which causes from its numerous bends so much 
obstruction and delay to navigators, shall witness a black 
whirlwind of smoke rise out of the flames. (Matea, which 
extended five miles into the sea, became proverbial for 
its danger.) 

Be silent. I beseech thee, consign thy wrongs to the 
secret recesses of thy own angry bosom; whoever bcais 
in silence, and with a patient tmnifflcd spirit, the grievous 
stings of fate, can always place them to better account 
{to give like for like in revenee]; anger which is pent-up, 
and not shown to the world, is always more effccti\-e, 
when brought into play— but grievances which are openly 
paraded lose many an opportunity for revengel (e.g. appriz- 
ing others of your intentions). 

That grievance is light indeed which can tolerate any 
advice tioia others, on4 V\4« \\5^^ mt^'j , ^ ^ <k«scv 

Unes 149—168] MEDEA« 413 

grievances of any magnitude will not be stifled in such 
a manner.— No» it is better to face one's difficulties openly! 


Do restrain thy furious impulses, ohl my nursling I 
or thy reposeful silence, even, will not be a sufficient 
safeguard I 


Fortune favours the bold, but she tramples on the 


Then it remains to be proved whether determination 
and boldness have the requisite materials to work with. 


There never can be any place assigned to determina- 
tion: it is the result which deddes the matter. 


Does no hope hold out any prospect to those in afflic- 


He who cannot hope for anything cannot reasonably 
despair of anything. 


The Colchians are out of the question now; there is 
no fidelity to be expected from thy husband, and nothing 
now remains to thee, — even out of thy ample resources. 


Yes, indeed! Medea remains! And thou canst see 
for thyself the earUi and the sea— then come the sword, 
the flames, the revengeful deities and Jupiter's lightnings! 


But the king, surely, is to be feared? 


My father was a king, and I didn't le^x Vivoi ^>\\. 
opposed him for Jason's sake). 



NUTR. Nod metuis artna! MED. Sint licet terra edito. 
NUTR. Moriere, MED. Cupia. nutb. Prornge. MED. Picnitui 
Medea fugiuD? NUTR. Muter es. MED. Cui fim, vUles. 
NUTR. Profugere dubitns? MED. Fugiam: nt ulcifcar plius. 
BUTE. Vindei fcqnetiir. MED. ForfHii ioveniiin moraa. 
KUTK. Compefce verba; puce jam denieas minis, 
Animorque roinue. lempori aplori decet, 
WED. Fortuaa opes aufenv. hod animum potcll, 
Sed cuius iiflu regius caido Arepit^ 
Ipfe eft Pelofgo luniidus impcrio Creoo. 

Dost thou not fear the bloodthirsty weapons of the 

No, not if they sprang forthwith from the earth t (allud- 
ing to the giants snrung from the serpent's teeth when ] 
thrown into the eatUi). ^^^" 

Thou mightst die! 

what 1 desire most. 


I have had a little experience in fleeing, which I have 
had reason to rei)et\l.— Shall I, a Medea, attempt flight 
again, that have bo\d\v tacei wer^ ia.o.'f.ex'- 

Lines x69~z78] MEDEA. 415 


Thou art a mother,— thou hast children. 


Think rather of Jason, by whom I have been made 
that mother. 


Why dost thou hesitate to flee? 


I may flee, but I will have my revenge first. 


Vengeance will follow thee up, assuredly 1 


Perhaps I may discover some opportunity for delay, 
as I did when my father pursued me. (Slaying Absyrtus 
funus ingestum patri, line 132.) 


Spare thy menacing words, who art already enraged 
enough; spare further threats. Tone down thy anger,— 
it is best to adapt thyself to time and opportunity. 


Fortune can rob us of our riches, but not of our 
mental attributes. But, hark I Who is knocking?— The 
hinges of the palace-door are creaking,— Here is Creon 
himself, puffed up with all his pompous pride and power 1 


Creon urges Medea to depart from his Kingdom into 
exile with all haste; shCf with dif&cuVly, o\iXalvas» >i^^ 
delay of one day. 





Molilur aliquid. nota fraus, i 

Cni pnrcit ilia? quemve feeunim finitf 

Abolere propere pefiimam ferro lufm 

Equiiiem parobam; precibus evicll gener. 

Conceffa vita ell. libeiet lines mclu; 

Abcalque tuta, feit grodum contra ferox, 

Mimixque noftros propius afTatus petit. 

Arcele, famuli, taiftu & accelTu procul. 

Jubete, fileat. regium impcrium pati 

Aliqusndo difoaL vnde veloci via, 

Monflrunique f^vum, liorribile, jamdudum avehe. 

MED. Quod crimen, aut quse culpa muldlalur Tuga? 

Ck. Qaie cnufa pellat, ianoceus mulier rogaL 

UED. Si judicas, cognofce: fi rcgoas, jube. 

en. lEquum arque iaiquum regis impeiium TenLs. 

MED. Iniqua nuDquam regna perpetuo manent. 

CR. L querere Colchis, MED. Redeo, qui ndvexil, tcraL 

CR. Vox conftituto fera decreto venil. ■ 

MED, Qui llatuit aliquid parte inaadila ultera, 

j^uuiD lifel natuetit, hand ^quus full. 

OhI Medea, the noxious progeny of the Colcluui 
^etas, hast thou not taken thyself off from out of 
my dominions? Thoti ait hatching something, some 
wicked crime has entered thy head, thy hancS have 
again been employed upon some mischief I Whom or what 
does that woman spare? Whom will she ever allow to 
remain in security? Indeed, I have been making up my 
mind to destroy her forthwith, and to condenm her to 
suffer the worst punishment to which I could sentence 
her,— the swordl Bui my son-in-law, Jason, has won me 
over by his entreaties not to do so, and thus her life has 
been spared to her, but she must be caused to free my 
kingdom of anv further fears (arising out of her evil 
machinations). Let. her depart in safetj', and let her fero- 
cious nature guide her steps elsewhere 1 She employs 
her threatening language, boldly seeks me out and dares 
to address me personally! Drive her away, attendants,— 
put her as far from me as possible, from all contact or 
any means of getting near me. Carry out these orders, 
and make her keep silence— she must, at last, be made 
to yield to my regaJ authority! Go thy way with all 
possible speed; let me— it is time— remove hence this 
cruei, horrible nM)nslci\ 

Lines 179— mo] MEDEA. 417 


For what crime, for what fault, may I ask, am I to 
be punished with exile? 


What reason is there why I should drive thee away? 
An innocent woman could only ask me such a question 
as thatl 


If thou art officiating as a judge, let me know ; if thou 
art commanding because thou reignest, on the strength 
of that power I must obey thee. 


Thou wilt have to obey the authority of the king, no 
matter whether thou considerest the command just or 
unjust 1 


True I But the unjust exercise of power does not rest 
for ever with the dispenser thereof. 


Go away I Let Colchis be thy destination. 


I will return willingly, but let Jason escort me thither,— 
he who introduced me here. 


Thy remark comes too late under any circumstances: 
my irrevocable decree has gone forth. 


The man, or judge, who issues his decrees so freely 
without hearing the other side of the question, although 
he may by chance ordain what is right, \s ivo\. w:\xa^ 



ce. Auditus a te Pdia Aipplicium lulil. 
Sert fare, caufte detur locus. 
MB1I. Difficile quam fit animum a.b iia Iteiflcte 
Jam concitaluni; qnainque regale hoc pulct, 
Sceptris fuperbas quifquis sdmovit manus, 
Qua cojpit, ire; tcgia didici men. 
Quntnvts enim fim clade mireranda obruta, 
Eipulfn, fupplen, Tola, defeita, uniijque 
Afniifta; quoudani Dobili fuiri patrc, 
Avoque clonim Sale deduii genus. 
Quodcanque plauidis fleiibus Pballs rigal; 
Pontufque quidquid ScyOiicus a lergo vidct; 
Falullribus qua maria dulcefcunt aquis; 
Armata peltis quidquid eietcet cohorx 
IncluCa ripis vidua Tlierinodontiis: 
Hoc omac nodcr gcnitor imperio regil. 
Gcuerofa, felix, decote regnli potens 
Fulii. pclebaot tunc meos ihalamos pruci. 
Qui nunc peluQtur. tapida Forluna ac levis, 
Pneccpfque regno eripuit, exfilio dcdil. 
Confide regain, cum levis magaas opes 
Hue ferat & illuc cafu^ hoc reges babeat 
Magni^cum & ingens. nulla quod rupiat dies, 
Pn^eOe miferis, fapplices tido lare 
Protegere. folum hoc Colchico regno ewuli; 
Decus illud iogens, Grsecix florem iuclituui, 
Pralldia Acbivie genlis, & prolem Deflm 
- s eft Orpheus menm, 



Gerainumque muDus Caftor & Polluji 
Salique Boteai quiquc trcas Pontum i]uoqiie 
SummoU Lynceus lumiue iaimilTo videl ; 
Omnefque Miuyx. nam ducum laceo duccoi; 

Whs the punishment of Pelias awarded after » 

hearinj]" of both sides! But tell me, at once,— an o| 
unity IS now given thee of pleading to thut very egre, 

What a difficult thitij it is to divert the mind 
anger, when once 'a » tiWi to\i'«i«i.-.,'&v<;\«» iirfM 

Lines aoi-333] MEDEA. 4^9 

grasped the sceptre with his proud hands thinks that 
every thing he does is screened by his royal prerogative, 
and is inclined to persevere in the course which he has 
set himself to follow. (Medea here wishes to suggest that 
the now hearkening to the entreaties of a suppliant is a 
part of Creon's plan.) I gleaned the knowledge of this 
Fact from my observations in my own father's royal palace. 
Although I may be here at thy feet, ruined, utterly miser- 
able, through my downfall;— driven away as a suppliant, — 
a deserted wife— and, a fair target at every turn for any 
kind of affliction —I once shone forth myself as a cynosure 
in my noble father's palace, and I claim my illustrious 
descent from Phoebus himself, who is my grandfather! 
Whatsoever lands the Phasis washes witn its winding 
placid streams, of whatever countries the Scythian sea 
commands the view along its shores, wherever the bitter 
salt sea is tempered by the numberless marshy streams 
flowing into it as tributaries, and those plains, where the 
armed battalions of virgins, with their moon-shape shields, 
strike terror, whilst they throng the banks of the Ther- 
niodon-over all those vast stracts, does my father rule! 
I, of noble descent, with prospects of the brightest, shone 
forth, exercising considerable influence with my royal 
splendor, and then it was that suitors sought my hand 
in marriage (Jason) who in turn are now being sought 
for by others as sons-in-law (Creon). But fortune, ever 
fleeting and capricious, in a precipitate moment snatched 
me from my kingdom, and handed me over to exile! 
Put what trust thou likest in kingdoms, when thou ought 
to know how the most trifling mcident may carry here 
— remove yonder— at any moment those great advantages 
which kings enjoy! But there is one great and glorious 
privilege, which tings at all times possess, and which, 
as long as they are kings, no day can deprive them 
of, ana that is to do good to the wretched and fallen, 
and to provide safe surroundings (reliable Lares) for a 
suppliant. Think of the one treasure I brought from the 
kingdom of Colchis; my chief title to glory is to have 
brought safely with me that distinguished ornament,— 
the noble flower of Greece, the very safeguard of the 
Grecian nation, and the oflspring of the (iods (the 
Argonaut Heroes.) Orpheus, who charms the very rocks 
anci captivates the forest trees, is my gift, and the double 
present of Castor and Pollux emanated from my exertions, 
and the Sons of Boreas, and Lynceus, who, when he 
directs his keen eyes, sees things although they are at 
the bottom of the sea; and all those Thcssalian Minyai 
(companions of Jason in the Argonaul\c e"5iped\\\OTv^— lot 
I am sUent about the chief of all these lesidei^ ^^vj^soxC^, 

^H 430 

^^™ Vrn nnn nihi 



quo niliil debelur, hunc nulli imputo. 
Vobis revexL ceteros, unum tnihi. 
IncetTc nunc, * cutiifU flagilia iiigere; 
FatEbor. obici crimen hoc folum poled, 
Argo rererfa, virgini placeat pmlor. 
Paurigue placeat: loin cum ducibus ruet 
Pelafga tellus. hic tuus primum gener 
Tauii rerocia ore llammaDii occiileL 
FoTluni caufam, qua volet, Dollram premtiL 
Nod pfcoilct reivalTe tot regutn decus. 
Quodcunque culpa prxmiuro ex omni tuli, 
Hoc e(l penes te, fi placet, dimna ream: 
Sed redde crimen, tata nocens, fiUeor, Creo. 
Talem fciebas esse, cum genua Rtligi, 
Fiilemque fupplei: prxfidis deiltse petii. 
Terra nac miferiis nngulum A fedem rogo, 
Lntcbrofque viles. urlw li pelli placet, 
Delur lemotus aliqub in regnis locus, 
ex.. Non eHe me, qui Tceplra violenter gernm, 
Nee qui fuperbo mirerios cnlcem pcilc, 
Teilalus equidcm Tidcor baud cUre pamm, 
Geoerum exruleni legeudo, & afHiif\um, & gravi 
T^iore pavidum. qutppe te pcenx eipelil 
Lcloque Acaflus, regna Theffalica oblmen*. 
Seaio iremenlem debili atque ievo gravem 
Patrem peremtum querilur, & dfi Tenia 
DifcilTn membra; cum dolo caplx tuo 
Pis forores impium audcrenl Defas. 
Poled Jafoo, fi luiim cauram amoves, 
Suam tucri: nuUua innocuum cruor 
Contominavil. abfuit ferro manus, 
Proculque veftro punis a ccetu iletit 
Tu tu molarum macbinalrii facinorum, 
Cu! fcminea nequitia, ad audenduni omnia 
Viritc robuT, nulla famie memoria eft, 
Ei;redeie, putga rej^a; letoles llmul 

for bringing whom nothing is owing to me! T rhsT^ ' 
no one but myself for that iitt! I brought the others 
back in safety for thee— bim (Jason) 10 jilease myself!! 
Now set upon me, and heap up all things upon my 
shoulders, as crimes: I will confess to what is true, but 
can this solitary thing be thrown up in my teeth as 3 
crime? Suppose the Argonauts had met with a reverse 
and it had suited me belter, to have upheld the character 
of & virgin, and my wish had been to please my father; 
— aU the Pelasgion \and ■«o\i4 W-Jt. cntt« \o TMia, with 

Lines 934-^69] MEDEA. 421 

its noble leaders; first and foremost, thy intended son-in- 
law would have fallen a prey to the vomited flames of 
the ferocious bull I Fortune may deal even harshly with 
my case, if she likes, but I do not myself repent of 
having been the means of preserving the lives, the honor, 
the glory of so many noble heroes, the sons of kings! 
Whatever price I shall have to pav as the reward for all 
my crimes, this is a matter entirely in thy hands: there- 
fore, if it pleases thee, condemn me as a criminal, but 
give me back my crime in full (Jason). I plead guilty, 
Creon, I confess; thou knewest what I was when I 
genuflexed to thee and craved as a suppliant for that 
justice which is only expected in the fulfilment of a 
solemn pledge, and I now ask, in my hour of tribula- 
tion, only for a small comer and resting-place in this 
country,— any low hovel or hiding-place, but if it pleases 
thee only to expel me from tne city, pray let some 
remote spot be accorded me, so long as it is in thy 
kingdom 1 


I am far from being the man who wishes to wield his 
power with violent measures, nor am I one that can tread 
with a disdainful foot upon the misfortunes of any one ; 
indeed, I have that reputation, not wanting either in being 
borne out by one very clear proof, which is not making 
my son-in-law an exile, afflicted as he is, and always in 
dread of some grave disaster; for Acastus is on the look 
out for thee to oe punished for the murder of his father 
Pelias, trembling and feeble from advancing years and 
borne down by old age, and then at the Dody of the 
murdered old man being cut up in such a truculent 
manner, when the affectionate sisters, deceived by thy 
malignant arts, ventured to proceed with their impious 
task! (The daughters cut their father to pieces, having 
drawn off all the blood from the veins, on the assurance 
that Medea would replenish them by her incantations.) 
Could Jason defend his cause if thou art left out of the 
question?— he has never yet contaminated his hands with 
innocent blood, his hand has never used the sword in 
this way, for whilst all this was being done, he has always 
stood aloof— and at a distance from thy companionship — 
(from the midst of thy personal achievements) I No ; thou 1 
thou art the sole machinatrix of all these terrible crimes, 
thou whose wickedness as a woman is supplemented with 
that masculine strength which has endowed thee with the 
audacity to perpetrate such deeds— in fact, \.\\ow ^o'tX. tvqN. 
seem to have any consciousness of thy infamy \ Q»o ^o\^\ 



Tecum aufer herbas. libera civcs melu. 

Alia fedcns tellurc foUicila Deos. 

MED. Profugere cogiti? redde fugienli ralcm, 

Vel redde comilem. fugere cur folttm jubcs? 

Non fola veni. belli Si meluis pali, 

Ulnimque regno pclle. cur fonles duos 

Dinioguis? ilii Pelia, noD nobis jaceL 

Fugom, mpinnfque adice; defertum pBtrem, 

Laceruini)ue fmtem. quidquid eliamnum novas 

Dntel maiilus coojugcs, non eil meum, 

Tolies nocens Aim fa^a, feil nunquam mihi 

an. jam oifTe decuil. quid feris fando moras? 

MED. 5u[)plei lecedeas illud eslremum precor, 

Ne culpn nBlos mafcris infonles tmhal. 

CK. Vade, hos patemo, ut genilor. excipiam fmu. 

MED. Per ego aufpicalos rcgii thai an) i toros, 

Per rpcs fuluras, |>rrque regnorum (latus, 

Foitaoa varia dobia quos agital vice, 

t'tecor, brevem largirc fugientl moram, 

Pum excrenm nalis maler inligD ofcula, 

FonafTe tnoriens. CR. Fraudibus tempus peti«. 

MVD. Qluc fraus limeri tempore exiguo potrftP 

CR. Nullum ad uoceudum tempui angudum i-H mnlis. 

MCD. ParuRine mifcnc Icmporis lacrimis iM^nsf 

CR. EtG rcpugnal precibus infinas limori 

thee all thy poisoned herbs-rVee my subjects from any 
further alarms, and in some other counlry settle down, 
and tire out the Gods with thy enchantments,— thy iro" 
precations,~thy sorceries, if thou an anxious to do sol 


Thou orderesl me to flee: restore my Arsonaulic craft. 
or give me up my partner (Jason). Why dost thou order 
me to eo away alone? If thou fearcst to suffer fTDiu ftti 
the calamities of war. send us both out of the kingdom! 
Why dost thou make this unfair distinction between two 
criminals? Pehas was not killed for Jason only, but for 
l)oth of us conjointly I Ifen't forEet the flight, and add 
to that the robI>ery of the fleecel The desertion of S 
father and the dismemberment of a brother, and whatner 
a husband instructs his newly-married wife to do, is not 
certiiinly her affair onlyl I have often and often been 
"ifldc to be a criro'm3.\. \>m\ Tle^■ftT ^ot \w)sfii.^ i&htaI 


1 right thou shoiildsl go: why s 

One last thing a 
let the crimes of ; 
children I 


Go! I will cherish ihem, even as a falher, in my cWlt 
paternal bosom. 


I entreat thee by the auspicious marriage-bed involved 
in this royal marriage, by all the future hopes in which 
thou mayst indulge, arising therefrom— by ihe stability of 
thy throne which uncertam fortune often invades with 
her varying capricious "ups" and "downs", give me a 
short time to aelay my departure while I as a mother 
may imprint my last kisses upon my children's cheeks, 
before I go, pernaps to die! 

Thou art seeking to gain time, for s* 

What mischief can be feared from me. in so short a 


No time is too short to work out mischief for those 
that are evilly disposed. 

Thou wilt not, surely, deny a miserable creature s 
little lime for mourning her lotl 

resist thy entreaties, one entire day ; 
thee to prepare for thy departure. 



Unus paraoiio dnbinir eiliiio dies. 
MEO. Nimis efl; recidas allquid u illo licel. 
Et ipfa prop«ro. ch. CBpite fupplicmn ian, 
Clarus priufquam Phtebus alloUal diem. 
WiCi cedU Illhmo. Tacra me tholami voonC, 
Vocal precari feftus llymeaxo dies. 


AlUDAX nimium, qui freta primui 
Rate lom fmgili perfida nipil; 
TerraTque fuas pod terga videns, 
Acimain Icvibus crcdidJt auris; 
Dubioqtie feeaiis cequora curfu, 
Potuil tenui fdere ligno, 
luler vitie morlirque viaa 
Nimium gracili limite duiflo. 
Nondum quifquani fidem aorat; 
Steliifqiie, quibns pingilur aether, 
Nod erat ufus: nonduni ptuvios 
Hyodas poterani vitaie rales: 
Noo Olenia: ftdera capne: 
NoQ quie requitur lleAitque Tenei 
Ariflica tardus plauHra Bootes: 
Nonduni Horeas, noiidum Zepliyrut 
Nomen babcbanl, 
Aufus Tiphys pandere vafto 
Coibafa ponto, legefque novas 
Scribete venlis. nunc lino (inu 
Tctidcrc toto: nunc prolola 
Pcde tranrvcrfos captare Notos! 
Nunc aolenniLS medio tulas 
Poncre malo: nunc in fummo 
Religore loco, cum ism totos 
Avidus nimium navita flalus 

Thou wilt be punished with death, unless thou qai 
'vinlh before bri&hl VVvoibus *.\nc3> ta\ftv \o 

Lines 995—396] MEDEA. 425 

another day.—Comel— I am in a hurry, the marriage 
ceremonies demand my presence— a joyml occasion, like 
this, involves the suitaole prayers, vows and sacrifices to 
the God Hymenaeusl 


The Chorus inveighs against the boldness of navigators, 
and sings to the effect that the principal navigators 
(the Golden Fleece expedition) have reaped the reward 
they so richly deserved for their daringness ; singling 
out Medea. 

OH 1 thou too daring one, who first braved the dangers 
of the treacherous waves^ in a vessel so frail, and 
whilst still retaining in sight the land thou hadst 
left behind thee, and entrusted thy life even to light winds, 
and ploughing the sea, steering a doubtful course— how 
could any man rely on a thin plank, with so insignificant 
a margin between the journeys of life and deatnl Not 
as yet had any man learned anything about the stars, 
he nad never made any scientific use of the constellations 
with which the firmament is so thickly adorned, not as 
yet had his vessels been able to escape tne stormy Hyades, 
(noted for the rains and tempests they give rise to at 
their rising and setting), nor was that constellation, the 
Olenian sne-goat, understood (named from the town of 
Olenum in Achaia, at which place Jupiter was fed on 
goats* milk by Amalthea, who was subsequently made a 
constellation, Capella), nor was that slow-paced old waggoner 
Bootes known— the constellation that follows and guides 
the Arctic (Polar) Chariots— not as yet was Boreas or 
Zephyrus even known by any distinguishing name ; at last 
Tiphys ventured to spread his sails over the vast ocean, and 
to lay down laws, and to point out in what way the winds 
would be available for the navigator— at one time to know 
when to put all his ropes on the stretch (hauled taut) 
with the sails amply spread out (full sail), at another time 
when to avail himself of the south wind, blowing athwart 
ships, by drawing his wide-spread sail down to the lowest 
point, where it is fastened to the ship's side (the lower 
part stretched aft, so as to expose as much spread 
of canvas as possible, to the wind, as it was blowing 
amidships, but regulating all this with the rudder, hard to 
port or starboard, as the case might be, that is whether 
he was steering east or west), at another time, when to 
haul down the yards half-mast (under snu^ caxw^c^, >Xv^tv 
again^ running the yards up to the highesl pomV, nnV^tv 

nioK lepolitum. dedit ilia grava 
Improbo (XEiias, per Um longot 
Dofla timores: cum duo monies, 
Clanflra prorunJi, hiac atqae illii 
Kubilo impulfu, rdut ictherio 
Gcmercnl fonita; fpirgEfct aftia, 
Kubcfque ipfai more deprenfum. 
Pnlluit BUilai Tiphys, et manes 
Labenle muiu mifil liabcaas: 
Oqiheus lacuil torpealc lyra; 
Iplaque vocem pcrdidil Argo. 
Quidi cniD Siculi viieo " 
Rabidas atcro ruccioctm canes, 
Omnes paiitci fulvil hiatus, 
(iu'a noa lolos horrait nrius, 
Tolies UDO lalranle malo? 
Quid! cum AufoniuiD dine pi 
Voce coDorn mue mutcereDl 
Cum Fieiia reronans citbm 
Thtacius Orpheus folitam canto i 
Relinere ratei p;cne coegil 
Sirena fequi! quod fuit huius 
Prclium cuirus? aurea pdli.s; 
Majufque mari Medea malum, 
Merccs prima digna Carina 
Nunc jam cellit puntus, & omi 
Palitur leges, non Palladia 
Compn^n manu regum refc 
InJiUi rcuios quxrilur Argo. 

lines 3«7-3fi7] MEDEA. 42? 

unsophisticated times, avaricious fraud being the last thing 
thought of. Every man, then, relying on ease and peace 
(as his summum oonum) kept close to his own shores, and 
did so, till he became old, confining himself to his fields 
and plains, rich with the little he possessed : he knew not, 
therefore sighed not for, any more wealth than what his 
own native soil afforded him I ITie Argonauts in the 
Thessalian Pine (The Argo) attempted the task of uniting 
what the far-seeingness of creation had wisely kept 
apart, and orderea the oars to be plied with vigorous 
strokes upon the surface of the ocean, and the sea was 
then selected to be made the fruitful factor of dread and 
forebodings, and the ship, Argo, brought upon us grievous 
sufferings, already having conducted its voyage through 
so many sources of alarm.— When the two mountains, 
one here, the other there, closing in the Euxine sea, 
driven together by a sudden collision, sound like a clap 
of thunder (from the sudden displacement of the air) and 
scatter the sea, which is forced upwards, into very clouds, 
towards the skies (by the same sudden displacement) — 
the bold Tiphys grew pale, and let go the helm from 
his feeble hands— Orpheus became silent and his lute 
was dumb —and Argo, herself lost her voice (from dread). 
(The Argo was said to have been prophetic, communic- 
ative and oracular, like the Dodonean Oak, in which 
were two hen doves, which gave responses. Some of the 
beams of the Argo were constructed of this oak, from 
which wood was derived her oracular power of warning 
those on board of her against approaching calamities!) 
What is this? They are all wonoering, when the virgin 
of the Sicilian Pelorus presents herself! (Scylla the 
daughter of Phorcus,) surrounded by her girdle of rabid 
dogs, and she causes them all to bark at one time 1 Who 
would not have trembled all over his body, at such a 
phenomenon? What next to relate? When the dreadful 
pests, the Sirens, were charming the Ausonian Sea with 
their melodious strains, the Thracian Orpheus gave 
forth the sweet sounds from his Pierian Harp (given to 
him by his mother Calliope), and he almost compelled 
the bewitched Sirens to follow the Argo— those very 
Sirens who had always been accustomed to attract other 
navigators with their music, and detain their ships! And 
what was to be the crowning reward of all this?— the 
golden fleece, and Medea, a greater calamity than the 
sea itself, certainly a reward worthy of the first ship that 
had ever rashly put to sea! Now the sea is brought 
under control, and obeys all the recognized rules of 
seamanship! No illustnous Argo built by the VvslTv^'Si oi^ 
Minerva is now required with kings to \v\aTv Qcv^xvC\^ 

Qiudibel »ltoin cymba pereriBt, 
Timninus omob motns, & urbcs 
Miuos terra pofuere nova. >^ , 
Nil, qua fuerat fcdc, reliqail 
Perviui oibis, 

ladux getidum potat Araxrm: 
Albim Perfic Rhenumque bibunt. 
Vcniciit annis fecula feris, 
Quibus Occanus viocula rerun. 
Laxcl, & iagrns pateat lellus, 
Telhyr<[uc U0V05 delcfial orbes, 
Ncc fit tcrrii ullima Tbule. 



celeiem quo I'apil teiflU pcdcn 
RefiHe, & iras com|ir1ine, oc reUne impelum. 
loccrta qualis entheos curfus tulil. 
Cum jaiD recepto Mxnai infanit Deo, 
Piudi nivalis vertice, ant Hytx jugis; 
Talis rccurfat hue & hue molu eftero, 
Furoris ore figna lyinphati gerens. 
nammala focies tpititum ei nlto cilaE. 
Proclamat : oculos uber! Iletu rigat. 
Renidct. omnis rpecimen affcftus capil; 
Hicret, minatur, Klluat, qneritur, gemit. 
tjuo pondus animi vergcl? ubi poocl minasf 
Ubi le l(\e Ductus fnmgct! exunilat furor. 
Non facile Tecum vcrfnt aut medium fcelus. 
Be vincetr irx novimus veleres notas. 
Magnum aliquid iullat. effenim, itnmaiie, impium. 
Vullum furoris ccmo. Uii fallnnt melum! 

the o:irsl Any vessel can now sail about on the 
Old landmarks liave disappeared, and cities inclose 1 
selves with walls, upon fresh, newly-discovered li 
The world, universally traversable, has left no 
in that place, in which it was originally found I 
swarthy Indian sips the cooling streams of the Alaxii 

Unes 368-396] MEDEA. 429 

roll onwards, in which the ocean will remove the impedi- 
ments which now retard human affairs, and a new earth 
will be opened up to mankind, and the votaries of Tiphys 
(followers of the sea) will discover fresh worlds, ana the 
present Thule (that island in the Northern Ocean) will 
not be the Ultima Thule in future worlds 1 



Medea rushes headlong towards the execution of her 
revenge, the niu^e dissuading her from her projects, 
but in vain. 


Oh! Nurseling, why pacest thou about the house so 
excitedly? Do not give way thus, but control thy 
passion and curb thy impetuousness I As when the 
Maenad (Bacchanal) becomes furious, from the influence she 
receives from the God, on the summits of snowy Pindus, 
or mountain-tops of Nysa, and just as she might have 
followed up wildly her inspired movement, so hither and 
thither Medea runs to and fro in a similarly wild manner, 
and revealing in her expression the look of maddened 
fury; her flushed face shows that she is drawing her f 
breath hard, (from the lowest parts of her lungs)— she j 
cries, and her eyes are overflowing with the tears arising 
out of her temper 1 She then brightens up on a sudden 
— laughs— in fact every passing mental mood takes its 
turn, as it is uppermost, (at one time pleased with the 
hope of carrying out her revenge, at another, anger at 
her past thwarted aspirations). She seems, one minute 
to hesitate as to what she should do, then she begins to 
threaten, shaking her head,— then storms furiously,— wails 
and groans! To what end will this weight of mental 
pressure lead? Upon whom will she wreak her threatening 
anger? When will that tempestuous wave of passion 
exhaust itself? Her anger is now at an overflowing neight! 
I am certain she is not meditating within her mind any 
ordinary or moderate scheme of revenge 1 She will surpass 
herself! I am well acquainted with some of her past 
and gone bursts of anger, but something, I am positive, 
is now brewing that is dreadful, something on a large 
scale— something truly impious ! I see fury marked on 
her countenance! May the Gods above otvX'j uxvA.^c€\n^ 
me as to my apprehensions, that is alU 



MF.ri. Si quTris odio, mifera, quem llaluas uiodum, 
Imilarc amoinn, regias egon' nt faces 
iDulia patiar? fegnis hie tbit dies, 
TaDIo petitus ambini, UaM dntus? 
Dum terra coelum medio, libmtum Terct, 
Nilidurcjue certas mnndiis evolvet vices, 
Nuiiierufi[ue arenii dcerit, & folem dies, 
Noiflim fequenlur atlta; dum ficcas polns 
Verfabil Anflas; fliimtna in ponlum cadeot; 
Nuiiquam meat celTabit in ptcnas furor, 
Ccefcctque femper. qu?? fcrarum immanitas, 
Qnx Kcylla, qua: Oiarybdis, Aafonium maie 
Siculumque forbens, qiucque anheliDlem ptetnem 
Titino, lantis Muv^ fervercit minisJ 
Noa rapidus omuis, nan procelloruni mace, 
Ponlufque Coro f^vus, aat Tia igniuni 
Adjula Ratu, poffil inliibeve impetum 
Irnfque noflrns, fternam & evcrtam omnia. 
^^ Tirouit Creonlcm, nc bclla TheffalicL ducis? 

^^t Amor timere neiuiDem vcnis poIelL 

^^M Sed celTerit coaflus, & dederil miiiius; 

^^M Adire ccrtc, & conjugem e\Ii'emo alloqui 

^^M Scrmone poluil; hoc quouuc entimuil fcrui. 

^^B Laxare eerie tempus imnillis Ingae 

I ' 



Gencro liccbat. liberis u 

Dutus duohui. non queror lempas breve: 

Multum patehit. faciei, hie faciei dies, 

Quod nullus unquatn laceai. invadoin Detii, 

Et cunfla qualiam. nutr. Kecipe turbatum malis, 

Ilcra, peiHus. animacn miliga. ued. Sola elt quits 

' la cnnfla C video ubruta. 
>Tecum omnia abeanL [mbere, cum perens, libel. 
\, Quani multa fml limcada, fi perHas, vide. 
Nemo pulentes aggredi lulus pnled. 


MEDEA (/o hentif). 
If thou wishes!, oh my miserable self, to decide what 
limits thou shouldsl impose upon thy justly-evoked 
hatred, take iis a guide the inordinate amount of love 
thou hast wasted, and follow that! Shall I for one 
moment endure unrevcn^ed the sight of this royal marriage 
rivalling my own legitimate [iretensions? Shall this 
lay then be spent to an idle purpose;— sought 
for with so much importunity, granted by Crcon with 
such great reluctance I Whilst this earth of ours continues 
to be poised in (he heavens, and whilst the world of 
shining constellations continues to show themselves ni 
certain recurring seasons, and as long as the sands 
on the sea-shore continue as they are,— numberless -and 
as long as the bright day appears a^ soon as Phtcbus 
peeps above the horiiQn,an4T»\o'Q%*i'i«;'ttasK«oiuinu© 

Lines 397 — 430] M£0£A. 

to show themselves with the advent of night, and so long 
as the polar heavens regulate the movement of the Nor- 
thern Bear, and preserve it, in its siccity (the Bears 
are called "siccae*, or dry, as they never set), and so 
long as the tidal rivers nnd their way back to the sea, 
never will my thirsty rage cease to urge me on to inflict 
the punishment I am now contemplating, and, what is 
morej it will only increase in its intensity! What savage 
ferocity of the wild beastSj—what Scylla— what Charybdis. 
swallowing in their irresistible gulfs the Ausonian and 
Sicilian seas,— what -^tna, whicn pressed down with its 
weight the panting Titan (Enceladus), ever bums so 
vividly or so much as my flaming anger? Not the 
rapidly flowing river— not the tempestuous ocean, nor 
the sea raging from the violence of the East wind, nor 
the heat of the flames fanned into intensity by the wind 
playing upon them, could possibly restram tne force of 
my anger] I will scatter and overthrow every thing in 
my path! Am I silly enough to believe that Jason goes 
in any fear of Creon, or the threatened warlike invasion 
of Acastus, the Thessalian King? No I— True love can 
never ]>e made to fear any one 1 But let us suppose that 
he may have yielded under compulsion and surrendered 
his authority in the matter, he mignt have come to me, that 
is certain, and spoken a few last parting words to his wife ! 
But, does he, although fierce enough on other occasions, 
fear to do even this r It was auite within the power of a 
son-in-law to relax the cord and give me a little more time 
for my flight 1 One entire day is set apart to bid my child- 
ren good-bye 1 I do not complain of the shortness of the 
time, but much lies before me, for my accomplishment— 
this day shall do it, and may it be done thoroughly! 
Considering that no one can be depended on for silence, 
I will appeal direct to the Gods, but I will put every thing 
in motion, as low down as Acheron, if needs be 1 


Oh my mistress, rid thyself of a mind so disturbed 
by evil passions, do calm thy temper. 


There can be only one rest for me, to see everything that is 
opposed to me fall utterly in one common ruin, together with 
myself— it is pleasing to know, when one perishes oneself, 
that one is dragging others into destruction at the same time. 


Consider how many contingencies are to be dreaded, 
if thou wilt persist; no one can attack the mW 2txvd \>o\<^\ 
of a kin^ with impunity. 



Jaroneni, gnivatim defercDlem, feque exmranlem, aggriBlilv 
Mectea opprobiis, prccihus, fimulata cODcilialiottc 



K fola fenipeT, & toifem nlpeiam, 
i^nm i:cvii, oc cum pare!', ex nxjuo auilnm! 
Remedia lolies iovcnit nobb Deus 
Periculis pcjora? £ vellem fidein 

Pncltare caeritis coniPgis, leto full 435 

Caput ofTereaduin : li morl nolim, Gde 
Mifera carendum ell. non tiioor vicil virum, 
Scd trepida pietas. quippe feqaereCur neccni 
Proles parentura o fanrfta, fi cceluin iucolis, 

lullilia, numen invoco ac teftor luum. 440 

Nat! palrciD vicere. quia ipfani quoquc, 
Etfi ferox ell corde, nee patieas }ugi, 
Conrulere ualis molle, quam thalunis, reor. 
Cooftituit auimus precibus irnum aggrtdi, 

Alque ccce, vifo mcmet, enfiluit, furtL 445 

Fert odia pne fe, lolus in viUlu ed dulor. 
MPJ}. Fugimus, Jafon, tugimns. hoc non efl oovDin, 
Mulare Celts, can fa fugiendi nova eft. 
Fro te folebam fugere. difcedo, exeo. 

Penatibus profugere quam cogis luU, 450 

Ad quos reminisr Plialin & Colchos pelnm, 
ratriumque regnum, quxque fralemua cnior 
PcrfudiL hiva: quas peli teiras Jubrs? 
QuK maria mouftras- Pontici fauces freli? 

Per quas revexi oobiles tegum manus, 4J5 

Adultenim fecuta per Sympldgados > 
ParvamDe lolcou, TbelTala an Tempe petoiu? 
Quafcuuque aperui tibi vias, clufi mihi. 
Quo me remitlis? exfuli F^rjlium imperas, 
Nee das. eolui. regtus jufllt geaer. 460 


Medea attacks Jason with violent reproaches for deserting 
her 3i]d excusing himself, and then at his entreaties. 

pretends 10 be conciliated. 


On I ye Fates ahvaj's severe, oil the bitter condition 
of tny own lot, equally so in its results, whether it 
is accorded as an angry visitation, or whether it is 
intended to be an act of clemency! How often does 
the Deity devise remedies for us, which are more disa^ 

Lines 43x-4<o] MEDEA. 433 

ameliorate 1 (For example.) If I wish to manifest mv 
fidelity towards the reasonable claims of a wife, my life 
woula be demanded as the sacrifice 1 If I should not 
feel disposed to die in this manner, I should be taunted 
with not holding to my unfortunate vows (in another 
quarter), and it would not be that this arose from any 
lack of manl^r spirit, but simply the anxious affectionate 
love 1 entertain for my children ; for the offspring would 
be sure to have to undergo the fate of the parent! Oh 
holy Astraea I (Goddess of Justice) if thou art still to be 
found in the heavens, I invoke thee and call to my aid 
thy divine assistance! The love for my children has 
compelled me to elect to live, and I suppose that Medea 
herself, although she is of a naturally ferocious disposi- 
tion, would rather consult the interests and welfare of 
her children, than trouble her head any more about this 
marriage business 1 At all events, I have made up my 
mind to approach her with my intercessions, however 
angry I may find her I 

(This as she is coming here.) Ah I Behold! Here 
she comes, and directly she catches sight of me, she 
jumps about, and becomes frantic! She is really exceed- 
ing herself in her hatred, and anger shows up in every 
lineament of her visage! 


Jason, I am sent into exile,— I shall flee,— such a thing 
as changing my habitat is no new thing to me, but the 
reason Tor m^ doing so now is rather a novel one. 
Formerly I exiled myself, for thy sake, and to avoid an 
angry father, and again to get out of the way of Acas- 
tus.— I am leaving this country and I go as an exile: 
how is it that thou compellest me to fl^ ^^"^ ^^7 tutelar 
Penates? To whom art thou consigning me? Shall I 
have to seek Phasis or Colchis— and my father's king- 
dom, and the country where my brother's blood was 
spilled? What land dost thou command me to seek? 
\vhat seas canst thou point out? The straits of the 
Euxine, through which I once conducted back, in safety, 
the noble troop of kings (the Argonauts). I followed the 
adulterous Jason across die Symplegadae, or shall it be 
the unpretentious lolchus, or shall I seek out the Thessa- 
lian Tempe? Now all these places, which I have brought 
to thy notice are closed to me! (I have made ray owu 
country and Thessaly hostile to me)— where dost thou 
mean to send me? Thou orderest me to be exiled, but 
thou dost notprovide me with a place of eyWeX \-.e\.\\. 
be so theni The Royal son-in-law has onVy lo co\ivn\2Xv^, 




Nihil teeufo, dira fuppUcia ingere; 

Merui- cruenlU pclUcem pcEDii preoiAt 

Rcgnlis in, vinculU cmeret uumos, 

Cluramqu« faio noiftis xUmx obriitt; 

Minora (nCTitis patinr. ingnktum caputt 

RtTolvnl sDimus jgneos uuri halitus, 

luleique fa^vos gentU indomitx meto^ 

Armifcro in aivo flammcum .^l» pecns, 

Hcinirque riibiii lela: cum juflTu meo 

lenigeoa miles mutun cxde occidiL 

Adice expelita fpolia Phrtxei Brietis, 

Somno<iue julTum lumina ignolo dare 

iDfonuie monrirum: traditum frntrein li«ci; 

Et fcelere in una dod feme! (a^uin fcelusj 

JuFTasque tiatas fraude deceplas mea, 

Seeare rocmbni non rcviifluri fenis. 

Alieoa qucereni regna, defenii mea. 

Per fpes tuonim liberflm, 8c ccrtum larem. 

Per viifta monftra, per nianas, pro te quiliiis 

Nunquam peperci, perque pmleritiM mctus, 

Per cielum, & undoi, conjugii lelles inei, 

Mifertre: redde Cupplici felii viccm. 

Kk opibus illis^ quns procul raptu S«yt1ue 

Usque a peniHis Indise populis pelunl, 

Quas quia rcferta vii domus eaios Capit, 

Ornamus aur<} DetnorB. oil cxml tult, 

Nifi fratris onus, hos quoque impendi tibl. 

Tibi patria cetfit, [ibi pater, fnler, pudur. 

lioc dote nQpfi. ledde fugient fun. 

JAS. Perimere cum le vellet infeflus Creo, 

Lacrimis meis evifhis, eifilium dedil. 

USD. Prenam pulabumj munus, at video, ell fuga. 

JAS. Dum licet abire, profuge, leque hiuc eripe. 

and it is I, who cannot refuse to obey— heap on me 
most cruel punishments, if thou likest— I deserve it 
— let Creon's royal anger, too, oppress me with the 
merciless penalties, just as if I were some common 
cubine-let him load my hands with chains, and 
me out from the world, hidden away in some Scyt 
cave, surrounded by perpetual darkness— I shall s 
less than I deserve, thou mayst think, oh I thou unf 
fill man (alluding to her acts towards her father, mi 
and Pclias). Does thy memory take thee back, Jasc 
the flames, breathed forth by the Bull? and, whei 
posed to the savage terrors of that indomitable ra 
ferocious troop, which sprang up already armed 
plains of i^eta, and when the darts of that sudd 
arriving enemy were threatening thee, and how, ; 
command, those eat&\iota wi\S\ex% ^cW citie after the 

Lines 46x^493] MEDEA. 435 

fighting amongst AemselvesI Add to this, that much 
coveted prize, the Golden Fleece of the Pnrixean rami 
and how I caused, by my enchantment, that draconian 
monster, which had never before known what sleep was, 
to be brought under the influence of my Lethaean sopori- 
fic I How, too, my brother was handed over to deaUi, 
and each crime committed by me, but not simultaneously, 
is now to be quoted as one crime, my crime 1 And when 
the daughters of Pelias, cajoled by my deceitful machin- 
ations, were ordered to cut up the body of their ancient 
father who was never to live again, as I had promised 
he should ; all this was when I was seeking another king- 
dom, (for thee) and deserting my ownl 1 conjure thee, 
Jason, by the hopes thou ma^st entertain regarding any 
children bom to thee^ by Creusa,— by the security of 
thy domestic surroundmgs,— bv the monster I have con- 
quered for thy benefit, by tnese very hands of mine, 
which have never spared themselves where thou wert 
concerned, and by the past dangers from which I have 
rescued thee,— by the heavens above— by the waters 
below, the witnesses of my marriage, have some mercy 
on me, and thou, in thy prosperity, do me, a suppliant, 
a good turn in m^ adversity 1 Out of all the wealth, which 
the remote Scythians seek out for plunder, as far even 
as the countries inhabited by the parched-up swarthv 
Indian, and which our palace, so overloaded is it, will 
scarcely contain, that we positively ornamented our trees 
with gold (the Golden Fleece used to hang from the 
branches of an oak) — as an exile, I brought none of these 
things, nothing but the limbs of a murdered brother. 
I lay these entirely to thy account— My country was 
given up for thee— my father— my brother— my maidenly 
shame 1 I married thee having these as my dowry, re- 
turn them to me, as I am about to enter upon my exile 1 


When Creon wished for thy death, prevailed on by my 
tears, he conceded the alternative of exile. 


I thought exile was intended as a punishment, now I 
am to regard it in the light of a valuable gift 1 


Take my advice, whilst thou art able to get away, but 
take flight, and get thyself hence — The angei oi Vlycv^^ \^ 
always a difficult thing to deal with. 



Gravia iru regutn eft semper. UEO. Hoc fuadcs mllii, 

Prspllas CreuSx, pellicem iDvifom amoves. 

JAS. Medea amoies obicitP MED. Et ccedEin, & dolos. 

JAS. Objicere crimen quod potes tarnUm mihi? 

HED. QuodcuBque feci. JAS. Redat hoc uddid iufujier 

Tuis ut etiam fceleribiis fiim □□ceas. 

MEO. Tna ilia, luu TuDt ilia, cui prodrfl Tcelus, 

Is feciL omnes eonjuyem iiifamcm orguBnt; 

Solus lucre, folus infontem voca. 

Tibi innocens fit, quifquia cH pro Ie nocens. 

]A5. IngTBla Vila efl, cujos accepts pudel. 

MED. Retineada nun efl, cujus acceptac pudet. 

JAS. Quid polius ira concilum pcAuK doraa. 

Placore natis. MED. Abdico, ejuro, abnuo. 

Meis Creufa liberis fratres dabit! 

JAS, Regina natis exfuluio, afHJ^is patens. 

MED. Nod veaiu luiquam tam malua miCeris did, 

Qui prole fceJa mifceat prolem inclilami 

Phcebi aepotes Sifyphi Depotibua. 

JAS. Quid, mifera, meque teque in ciilium liahis? 


Dost thou really persuade me to do this— Thou prere. . 
thy beloved Creusa, and want to have me moved away 1 
as an objectionable rival or some cast-otf mistressi 


Does Medea object so much then to my amour 


What is the crime, after ail, with which ihou wishesi 

to charge me? 


With whatever I have been induced to comm 


Furthermore, this one thing remains, in which thou J 
still persistest that 1 am to be viewed u a < 

account of thy crimes ! 

The}' are thine— they are all thine, certatnly; he virtu- 
ally commits a crime, who is an accessory before the 
fact, and who gladly partalces of the proceeds of a crime I 
Suppose then, that every one points to thy wife and 
brands her with infamr, thou art the only champion 
who is bound to defenci her, and the only one bound to 
call her innocent 1 Whoever is acting in thy interests, in 
a criminal capacity, deserves, at least some claim for 
innocence at thy hands I 

> has cause to blush 


Thcn_ life needs no longer to be retained, when the 

blushing fit supervenes ! 

Bui, really, is It not rather desirable for thee to restrain 
the anger raging in thy heart, and to quiet thyself for 
the sake of the children i 

I renounce Ihem— I resign them,— I utterly repudiate 
them [ Will not Creusa furnish brothers for my children ? 

Never shall such a miserable day as that arrive for ' 
me, when my illustrious progeny, the grandsons of a 
Phcebus, shall be huddled together with the ignoble / 
descendants of a Sisyphus! / 

Why, miserable woman, dost thou wish to drag me into 
exile wiUi thyself? Go away, I beseech fti«. 


Abfcede, quiefo. MED. Supplicem andiTit Creo. 

jAs. Qui'l rneere poflim, eloqaere. med. Pro me? vcl fct-lus. 

JAS. Hinc rex, & illinc. MEO. Efl & his nmjai mciu;;, 

Medea, nos coafligere certerauB; fine, 

Sit prelium J&Can. jAS. Cedo defefliis malis, 

Et ipfa eafus facpe jam cxpe'tos time 

MED. FortuDft temper omnis intra me (letit. 

JAS. Acaftus ioflat, propior efl hoftis Creo. 

MED. Utnimque profuge. nolo ut in focerum maniis 

Annes^ ncc ut te ciedc cognala inquinea, 

Medea cogiL innocens roEcum fuge. 

JAS. El quis refiftet, ^mina fi bella ingnunt? 

Creo atque Acaflus arma fi junganl fua! 

MKD, His adice Colchos, adjicc Mttta ducem, 

tcythas Pelafgis junge. demerfos dabo. 

JAS. Alia eitimefco fceplra. MED. Ne cnpias, vide. 

JAS. Sufpeifla ne fitit, lunga colloquia ainpula. 

MED Nunc fummc loto Jupjiiter «e1o wna. 

Intende deitram. vindices finmmas para, 

Omnemque niptis nubihixs mundum quale: 

Nee diligent! tela librentur manu. 

Vcl me, vcl ifluro; quirquis e nobis cadet, 

Nocens peribiL non poteft in nos tuum 

Even Creon listened to me as a suppliant 


What can I do? Explain thyself fiilly. 


For me! Everythingi Any crime even I 

Two kings are against us— Creon here -and Acasius 
yonder I 


If the truth he known, Medea is a greater source of 
dread lo tliem, than they are lo herl Lci me enter the 
lists, single-handed, for uiir joint benefitl. I cm fight,— 
let me do so,— and Jason shall be the reward of my 

victory 1 


I acknowledge in>'self dead-beaten,— with troubles, — 
thoroughly worn out, and thou, thyself, hadst belter go 
in dread of repealing yjmc at \i.^ o\4 ex^erimenu 

Lines 5x4-536] MEDEA. 439 


Fortune, hitherto, has always been at my feet I 


Acastus is on the march, and the other enemy, Creon, 
is nearer I 


Let us fly together; I am unwilling to arm my hands 
against any father-in-law, nor does Medea urge, by any 
means, that Jason should soil his hands with the olooa 
of his kinsman. Fly then, with me, and thou wilt be 
innocent of such deeds I 


And who could resist such a force, if a double war be \ 
entered upon, as it were, if Creon and Acastus were to J 
join their armies 1 


Now think of the Colchian battalions— now think of the 
generalissimo of JEtXSi, witfe^ his army, and then add to 
them the Scythian and Gr^an contingents,— why, I 
would drive tne enemy into the sea with these. 


I really fear the terrible power appertaining to the sceptrel 


Rather consider whether it is thou art hankering after 
it thyself I 


Lest we may excite suspicion by this long interview, 
let me suggest that our conversation should come to a close. 


Now, oh 1 mighty Jupiter, thunder forth throughout the 
entire heavens— Stretch forth thy right hand, prepare thy 
avenging lightnings, and shake up the whole universe, 
as thej dispel the clouds with their violence, nor let thy 
lightnmgs De delicately balanced for any defined aiml 
It does not matter, let them strike either myself or Jason, 
whichever of the two might happen to fall, a culprit will 
be sure to perish therefrom, so tnat thy lightnings can mako. 
no mistake, a3 to the one upon whom iW^ ^\vov\^ 'sX\^^\ 

* «•- 


Emu'e filmea. JAS. Sana meditari incipe, 
Et placitia fart, Ti quid » Toceri ilomo 
Potell fugam levaie, folamen pete. 
MED. Conlemncre animna regiiiE. u( fcis, opts 
Poled, foletque: Liberos tantum fugx 
Habere comiles liceat, in quonira finu 
Lacrimal pTofuodnm. te novi nati manenl. 
JAS. Parere precibus cuperc me, faleor, tuis; 
Pieta<! velat. namqae iSiud ut poffim pati, 
Non ipfe nicmcl cogal & cei, & focer. 
Hkc caufa vilae eft, hoc perufti peiflorii 
Curis levamea. fpinta cittus queam 
Carere, membris, luce. MED. Sic natos amnl? 
Bene efl. lenetur. vulneri potuit locus. 
Saprema ceite liceal abcunCem loqui 
MaDdaCn. liceat nltimum lunplexam dare. 
Gralum eft & illud. Voce jnm exirema fcto, 
Ne li qua noiler dubius efrudit dcplor, 
Manennt in BDimo verba: nielioris tibi 
Memotin nollri fubeal. tuec irj data 
Obliterenlur. JAS. Omnin ex animo expuU. 
Precorquc, & ipfa rerridam ut mentem regas, 
Placideque Inicles. loijerias Icnil quies. 
MtCti. Dirceflit itan' eflF vadis oblltus mei, 
El lot meonim faeinoium? eicidimus tibi' 
Nilnquam excidemus. boc age, omnes advocit 
Vires & artes. ftrnflu* eft fcelerum libi, 
Nullum fcelui pulate. vix fraudi eR locus. 
Timemur, hac aggiedcre, qua nemo poleft 
Quldquam limerc. perge. nuac aude, incipe, 


Now do begin to meditate reasonable thitiE?, and speak 
of more pleasant topicS| and, if anvthina can he done to 
ligliten the blow of having to quit inc palace of ihe father- 
in-law,— seek my aid. 

My disposition, as t!iotifiiU well knowest, isacoistomed, 
and can afford, to despise royal assistance— only let 

me have my children 
whose bosoms I i 
tears. Fresh chlldr 

. companions in my exile, upon 
occasionally shed my maternal 
fill remain' for thee, the gifts of 

I freely confess, thai I should be willing to comi>ty 
with iby wishes in ihai tesyita, Wv tai own alTcctioo for 

Lines S37-5««] MEDEA. 441 

my children would forbid such a thing I And not even 
a Kin^ or a father-in-law would compel me to do what 
I coula not under any circumstances permit myself to do! 
My children are now the chief object of my life, the only 
solace to a heart burnt up with carking care! I could 
give up the very breath I draw with greater willingness 
—my own miserable body would rather deny itself the 
very light of heaven. 


So I seel He dearly loves his children I I have him 
there at all events. I know, now, where to strike my 
blow ! (this said to herself). Surely. I might be allowed to 
say a few parting words to my children, before I go, and 
be permitted to give them a last embrace, that mdeed 
would be a great consolation, and I ask for that favor 
most eamestiYy and if any undue or unintentional anger 
has been manifested on my part, let what I have said in 
my excited state of mind be regarded as empty words, 
in fact, unsaid, and let thy memory hark back to kinder 
things, as regards myself, let what could be imputed to 
anger be entirely forgotten. 


I have banished all these things from my mind, and I 
entreat thee henceforward to control thy hasty temper, 
and deal with things in a calm spirit— Rest is a marvellous 
sedative to the troubled mind. 


He has gone I And is this the way he goes? Thou, 
Jason, go away I And I am simply to pass out of thy 
memory as well as the many dreaduil deeds I have done 
in thy behalf I I am forgotten by thee, eh! But I will 
never be forgotten by thee, nevertheless! Now, set to 
work, Medea; call to tny aid all thy resources, and magical 
arts,— thus, this is the climax of all the crimes that I 
have committed for thee, to have arrived at this conclusion, 
—that nothing I can do now can be viewed in the light 
of a crime ! 

But there is scarcely any opportunity now for any 
of my experimental jugglery. 1 am suspected,— I am 
watched,— let my plan of attack be devised m ^>\c\v ^ 
mode that no one can possibly suspect aiv^vYvm^. V^V 



Quidquid potcs, Medea, quLdquid nan poles. 
Tu, Hda nutrix, Cocm moions mei, 
Variique cafus, mirera coDlllia adjuva. 
EH palla nobis, munus xtherice domus, 
Dccufque regiii, pignus lEetie datnoi 
A Sole generis, ell & auro lexlili 
Monilc kilgena; qaodque gemmBrum nitor 
Dininguit aurum, quo roleat cingi comae. 
Hm; Donta naii dona nubenti fetant, 
Sed ante diris ilUtn ac linfla aitibut. 
Vocetur Kecate. facra luAifica appara. 
Staluantur ane, flamma jam teiflis foiict. 


Canil Chorus, Rejiclit axon ijvol amart Retorts fi>H»te^ ^a/unifui 
/urtni giiii/ ffmina pBsiel, & cum cxreri AtgOQnulX pocons 
deder[Dl violati marii, JaJoDi bene precatut. 


s flninm*, tnmidique venti 
Tania, nee leli metuenrta toKJ: 
Qnwita, eum copjuit vidHota tmlis 

Ardet & odiL 

Non ubi hibemOB nebulofns irobres 
Aullcr ndvexit; properalque loirens 
Ifler, & Juniflos velat elTe pontes, 

Ac vagus eiraL 

Non ubi impellit Rhodanus prafundum; 
Aut ubi in rivo) nivibiis fululis 
Sole jam foiti, medioque vere 

Tabu it llj^mui. 

Qecus e(l ignis ftimulalus ira. 
Nee regi curat, patilurve frenos. 
Hand limel mortem, cupiC ire in ipfos 


Parcile, o Divi. veni.ini precamur. III tutus, mare lui Tuiiccil. 
Sed ruril viuci iloniinus prufundi 

Kegna fecuDda. 

Aufiis n.'tetTias agitare cumis 
ImmemoT mctiB juvcnis palern^, 
Quos pulo fpaHiS) furiufus i^nes 

me proceed, at once, let nie dare any deed, and lei n 
now [jeginl ' 

'i'huu, my fuilh(u\ nuisc, cww^iviwa va qvj i 

Lines 5£7-6<»] MEDEA. 443 

and sharer in my various aspects of fortune, assist me 
in carrying out my wretched projects 1 Thou knowest, 
there is a cloak of mine, the gill to our celestial family, 
and the proud heirloom of our dynasty, a token given to 
iEeta by Phoebus, to commemorate his lofty descent; 
there is also a neck-ornament, interwoven with gold 
embroidery, and another article, a chaplet which I used 
to wear round mv head, and in which the brilliant gems 
show off the gold to great advantage I The sons shall 
bear these presents from me to th^ bride, as my especial 
wedding gifts, but let these presents oe dipped and 
impregnated beforehand with my destructive preparations, 
ana got ready for their fatal purpose: then Hecate must 
be invoked 1 Let me prepare the funeral sacrifices— let 
the altars be got ready, and may the palace resound with 
the alacrity of the flames, as they play before the altar. 


The Chorus sings of the inordinate anger entertained 
by a cast-on wife at her thwarted love, and what a 
furious woman is capable of to make it felt, and 
whilst the rest of the Argonauts have suffered punish- 
ment for having infringed the sanctity of the sea, 
Jason is fervently prayed for. 

No violence of the angry flames, no tempestuous winds 
—no arrow that was ever shot from the bow— are 
to be dreaded so much as a wife bereaved of her 
nuptial rights and who (at the same time) is obstinately 
clinging to her love, and is nursing her pent-up wrath, 
when it is unacknowledged. Not less, indeed, than when 
the south wind, charged with its cumulous nebulosities, 
bursts upon us with its winter rains,— nor when the swollen 
Danube rushes on in torrents, and breaks down the 
bridges built across it, and overflows its very banks ! Nor 
when the angrv Rhone is forcing back the waves, nor 
when Mount H«mus denuded of its snowy mantle sends 
down in torrents towards the rivers the snows which 
have been melted by the fierce solar heat— followin>; that 
of mid-spring. — The blind unreasoning [)assion is excited 
more and more by the rage engendered through its being 
thwarted, it does not care to be influenced by reason and 
will suffer no restraint— it does not even fear death, and 
is willing to face the point of the sword itself! Be merci- 
ful, oh! ye gods, we implore your pardon, that Jason 
who subdued the sea shall live in security, and although 
the Deity of the Ocean depths (Neplurve'i \s ^xv^grj ^^\ 
his, the second Kingdom, snould Taav^ Vie^xv Vtvoxtt^^^ 

Esigit pccnng mnre provocnlum. 
Tiphys in primis doniitor profundi 
Liquid iniloAo regimea magidro, 
Lilore eitenio procul a pulerni! 
Occidras regait, Cumuluque vil't 
Tcilns, ifinolns jacet inter nmtiras. 
Aulis BmilTi memor imJe regis 
ronubtu IcDtis rclinel carinas 

Stare qucreutei. 

lUe voctii geailus Camcena, 
Cujus ad ehordas moiiuUnle plcflro 
lUftitil lorrens, filuere veoti; 
Cui fuo cantu volucrti reliflo 
Adfuit lota comitanle Tdvi, 
Thracios fjArius jacuil per aeros. 
Al caput tridi fluitavil Hebro. 
Contigil nolam Stygn, TnrlaniniL. 
Non reditun 

Siravil Alcidn 


RRlOS. ■ 

I'alre Neplun 


ecavil, ■ 

eras folitu 

n figuroi. B 

Ipfe pon Una 


pnccm, ^ 

Pofl fen Dili 

rtgaa, ■ 

Vivus nidcDti 

rccubans in (lilla, ■ 

Prabuit farvii fiia niemli 

■a flammis, 

Tabe confumtU'' KPniini 

Lines 603—645] MEDEA. ' 445 

drive the eternal chariots of the sun recklessly through 
space, and he only met with a fiery end I (struck down 
by Jupiter's lightnings.) The well-known beaten track is 
attended with danger to no man: let us go then, where 
people before us have trodden with safety, do not let us 
attempt to break through the time-sanctified institutions 
of the Universe by any violent measures of our own! 
Whoever handled the illustrious oars of that audacious 
Argo, and actually despoiled for their construction the 
sacred forests of Pelion of their luxuriant umbrageous adorn- 
ments ; whoever dared to brave the dangerous rocks scattered 
about the sea, which they might have encountered (to their 
destruction) and having crossed such a sea after much 
difficulty, at last, fastened their cable (let go their cable) 
upon a barbarous coast, to return, as the captors of the 
golden fleece, by a terrible end, they have all expiated 
their rash invasion of the dignity of the ocean depths, 
for those ocean depths, when provoked, deal out their 
penalties with seventy 1 Tiphys, amon^ the first, that sub^ 
duer of the waves, left his code of navigating instructions 
to inexperienced pilots, and dying far away from the 
land of his fathers on a foreign shore was buried in some 
mean grave, and is now smouldering in the dust, amongst 
the remains of other ordinary but unknown mortals! 
Aulis, mindful of the missing King, retained the ships in 
the harbours, with a dead calm, whilst the mariners com- 
plained loudly at their detention I Orpheus, who was 
born of the vocal muse Calliope, the sound of whose 
lyre, struck by his music-evoking plectrum, actually 
stayed the force of the very torrents, and silenced the 
winds themselves, at whose harmonies the birds ceased 
their canorous warblings, and the entire forest responded 
in company with them to his bewitching melodies, Orpheus' 
remains lie scattered over the Thracian plains, and his 
head floated down the waters of the sorrowing Hebrus. 
(Orpheus was torn to pieces by the Ciconian women.) He 
has reached his final nome, tne Styx, and the realms of 
Tartarus, never more to return 1 Alcides slew the sons 
of Boreas (Zetes and Calais)— he also slew the grandson 
of Neptune (Periclymenus) who was accustomed to assume 
a variety of shapes, and after peace ensued between the 
sea. and after the terrible Kingdom of Pluto had been 
laid open to his view, Alcides nimself, whilst still alive, 
lay across the burning Oeta, and surrendered his body 
to the cruel flames, having been previously exhausted by 
the lethal effects of a double poison, the virus of the 
serpent of Lema, and the poisoned robe, prepared from 
the hoof of the Centaur Nessus, and given as z. ]at^"s»^xv\ 
to Alcides, hy his wife, (to recover his waning aSec^ox^ 



Malris iraUe. meruere ciinfti. 
Morte quod ciiincii lencr Eipiavit 
Hcrculi raagno puer irtepertusf 
Raptus etl tutas puer inter uudos. 
lie nunc fortes; peracate ponluro 

Fonte timenda. 

IdmODCni, quamvis bene fun uofTet, 
Coudidil Terjieiu. Llbycis arenU 
Umnilius vcnix, Ubi falfus ani 
Concidil Mopfas, caruilquc Thebis. 
I]le fi vere ceeinLt fuluftt, 
Eiful errabit Thctidis marilus. 
Igae fnllflci nociturus AigU 
NaupUus prxceps cadel in profundum. 
Patnoquc pendet CEimine poenas 
Fulinine k ponto rooricus Odcus. 
CoQJugis {alum rediiDeas Phenei 
Uxor impenilci ani mam marilo. 
Ipfr, qui praedam fpoliuroque juffil 
Aureum prima revehi carina, 
L'flus accenfo Pelias ahena 
Arfil aagudas vagus iQler undoE. 
Jam fnlis, Ulvi, mare vindicalli^. 
I'arcile julTcj. 


N U T R I X. 

Quid agil Medea, quid paret, namtt Ndu 

1. AV£T animus, horret; magna pemicies adell. 
Immane quantum augefcit, & feme! dolor 
Accendil ififc, vimijue priEteritani inlegrat 
Vidi furealeta, fa:pe Jl aggrelTam Deos, 
Ccdum trahenlcm. majus hi^ majus parat 
Medea mcinllrum. namque ul attonilo gradu 

— Ancaeus perished by the fangs of the ferocious wild 
boar— Oh 1 Meleager. thou sacrificedst the brothers of thy 
mother, and will die by the hands of that angry mothcrl 
Thus they have al! richly deserved their fate! But, 
what offence has ihat tender little boy Hylas, who was" 
never found by the mighty Hercules, expiated by his 
death? Alas! He was supposed to have been conveyed 
over very tranquil watcts\ Ut^atV otv "jomt hardy enttr- 



prises, oh ye mariners, and you, that could aforetime 
dread a simple fountain, may now wander at will over 
the seas, idmon, although he arrogated to himself a 
prescience of coming events, was buried away at last in 
the throat of the serpent on the sands of Libya (and of 
course met his end). Mopsus too, the infallible oracle 
with everybody, played false to himself only at last, 
and died far away from Thebes! If Mopsus had only 
predicted the future with accuracy, the husband of Thetis, 
Peleus, was to wander as an exile in foreign lands, and 
Naupbus, who was bent upon injurine the Greeks by his 
misleading fires, threw himself headlong into the sea — 
Oileus (Ajax) will expiate the crimes of his father, and 
will die by the lightnings of Jupiter and find a resting- 
place in the seal Alcestis, the daughter of Pelias, to 
avert the fate of her Phersean husband (Admetus) will 
give up as a compensation her own life to save hisl 
And Pelias himself who ordered the booty and stolen 
fleece to be carried back in the first vessel returning to 
Colchis, had his remains thoroughly consumed in the 
heated caldron, his dismembered parts tossing about 
angrily, as they were being boiled in a scanty supply of 
water! Now, we have sung enough, oh I ye goosl You 
have fully vindicated the honor of the God of the Sea 
(Neptune), but filease in mercy spare Jason, who, after 
all, was a mere instrument in the hands of o ' 
only did as he was ordered, 


f others! He 

The Nurse reports what Medea is doing, and what she 
is preparing to carry out. 

MY mind grows alarmed, is lerrified,— some disaster 
is imminent— how Medea's terrible anger is waxine 
slill greater, and she seems to be consuming herself 
inwardly with its intensity; she appears to be resuming 
all her ancient power over her magical accessories! I 
have noticed her raging and often assuming a threatening 
attitude, as she was addressing the gods, and invoking 
with her incantations, the very heavens to assist her in 
her operations (the Moon and the Stars). Medea is now 
concocting something monstrous grander in its scope 
than anything she has ever done oefore, for she slips 
away, and at a furious pace, and at length arrives at her 
terror-striking secludea sanctum. She dis^W^^ s& \v« 



Evafit, & penctrale runeftum altigit; 

Tolas opes effiidit, Sc qnidquid diu 

fliain ipfa timuit, promiti Blque omnepi explicat 

Turbam malorum: arcaiio, TccretK, abdila. 

El trifle Ixva comprecaos facmm manu, 

Peltes vocat, qunfcuoque fcrvenlLs creat 

Arena Libyx, quafque perpelua nive 

Taunia cocrcel frigorc Ar«oo rigens; 

El omat monftniRi. trafU magicis cinlibns 

Squammifera lalebris turba defertis adefl. 

Heic fera Terpens corpus immenfuin trahit, 

TrilidBiiiqiie liaguam exfertal, & quairrns quibu* 

Monifera venial ciimiDe audilo llupei, 

Tumiduinque nodis coipus aggeflU plicat, 

Cojfilquc in orbes. parra funt, inquil, mala, 

Et vile telum ell, ima quod Idlus aea\ : 

Ccelo pelam venena. jam nunc Inopus ett 

Aliquid movire fraude vulgari altiui. 

Hue ilte valll more lorrentii jaceax 

Dtfcendal aoguis, cu;us immenfos dux, 

Major minorque, feDtiUDl oodoa tene; 

Major Felafgis, apla Sidouiis minoi. 

Prenafque taDdem folval Oph[uc1ius mauus, 

Virulque fiindal. ad fit ad canlus meos 

Lacedere aufus gemina Python Dumina. 

Kt hydra, & omuis redeat Herculea monu 

Succifa ferpens, cxde fe repsraas Tua. 

Tu quoque reliiftU pervigil Colchis odes, 

Sopilc primum canlibua ferpeiis meii. 

Poflquam evocavic omne ferpenlum genus, 70J 

Congerii !□ unum frugis infouftac mala: 

Qu^ecuuque geuernt invius faxis Eryt; 

QuEC fert opertis hieme perpetua jugis 

SpoTruE cruoie CaacaTui I'rometliei; 

Piuu-etrnque pugnax Meilus, aul Ponhut l«vis; 710 

Et quels fagillas divites Arabes linuul; 

Aul qUDs Tub axe frigido fuccos legool 

Lucis Suevi uobiles Hercyniia, 

mapcal paraphernalia and is getting ready with something, 
which for a long time she has not had the courage to 
tackle; she then Brings into view a whole host of instni- 
menis of mischief, secret preparations, mysterious objects 
and things utterly unknown to any one but heirself, and 
with her left hand raised (the left hand was always used 
before the gods that dealt in the black art) she utters a 
solemn, doleful prayer, and invokes all the pests and 
plagues, the elemenis of death and destruction, to come 
to her aid!— Whatever are produced in the scorching 
sands of Libya, — or whatever glacial Taurus, with it* 
arctic, rigorous cold, bas Vepl batV. btaeaih its pcrpetui! 

Une« 676-7x3] MEDEA. 449 

snows, and every conceivable monster from both quarters, 
—thereupon a scaly multitude present themselves, drawn 
from their hiding-places by her magical incantations I In 
one place a slowly-moving serpent drags its huge body 
along, and protrudes its three-forked tongue, as itseeking 
upon what it should dart forth its death-dealing stings — 
it seemed stupefied by the incantations it had just listened 
to, and it folds its swollen body in a spiral fashion, its 
knots presenting the appearance of a huge knob. And 
she then turns her thougnts to this orb, and remarks tha 
the mischief to be expected out of this does not amount 
to much, and it is a sorry engine for my purpose, which 
this lower earth can brmg forth at its best. No, no, 
I must look to the heavens above for what I want, and 
now it is full time to put into motion and to exert myself 
for something more worthy of my skill than an ordinary, 
everyday piece of wickedness! I^t that serpent which 
lies along the heavens, like some huge river, come down 
hither at my bidding, of whose immense nodes (this 
refers to an anatomical peculiarity of the serpent tribe) 
the two Bears, the major and the mmor, feel the influence, 
the major serving the ends of the Grecian navigators, 
and the minor being more favorable to the Tyrian mar- 
iners: let this enormous serpent-containing constellation 
Ophiucus release itself from any surroundings that are 
restrictions to its capabilities (literally, release its hamper- 
ed hands) and let it pour forth a very volume of virus, 
which I may be able to utilise— (Medea here breathes 
the suggestion that, being such an extensive group, they 
might hamper each other). Then let the Python that 
once had tiie audacity to attack the twins, Apollo and 
Diana, answer to my incantations, and the Hydra, and 
every part of that serpent, return, which was cut off by 
the nands of Hercules, and which multiplied after eacn 
part was destroyed, come to my aid, and oh, thou 
dragon always on the watch, leaving Colchis behind, that 
I first lulled to sleep for the first time in thy existence 
by the potency of my incantation, also come to me! 
After Medea nad evoked every kind of serpent, she 
collects together in one mass all the poisonous products 
of the vegetable world — whatever the inaccessible Eryx 
generates in its disintegrated rocks— whatever the Caucasus 
sprinkled with the blood of Prometheus, can afford me 
from beneath those summits covered with perpetual 
snow, and whatever poisons the rich Arabs rub over the 
points of their arrows, and the warlike Mede, with his 
deadly quivers, or the swift Parthian horsemen, and 
whatever poisonous juices the intrepid S\itv\ Vcv ^€vt 
frigid climate, can gather from the Hercymaiv lox^'sxs. 

Qaudcunque tellui Vere oidifico cieal; 
Aul Tigida cum jam Brums decufTit decus 
Nemoruiq, & nivali cuufln eonftrinxil gclo; 
Quodcunque gramen llore niarlifen) viiet, 
Dinifve lortis fuccus in radicibus 
Caufas noceudi gigiiiu altieiflat maau. 
Plicmonius illas coalulit penes Athos; 
Has Pindus ingens, ilia Pangoei jugis 
Tenenmi cruenia falce depoCuit comam; 
Has aluil altnm gurgilFDi Tigris premeiis; 
Danubius illni; has per arentes plaga^ 
1'epidis Hydafpes gemmifer cuiteds aquit, 
Nomenque (ems qui dedit BiElLi fuis, 
llerperia puirasi mana languenli vado; 
Hic palTa ferniin eft, dum panit Phccbus diem ; 
Itlius alCa qo^ fuccisiu fnitex; 
At hujus ungiie fefla caDtato ifgvs 
Moniiera caipit gismina, ac ferpentium 
Suiicm exprjmil, mifcelque & obfccenas aves, 
MtEstique cor bubonis, & raucre ftrigis 
Gxfeifla vivK vifcera. hiEC fceleium attifex 
Difcrela ponit. his rapat vis ignlnm, 
Hii gelidd pigri frigurls gkcie$ incft. 
Addit vencnis verba, non iflU minus 
Meluenda. CoDuil ecce vefaiio gradu, 
Canilque. mundus voclbus primis Iremit 

Invocntis manibus, & rile conceptis incanlatloDtbus. 
vcneliciis itlitam pallam cam moDili, aurcoque cri 
dono nitlil ad Creufam per GIJos mos. 


^OMPRECOR vulgus filentuni, vofque ferales DeoK, 
El Chaos cicum, atque opncam Dills urabroli domum, 
Tortari ripis ligatos rquallids Mortis fpecua, 

and whatever poison is produced during the nest- 
spring, or when the rigorous winter rulhlessly 
the beauty of the gladsome grove, and hardei 
thing with its nipping winter frosts,— whatever gr 
grows, aspiring to produce, even one poisonoui 
and whatever dangerous Juices, giving rise to ii 
properties from their roots having been carefull 

Eulated— Medea holds alt these in her hands I (Me" 
egins theii envimeia^on-') fAil thessalian At 

Lines 7X4-74a] MEDEA. 45^ 

contributed these poisonous specimens, lofty Pindus this I 
And this one is from the summits of Pangaeus, and I see 
it has drooped its tender head, at the approach of the 
blood-stained pruning-knife I Weill The banks of the 
Tigris with its deep rapids, has reared this gem of a 
poison! This one comes from the Danube— this from 
the banks of the gem-yielding Hydaspes, which, in its 
course, waters with its tepid streams the arid plains 
around, and the banks of the Baetis which gives its name 
to the adjacent lands, and coursing onwards in languid 
streams, throws itself into the Hesperian Sea— This 
specimen, (taking up another,) I see, has been cut with a 
knife, before Pncebus entered upon his diurnal track 
(before day-light), this shrub evidendy was cut in the dead 
hour of the night, but this one (handling it very care- 
fully) is the golden harvest (god-send) of the entire collec- 
tion, for it has been nicked with the nail of some one 
versed in magical incantations 1 She then gathers together 
the poisonous masses, and squeezes out all the virus from 
the serpents I Then she devotes some time to the poisons 
yielded by the foul birds of prey, — she selects the heart 
of the mournful- voiced, common owl, and the entrails 
cut out of the inside of the screech-owl— whilst alive— 
these venomous articles of destruction this architect of 
crimes, this scientific poisoner arranges in order! She 
then adds to these the rapacious power of the most 
active flames, as an important item, and whatever resides 
in the icy frost arising from the most rigorous degree of 
cold, she adds as another element. Having then examined 
all the poisons, seriatim, she ejaculates some menacing, 
mystic words, which, from their tone, do not sound less 
terrible than all the poisons put together! Hark! Here she 
comes along at a maddened pace, sings forth some magic 
strains, ana as she is commencing Tier solemn chants, 
the very earth seems to tremble at ner first utterances. 


The Manes being invoked, and the incantations having 
been duly carried out, Medea sends through her sons 
to Creusa a cloak impregnated with a destructive 
agent, together with a neck-band, and a golden head 
ornament, as wedding presents. 

I CONJURE that silent multitude, the Manes, and oh! ye 
deities that preside over the affairs of those departed 
spirits, Pluto and Proserpine, and darkest c\\2lO^, ^xv^ 
the sombre palace of the God of the mfeix^^X i^^xotvs^ 
and the dark caverns of loathsome Mois, Yvetwo^^^ *vs\ 


Suppliers aaiouQ remilTis carritc aA thntamos novos. 

Rota rcfiABi membn lorqutns; langat Ixion hamam 
Tanlatus fccunis undai hauiinl PiRaiilas. 

Vos quoiiue, amis quos forntis irrilnt lu<1it labor, 
Dttnaides^ coite; veftras hie dies quirii manus. 
Nunc meis vocata facris noflium fjilui vcui, 
PelTimos JDiluta vulcui, froDte nan una miaai. 

Tibi more gentis vinculo folvcns comam, 
Sccrela nudo nemora lutlrari pcde. 
Et evocnvi nubibus ficcis aquas; 
Egique ad inium moria, & Occanus graves 
Imerius undis itHibus viflis dedii. 
Psiilerque mnndui lege coafufa icdtcri* 
Et Mem & anra vidit; & veiUuni mare 
Teligiflia Urte. temponim flexi vices. 
.I^niva tellus HoiuU cantu meo, 
MefTem coBiila vidil hibemam Ceret. 
Violenla Phafis verllt Id rontem Vlda; 
Et Ifter, in toi ora divifus, truces _ 
Comprernt undas, omuibus ripis plger. 
Sonuere Rudlus, tumuit infanum mare 
Taceale veato. neinorii antiqai domus 
Aitiifit umbntm vocis imperio mete- 
Die reliflo Phtebus in medio nelil. 
Hya>lerque Daltris cantibus molK tabant. 
Adefle facris tempns efl, Pbcebe, luis. 
Tibi hn% crufnta. (erta lexuntur maou, 

Novecn quiE fcrpcns tigat: 
Tibi bic, Typhcetis membra quiv difcors luilt, 

Qui regna concufrit Jovit. 
Vc^oris idic pcrFidi faaguit incft, 

Quem Keflus exTpiraos dedit. 
CElxus ifto cinece ilefeeit rogus, 

Qui virus Herculeum bibiL 

by the banks of the Tartarus, and let the guil 
released from their punishment, for the nonce, 
to the forthcoming novel marriage! (Medea 
novel, because she considers herself the wife.) 
wheel, which is turning round the body of Ixion, 
rotations, and suffer him to reach the ground one 
Let Tantalus, unbalked in his efforts, freely que, 
thirst in the waters of the Pirenean fountain. Lei 
heavier punishment than his fall to the lot of t" 
in-law of my husband (Creon). Let the shppery ri 
to roll back from the mountain upon Sisyphus! 

Oh I ye Danaides, assemble ye likewise, cease to 
your vain labor o^ fiftva^ ■Ave ^iConated urn- ' * 

Lines 743-778] MEDEA. 453 

day which will require useful exertions at your hands 
(acting up to thy previous example, of slaying thy hus- 
bands on the first night of thy marriage.) And nowf Oh I 
thou Star of the Nignt (the Moon), invoked by my sacred 
appeals, come forth, assume thy most angry looks, but be 
thou not threatening in one of thy aspects only I but in 
all three of them. (Diana, Hecate, Phoebe.) It is for thee, 
releasing my tresses from their fastenings, after the fashion 
of nocturnal magicians, that I have wandered through the 
solitary groves with my naked feet, and have drawn 
down, by my incantations, copious showers from a cloud- 
less sky, and have caused tne sea to sink down to its 
lowest depths, whilst the ocean, with its impetuous tides 
subdued by my powers, has retired with its ponderous 
waters quite below its accustomed bed, and in like man- 
ner the entire laws of the firmament have been contro- 
verted and placed in abeyance, and the wonder-struck 
world has been known to be gazing at the sun, and the 
stars at one and the same moment of time, and the 
Arctic Bears, which are expressly forbidden to fall below 
the horizon, have been made by me to dip themselves 
in the seal I have changed the very order of the seasons, 
the Earth has flourished with all the golden tints of 
summer, and Ceres has been coerced mto yielding a 
plenteous harvest in the very depths of wmter— The 
turbulent waves of the Phasis I have transformed into 
whimpering streams 1 And the Danube, which is divided 
into so many estuaries, has been caused by me to draw 
in its threatening waters, and has only modestly approach- 
ed its various banks! The waves have sounded, one 
moment, like thunder, and the sea has swelled with very 
rage, when the winds were absolutely quiescent; at my 
word of command the entire area of some ancient forest 
has been suddenly denuded of its foliage— Phoebus has 
stopped at my biading his fiery chariot in the middle of 
the day, ana the Hyades, moved by my incantations, 
have absolutely trembled 1 Oh Phoebe, come thou to the 
sacrifice which I have prepared in honor of thee, this 
chaplet intertwined with nine serpents thereon has been 
woven for thee by my very own blood-stained hands, 
which are herewith at thy disposal are the very portions 
(the serpents) of the body although out of character once 
possessed by the recalcitrant Typhoeus, (some of the 
giants had tnose appendages to their feet) when he shook 
from its very foundations the mighty Kingdom of Jupiter 1 
Here «6 some of the blood of that treacherous abductor. 
Nessus, which he gave me himself, when he was d\vw?i\ 
These cinders are lust imported from t\ve ^wivex^ v^^ 
at O^ta, which swallowed up the poison, l3\a\. dL^?»Nxo^^^ 



riic fororis, Empiic matris faceni, 

UUricis AUh«E vides. 
Reliquil iftns invio plumat fpecu 

Ilarrij'U, dum Zelen tugil. 
IIU ndice pconis Faucis StymplMllctos, 

Lenuta panie fpicala. 
SoDuiftU Ml. ii. \fipoias Hgnoffo meos, 

Fnvciile cotnmotDS Dea. 
Video Tri»ix curras ngiles. 
Non qucs pleno lueida vu!m 
Pcrnox Beilat; Ted quos facie 
I.uri<ln mcElU, cum niclTallcb 
Vctala minis, nxlum (ntno 
Propiorr legiL fie tnec Uiftcm 
Pallida iuccm funde per auras; 
Horrore novo tcrre populo* ; 
Inque auxilium, Diiftyniu, tu«m 
Prciiofa fonent rem CorinlhL 
Tibi ranguineo ucrpile Tacnun 
SolrmDe damus, lihi de medio 
Knpla fepulcro fax nofhiruos 
Sunulit igna. tibi mota caput 
Klcus voces cerrice deili. 
Tibi funerco de more jaccni 
Patfos ciugil vitta cuiillot. 
Tibi jni5latur UiHis Stjgit 
Ramus ab nnda, [ibi nudalo 
Peftore Mxnai facio feriain 
Bracbia cultro. 

Monet noiler fna^is ad arai. 
Afruefce, manus, (IriiiEere femim, 
Carolque pnli pofTe cruores. 
Sacrum lalicem perculfa dedi. 
Quod fi Diminia fope vocari 
Quereris, vol is ignolce, precor. 
Cnufa vocandi, Perfci, (uos 
Ssepius arcus, una alque eadem 
Semper, lafon. lu nunc veftes 
TiQgue CTCufie, quas cum primnm 
Sumferit, iroa* unit fcrpem 
Flnmma medullas, ignis fulvo 
Qufus in auro lalct obfcums; 
Quem mihi, cmli qui furta tuit 
Vifccre firto, dedit, & docuil 
Condere vires aile Prometheus. 

Hercules I Here, you see the veriiable torch 
revengeful mother, the impious Aliha-'-i. but at t' 
tiuie affectionate sister — (Althsa kiUed her i 
because he slew her brothers'. 
Here are the \deTv\\i:a.\ (caWi:^ -Ktivch Uic I 

Lines 779-8a3] MEDEA. 455 

behind it, in the cave so difficult of access, when it flew 
away from Zetesl To these let me add the feathers of 
one of the St3rmphalides, which was wounded (brought 
down) by an arrow charged with the poison of the Lernaean 
Hydra 1 Hark I Hark I The altars are giving out a sound 
of some sort, I fancy my tripod is in motion, the goddess 
then is favorable! I behola the graceful chariot of the 
tri-une goddess (on account of her three capacities), and 
not wearing that full serene face with which she usually 
shines all the night through, but with that sad expression 
on her pale countenance which she presented when, 
harassed Dy the threatening importunities of the Thessalian 
magicians, when she drew rein as she described her 
downward journey in quitting the skies! And in like 
manner let me diffuse through the air a doleful irradi- 
ation, with my torch feebly burning, let me astonish the 
people with this newly-devised scare of mine, and oh! 
Dictynna (another name for Phoebe), the tinkling brazen 
cymoals of Corinth, held in such high estimation, shall 
come to thy aid! It is to thee I will offer up a solemn 
sacrifice on the blood-strewn leafy grass— for thee, that 
the torch from the accommodating tomb has kept up 
its nocturnal blaze— it is for thee I was uttering my 
supplications, when I turned round and moved my 
head excitedly (corybanticallv), it was for thee that 
that my head-dress surmounted my disordered locks, after 
the fashion adopted at funerals! It is for thee, that my 
hand is waving this mournful branch, which was washed 
up by the Stygian streams — it is for thee that with my 
breast laid bare as a Maenad, I will pierce my arms witn 
the sacred knife, that my own blood may flow at thy 
altars! Let me accustom myself to the drawing of the 
sword, and let me be able to spare the loss of blood, 
which now is all the more precious to me. (She means 
she will require all her physical vigor to carry out the 
slaughter of her children.) I have wounded (struck) my- 
self, and have supplied the sacrificial fluids. But, if thou 
shouldst complain that I call upon thee too much, I en- 
treat thee pardon my importunate demands! Oh! Perseis. 
(another name for Hecate) they are always for one and 
the same object, that I implore thy valuable assistance, 
always, Jason ! And now let me impregnate this cloak 
for Creusa, which as soon as she puts it on. the creeping 
flames will consume the body down to tne innermost 
marrow, and the very bones containing it! 

The fiery element inclosed in this gold is in a latent 
state at present, and therefore not detectable — this is what 
Prometheus gave me himself, who paid the ptna\\:^ lox \Jk\& 
theft from heaven, with his re-producing eii\iai\s (iaiN\A\.\3kt^ 


Uedil & teaui CaMurt leAos 
Mulciber ignes- & vivacii 
Ful^^ra flammx de coguato 
PliHElhuDle tuli. habeo metliK 
tloua Chirnxr^ 
Habco flunoiBS uAo Uuri 
Gullure rapbu; quas permiito 
Felle MedufiE, taciturn juffi 
ScTvore malum. 

Adde vcuenis flimulos, Ilccat?, 
DoniTque meis remiiiH Dauunie 
Conititn fciva. faliact vifu^ 
TaauFque fcraol, meet in pcflus 
Venafque calor. Itillent artun, 
OITaque fument; viocBtque fusE 
Flograiile coma nova napU Taccs. 
Voln lencntur; tcr lali'alui 
Aud.iiL Hecaic dedit, & facnis 
Edidil ignes bee luflifera. 

Pcmila vis eft oranis. hue nnlos voca, 
Pretiofa per quos donn Dubeiili feias. 
lie, ile nnti, mntris iofBudie genus, 
Placate vobis munere & raultn jirece 
Dominani & novercam. vndiie, & celeres ilomum 
Refcrte grelTus, ullimo amplexu ut fruar. 

Furorem Mcdex Clionis timet, maliliuin ejus exrecrai 

V_^roNAM cnicnta M*na3 
Pneceps amore fcvo 
Rapiiur? quod impotemti 
Fnclnus parat furore? 
Vulius citatns in 
Kiget, & cspDt feroci 
Qualiens fuperba molu 
Regi minalur uttro. 
Quts crerlat eiAilaiileni? 
Flagrant gem rubcntca, 
Pallor fu{;at ruborem. 

fed on them, each day. when they would Teapot 

who, at the same time, told me the best way oT 

ils potency— and Vulcan gave me some of his fire from 
.^tna, covered ovei ■«\'& ^^[v^'(\ Xwjci* ^A «ai'^Wr^ and I 

Lines 824-859] MEDEA. 457 

have also some of the identical lightning from the thun- 
derbolt, with which Jupiter killea Pha^thon, a kinsman 
of my ownl I have likewise a contribution from that 
monster, Chimsera, which will be useful; I have some of 
the veritable flames, which were breathed from the fiery 
mouth of the bull of Colchis, which I have taken care 
to preserve, as an especial destructive agent, defying all 
detection, mixing them with some of Medusa's gall I Oh ! 
Hecate! Give energy to my various poisons, preserve 
under thy careful surveillance these quintessences with 
my other offerings— let them defy all detection by the 
human eye, and let them bear handling, without suspi- 
cion — when brought into operation, let the intense heat, 
given out, penetrate the chest, and run through every 
vein! Let it traverse through every limb in the body, 
and let the very bones send up their fumes (thoroughly 
carbonizing them). Let this new bride far outshine witn 
her own burning locks (effects of the flames), her nuptial 
torch! My vows are held in favor! Hecate, who has 
dared all this for me, has just jgiven me the watch-cry, 
three significant shouts! And sne has brought her own 
sacred fire, in her luminous torch every power is now 
brought to bear! Call the sons hither, nurse, to whom 
thou must intrust these precious gifts for the bride-elect! 
Now, go, oh my sons, offspring of an ill-starred repudi- 
ated mother, commend yourselves to the favourable con- 
sideration, in presenting these gifts with many benedic- 
tions to your future mistress, and step-mother! Now go, 
and hasten your return to the palace, that I may still have 
time for a last embrace! 


The Chorus dreads the fury of Medea, and execrates 

her malicious deeds. 

BY what cruel passion, is this blood-thirsty Maenad 
being carried away headlong? What terrible crime 
is Medea now concocting in her ungovernable mad- 
ness? Her countenance, inflamed with anger, has quite 
a set expression and the proud woman is snaking her 
head wildly, and judging from her gestures, she is 
threatening the King, with something quite beyond our 
conception! Who would believe that Medea was a con- 
demned exile? Her reddened cheeks are burning at one 
moment, and the next, a deadly pallor \aVe^ \he p\^c^ ^S. 
that redness! She does not retain eilYver coVoi loi ^xv^ 

Nullum vaginte rornia 
Scrval i)iu colorem. 
Hue fert pedei & illuc, 
Ul tigris orba natis, 
Curfu futcnic luflrsl 
GnngEticum Demus; lie 
Freniie nefcit iras 
Medea, nou umoru. 
Nunc ini amorque caufnm 
Junxere. qaid fequelur? 
Quando cfTeret Pelargii 
Nefanda Colchis arvU 
Cteiruia, melurjue folvet 
RegnuiD, Gmulque regeai 
NuDc, Phccbr, miile en 
Nullo iiioranle loro. 
Nox coodal alma luceii 
Mergat diem titncnduni 
DuK noflis Hcfpenigo. 


NliNT. L EkieKE cunfla. coocidil regiti (latus. 

Nata alque Ecnilor cinere perraixHi jacenL 

aiOB. Qua fraude captif hunt. Qua foleni reges capi; 

DodTs. choh. In iUU gITg quii potuil dolus? 

miNT. El ipfe miror; vixque iam Todlo mnlo 

PoluilTe fieri credo. CHOK. Quis cladli modusl 

length of time on her changeable face! Hither 
ihither she paces wildly, even as a tigress, robbed ol 
cubs, searches with instinctive anxiety the forests of the 
Ganges, raging furiously as it follows up the track, and 
thus Medea is unable to resist the force of her anger, 
and the strength of her repudiated passion! Now when 
anger and baulked love join in hostile array, what niay not 
the consequences be? When will this wicked trotnan 
from Colchis take her departure from our Pelai^iun 
country? Or will she keep the kingdom, and at the same 
time the kings themselves ™ a \ie\vANia.l state of alaiui? 


Lines 860-884] MEDEA. 459 

Now, Phoebus, send on thy chariots q